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The Effect of ICT Content Delivery on Students’ Achievement in Physics in Public Secondary Schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya

Benson Karungo Mwangi , Dr. Benson Njoroge, Dr. Susan Macharia
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(3), 162-167. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-3-6
Received February 07, 2020; Revised March 11, 2020; Accepted March 24, 2020

Abstract

Learning physics require learners to be able to handle scientific equipment and apparatus appropriately and with confidence. For this to happen, learners must continuously carry out a variety of experiments in order to develop manipulative observation and recording skills. Where apparatus are not adequate, the teacher could use ICTs tools for simulations to promote these skills. The main purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICT content delivery on students’ achievement in Physics in public secondary schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya. The study will be guided by the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model. Mixed methodology research design was employed. The study 1036 physics students in Kahuro sub-county out of which 30% were sampled using stratified random sampling. Observation schedules were used as the main data collection instrument. The sign test performed between the control and experimental group indicates an improvement in content delivery as a result of ICT integration in physics. It can therefore be concluded that ICT integration in teaching physics improves content delivery.

1. Introduction

Various studies have been carried out to investigate the factors contributing to poor performance in science subjects all over the globe. For instance, King’aru 1 carried out a study to investigate factors contributing to poor performance of science subjects in Kawe Division, Tanzania. The study showed that the main reason for poor performance were methodology of science education subject among students, inadequate resources such as textbooks and well equipped laboratories. From the finding, students were passive learners. Physics is believed to be one of the oldest and probably the most developed of all the sciences 2. It employs a systematic scientific methodology of study. In Kenya, physics is highly regarded in science curriculum since it enhances development of industries and help in achieving vision 2030. Research carried out by 3 revealed that most students perceived physics as a difficult subject and associated with failure. Physics in Kenya employs teacher and learner discussion, group and classroom experiments as a method of study. In physics, emphasis should be on fundamental scientific concepts and principles, experimental approaches of investigation, project and fieldwork to modernize the teaching and learning process. Therefore the mode of content delivery is supposed to be more heuristic than expository.

Over the decades, information communication and technology (ICT) has become popular in learning institutions. Research has been carried out globally to explore the ways of integrating ICT in education. Information communication and technologies have wider field of application and will depend on the context in which they are spoken. For example we talk of ICTs in education, ICT in banking, ICT in health, ICT in libraries and ICT in various ministries. Since we are living in a dynamic world and the world has been converted into a global villages our offices, schools, homes and basically everywhere is changing very fast due to technologies. Integrating ICT in teaching and learning is therefore critical for this change.By using ICT in learning, it will be observed that there will be higher students` engagement in higher order thinking 4.

Enrollment of physics in Kenya and particularly in Kahuro Sub-county remains very low for years. As students graduated from form two to form three, they are expected to make choices between the three sciences; Chemistry, Biology and Physics. Since in most Schools chemistry is compulsory, then there are two choices, Biology and Physics. Most students opt to do Biology. Enrollment of Physics in KCSE is always less than that of other science subjects. Generally the students who take physics in most schools are higher achievers hence the mean scores are expected to be higher than those of other sciences which are not the case. Despite the government heavily investment in mathematics and sciences, students’ achievements in KCSE examinations in mathematics and sciences over the year has been dismal 5. At least 46% physics candidates in KCSE score D+ and below.

Learning physics require learners to be able to handle scientific equipment and apparatus appropriately and with confidence. For this to happen, learners must continuously carry out a variety of experiments in order to develop manipulative observation and recording skills. Where apparatus are not adequate, the teacher could use ICTs tools for simulations to promote these skills. According to KNEC report 6 for year 2013 National examination revealed that candidates have difficulties answering an item that required them to determine pressure of air trapped by mercury column. Most of them could not show the relationship between the atmospheric pressure and pressure due to the mercury column and gas. This is because learners were not adequately exposed to practical activities to enhance their manipulative observation and recording skills. According to the training needs assessment survey report 7 the topic waves was rated as the second most challenging by learners. Physics teachers also indicated that the topic was challenging to teach. Physics is critical in development of science technology and innovation (STI). However, the traditional teaching methods characterized by rote learning employed in the teaching of physics does not foster critical thinking, creativity problem solving skills and a holistic learning environment among learners. This study therefore assesses the effect of ICT content delivery on students’ achievement in Physics in public secondary schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya.

1.1. Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICT content delivery on students’ achievement in Physics in public secondary schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya

1.2. Empirical Review

Science teachers need to apply ICT in teaching and learning to increase their effectiveness in classroom teaching and improve student learning. A survey carried out by Tomlinson 8 showed that science classes should be made more colorful and interesting. These will help the students to leave secondary schools with adequate knowledge and applicable skills in physics. Further, he noted that the use of ICT combined with project, experiments and demonstrations was a promising asset to modernizing the teaching of physics and making it more attractive. According to Changeiywo and 9, good result in physics is enhanced by change teaching methods. Teachers must spend a lot of time exploring more appropriate resources to teach physics 10. Brookfield 11 argued that any person preparing to become a teacher must be willing and ready to incorporate ICT into their class.

Shieh 12 reiterated that the use of expository method of teaching physics has gone and that integration of ICT is inevitable in a physics class. Information Communication Technology integration into teaching and learning has become the best solution for improving performance in physics. This is because ICT motivates the learners, promotes learner interaction in learning, increasing the effectiveness of teaching especially content delivery and improves the learners’ achievements 13. According to Meleisea 14, the purpose of ICT integration in physics teaching is to help in creating, displaying, storing, manipulation and exchanging information. Collis and Moonen 15 summarized ICT in three categories namely; learning resources, instructional organization of learning and communication.

Research carried out by Mwanaszumbah and Magoma, 16 showed that integrating ICT in physics teaching simplified abstract content, created interest in learners. The study also revealed that ICT integration in physics instructions in secondary schools in Kenya was still very low. According to Garcia et al., 17, ICT allows slide shows projection to make lesson explanation more attractive with many components such as videos, diagrams, photographs, animations and sounds. The instructions can be seen by the students during the experiments, exercises or activities and interactive whiteboard gives them an opportunity to interact. According to Craig et al., 18, students can also learn how to perform some activities through observations from video tapes and imitating the same. Electronics, welding and soldering can easily be taught using video clips. These community resources are good learning resources that a teacher can use in teaching physics 19.

CEMESTEA 7 reported that topics like waves, electrostatics and electromagnetic induction are abstract to both teachers and learners. Materials available like text books, journals, research publication and newspapers are written in an abstract language. This makes the concepts difficult for learners to comprehend. Osunade 20 findings showed that internet contains valuable information for students who are willing and ready to get ideas for their projects and assignments. Mayo 21 observed that secondary school learners who used video during physics instructions produced good results compared to those taught using the conventional method only.

1.3. Theoretical Framework

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model

Mishra and Kohler 22 came up with a model known as Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge which is useful in integrating technology in learning process. This model captures the knowledge and skills which the teacher need to integrate technology in teaching 23. For effective technology integration, teachers need to understand and negotiate the relationship between three components namely: Technology, Pedagogy and Content. Archambault and Crippen 24, TPACK framework shows the relationship that exist between the three components which is a useful organization structure that teachers are supposed to know for effective CT integration.

There are seven areas considered in TPACK model: first type of knowledge is Content Knowledge (CK) which includes the knowledge and information teachers are required to effectively engage in order to teach and learners expected to learn. Content knowledge in science refers to facts, laws, principles, theories and concepts 25. In other words, it is the knowledge that teachers have about subject matter students will learn. The second type of knowledge is Pedagogical Knowledge (PK). According to Koehler and Mishra 26 these are specialized knowledge teachers have in order to have an effective teaching and learning environment for learners. Teachers should understand learners and have in place all the strategies to use for evaluating them. Third type of knowledge is Technological Knowledge (TK). This is the understanding that the teachers have on how the ICT tools, resources and devices fit in teaching. Shulman 27 argued that a teachers need to have both content knowledge and know how to teach that specific content. This is referred to as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). The knowledge enables classroom teachers to apply different strategies and best methods for teaching specific content. Mishra and Koehler 22 identified another type of knowledge know as Technological Content Knowledge (TCK). This skill will help the teachers to identify the best technologies which will support the students when learning a specific content. Further they identified another skill which they called Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK). This skill helps the teachers to identify the best technology to use when teaching in order to support the lesson. Finally, there is knowledge that teachers apply when integrating technology to teach specific content. This is known as Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). These knowledge areas can be summarized within a particular contextual framework

2. Research Methodology

2.1. Research Design

Mixed methodologies were employed. Data collected was analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusion. In order to answer research questions, the researcher employed quasi experimental research design method. Physics achievement tests were used to investigate the effect of ICT integration physics teaching on students’ achievement.

The table shows four distinct groups namely; experimental group one (E1), experimental group two (E2), control group one (C1) and control group two (C2). ICT integration in physics teaching (treatment) was done on group E1 and E2, while no ICT integration in physics teaching was done on control group C1 and C2. E1 and C1 sat for pretest examination O1 and O2respectively. A post-test was administered to all experimental and control groups (O3, O4, O5 and O6). Pre-test was set from form one and form two syllabi. The treatment, ICT integration in physics teaching was used in teaching topics; linear motion, refraction of light and Newton’s laws of motion.

2.2. Target Population

The target population consisted of 1036 physics students in Kahuro sub-county. Table 2 shows the target population in the study.

There are forty secondary schools in Kahuro Sub-county. The study sample consisted of 12 secondary: 6 schools with ICT facilities as experimental group and 6 secondary schools without ICT facilities as control groups. A sample of 12 physics teachers and 310 students was selected.

2.3. Sampling Procedure and Sample Size

This is sampling technique researcher used to choose a sub-group from a population to be involved in the study. Respondent from this study were form three students from Kahuro Sub-County. The sampled population was 30% of the targeted population. The researcher used stratified sampling, followed by purposive and then simple random sampling to get the sample. Table 3 shows the sample size and sampling procedures in this study

2.4. Data Collection Instrument

Observation schedules were administered to each experimental group to determine whether the learners had acquired skills in observation, classifying, recording and experimental skills.

3. Results and Discussion

An acquisition check list for acquisition science process was used. The check list was used for the experimental and control group. The check list enabled the researcher to observe the content level of basic science skills in selected topics in physics. The results for this observation are as shown in Table 4 and 5.

A critical analysis between the percentages for the content acquisition by the control group and the experimental group shows variation. For instance, the percentage of students who had excellent content in observation skills for the basic science processes was 23.3% for the control and 24.1% for the experimental. This denoted an increase by 9.6% as a result of ICT integration. Thus, most of content acquisition skills improved as a result of ICT integration as shown in Table 4 and 5.

3.1. Statistical Significance for Content Acquisition

To test the statistical significance of these changes we run a paired sample sign test, a non-parametric test considered as an alternative to the dependent t-test (paired sample t-test). A sign test is preferred when the distribution of differences between paired observations is neither normal nor symmetrical, respectively. Most commonly, the sign test is used when the participants are tested at two time points or under two different conditions on the same continuous dependent variable. This test uses the + and - signs in paired sample tests or in before-after study. In this test, null hypothesis is set up so that the sign of + and - are of equal size, or the population means are equal to the sample mean.

The results of the sign test are as shown in the Table 6 and 7 below

Table 6 shows that 49 participants decreased (negative differences), 113 increased (positive differences) while 12 (Ties) remained unchanged after ICT integration. In order to assess whether these changes were significant, the following results were obtained from SPSS analysis

Since the p-value of 0.000 is less than the critical value of 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis of equal + and - signs and conclude that the number of + signs is greater than that of negative signs. This indicates that ICT integration in physics improves content delivery.

4. Discussion

Table 6 shows that 49 participants decreased (negative differences), 113 increased (positive differences) while 12 (Ties) remained unchanged after ICT integration. Since the p-value of 0.000 is less than the critical value of 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis of equal + and - signs and conclude that the number of + signs is greater than that of negative signs. This indicates that ICT integration in physics improves content delivery.

These results are in line with those of Linn and Eylon 28 who stated that in order to enhance content acquisition in physics teachers have to do away with expository method of teaching physics and integrate ICT in a physics class. This is because ICT motivates the learners, promotes learner interaction in learning, increasing the effectiveness of teaching especially content delivery and improves the learners’ achievements 29. According to Meleisea 14, the purpose of ICT integration in physics teaching is to help in creating, displaying, storing, manipulation and exchanging information. In addition, a research carried out by Mwanaszumbah and Magoma, 16 showed that integrating ICT in physics teaching simplified abstract content, created interest in learners thus easing content acquisition.

5. Conclusion

From the study findings, it can be concluded that ICT integration in teaching physics improves content delivery.

References

[1]  King’aru, J. M. (2014). Investigation of the factors that contribute to poor performance in science among students in secondary schools in Tanzania: A case of secondary schools in Kawe Division, Kinondoni municipality (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania).
In article      
 
[2]  Keith, F. P. (2014). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach (3rded.). University of Western Australia: SAGE Publiacation.
In article      
 
[3]  Kiptum, B. (2015). Factor Promoting the Use of Non-Directive Model of Instructional Supervision Among Public secondary Schools Teachers in Nandi South County, Kenya. (unpublished Master’s Thesis).
In article      
 
[4]  Lim, C. P., & Tay, L. Y. (2003). Information and communication technologies (ICT) in an elementary school: Students’ engagement in higher order thinking. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(4), 425-451.
In article      
 
[5]  KNEC annual report. (2010). Education: KNEC blames teachers for poor performance. Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[6]  KNEC (2014), KCSE candidates’ performance annual report 2014 and KNEC regulations and syllabus for KCSE.
In article      
 
[7]  CEMASTEA (2015), Enhancing learner growth in mathematics and sciences through innovative activities. CEMASTEA: Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[8]  Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Ascd.
In article      
 
[9]  Wambugu, P. W., & Changeiywo, J. M. (2008). Effects of Mastery Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Physics Achievement. Eurasia Journal of mathematics, Science & technology education, 4(3).
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of effective teachers. ASCD.
In article      
 
[11]  Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
In article      
 
[12]  Shieh, R. S. (2012). The impact of Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) implementation on student learning and teachers’ teaching in a high school context. Computers & Education, 59(2), 206-214.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Passey, D., Rogers, C., Machell, J., McHugh, G., & Allaway, D. (2004). The motivational effect of ICT on pupils. Department of Educational Research.
In article      
 
[14]  Meleisea, E. L. L. I. E. (2007). The UNESCO ICT in education programme. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
In article      
 
[15]  Collis, B., & Moonen, J. (2012). Flexible learning in a digital world: Experiences and expectations. Routledge.
In article      
 
[16]  Mwanaszumbah, A. R., & Magoma, C. M. (2016). DOES THE INTEGRATION OF ICT IN PHYSICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS PLAY THE MAGIC CARD?. European Journal of Education Studies.
In article      
 
[17]  García, R. R., Quirós, J. S., Santos, R. G., González, S. M., & Fernanz, S. M. (2007). Interactive multimedia animation with macromedia flash in descriptive geometry teaching. Computers & Education, 49(3), 615-639.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Craig, S. D., Chi, M. T., & VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 779.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Council, T. A., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Science teachers' learning: Enhancing opportunities, creating supportive contexts. National Academies Press.
In article      
 
[20]  Osunade, O. (2003). An evaluation of the impact of Internet browsing on students’ academic performance at the tertiary level of education in Nigeria. A Research Paper, Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[21]  Mayo, M. J. (2007). Games for science and engineering education. Communications of the ACM, 50(7), 30-35.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  CEMASTEA (2014), Fundamental for effective teaching. CEMASTEA: Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[24]  Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). K-12 distance educators at work: Who’s teaching online across the United States. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 363-391.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard educational review, 57(1), 1-23.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.
In article      
 
[27]  Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Linn, M. C., & Eylon, B. S. (2011). Science learning and instruction: Taking advantage of technology to promote knowledge integration. Routledge.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Rutten, N., Van Joolingen, W. R., & Van Der Veen, J. T. (2012). The learning effects of computer simulations in science education. Computers & Education, 58(1), 136-153.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Benson Karungo Mwangi, Dr. Benson Njoroge and Dr. Susan Macharia

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Benson Karungo Mwangi, Dr. Benson Njoroge, Dr. Susan Macharia. The Effect of ICT Content Delivery on Students’ Achievement in Physics in Public Secondary Schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp 162-167. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/3/6
MLA Style
Mwangi, Benson Karungo, Dr. Benson Njoroge, and Dr. Susan Macharia. "The Effect of ICT Content Delivery on Students’ Achievement in Physics in Public Secondary Schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya." American Journal of Educational Research 8.3 (2020): 162-167.
APA Style
Mwangi, B. K. , Njoroge, D. B. , & Macharia, D. S. (2020). The Effect of ICT Content Delivery on Students’ Achievement in Physics in Public Secondary Schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 162-167.
Chicago Style
Mwangi, Benson Karungo, Dr. Benson Njoroge, and Dr. Susan Macharia. "The Effect of ICT Content Delivery on Students’ Achievement in Physics in Public Secondary Schools in Kahuro Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 3 (2020): 162-167.
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[1]  King’aru, J. M. (2014). Investigation of the factors that contribute to poor performance in science among students in secondary schools in Tanzania: A case of secondary schools in Kawe Division, Kinondoni municipality (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania).
In article      
 
[2]  Keith, F. P. (2014). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach (3rded.). University of Western Australia: SAGE Publiacation.
In article      
 
[3]  Kiptum, B. (2015). Factor Promoting the Use of Non-Directive Model of Instructional Supervision Among Public secondary Schools Teachers in Nandi South County, Kenya. (unpublished Master’s Thesis).
In article      
 
[4]  Lim, C. P., & Tay, L. Y. (2003). Information and communication technologies (ICT) in an elementary school: Students’ engagement in higher order thinking. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(4), 425-451.
In article      
 
[5]  KNEC annual report. (2010). Education: KNEC blames teachers for poor performance. Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[6]  KNEC (2014), KCSE candidates’ performance annual report 2014 and KNEC regulations and syllabus for KCSE.
In article      
 
[7]  CEMASTEA (2015), Enhancing learner growth in mathematics and sciences through innovative activities. CEMASTEA: Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[8]  Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Ascd.
In article      
 
[9]  Wambugu, P. W., & Changeiywo, J. M. (2008). Effects of Mastery Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Physics Achievement. Eurasia Journal of mathematics, Science & technology education, 4(3).
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of effective teachers. ASCD.
In article      
 
[11]  Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
In article      
 
[12]  Shieh, R. S. (2012). The impact of Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) implementation on student learning and teachers’ teaching in a high school context. Computers & Education, 59(2), 206-214.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Passey, D., Rogers, C., Machell, J., McHugh, G., & Allaway, D. (2004). The motivational effect of ICT on pupils. Department of Educational Research.
In article      
 
[14]  Meleisea, E. L. L. I. E. (2007). The UNESCO ICT in education programme. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
In article      
 
[15]  Collis, B., & Moonen, J. (2012). Flexible learning in a digital world: Experiences and expectations. Routledge.
In article      
 
[16]  Mwanaszumbah, A. R., & Magoma, C. M. (2016). DOES THE INTEGRATION OF ICT IN PHYSICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS PLAY THE MAGIC CARD?. European Journal of Education Studies.
In article      
 
[17]  García, R. R., Quirós, J. S., Santos, R. G., González, S. M., & Fernanz, S. M. (2007). Interactive multimedia animation with macromedia flash in descriptive geometry teaching. Computers & Education, 49(3), 615-639.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Craig, S. D., Chi, M. T., & VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 779.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Council, T. A., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Science teachers' learning: Enhancing opportunities, creating supportive contexts. National Academies Press.
In article      
 
[20]  Osunade, O. (2003). An evaluation of the impact of Internet browsing on students’ academic performance at the tertiary level of education in Nigeria. A Research Paper, Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[21]  Mayo, M. J. (2007). Games for science and engineering education. Communications of the ACM, 50(7), 30-35.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  CEMASTEA (2014), Fundamental for effective teaching. CEMASTEA: Nairobi, Kenya.
In article      
 
[24]  Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). K-12 distance educators at work: Who’s teaching online across the United States. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 363-391.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard educational review, 57(1), 1-23.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.
In article      
 
[27]  Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Linn, M. C., & Eylon, B. S. (2011). Science learning and instruction: Taking advantage of technology to promote knowledge integration. Routledge.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Rutten, N., Van Joolingen, W. R., & Van Der Veen, J. T. (2012). The learning effects of computer simulations in science education. Computers & Education, 58(1), 136-153.
In article      View Article