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Distribution of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Parts of Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae)

M.M. Nipunika, D.C. Abeysinghe, R.M. Dharmadasa
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2022, 10(2), 60-63. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-10-2-4
Received September 02, 2022; Revised October 04, 2022; Accepted October 13, 2022

Abstract

Justicia adhatoda L is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine globally. Different parts of J. adhatoda have been used for treatment of various ailments, mainly for the respiratory tract-based ailments. The present study was conducted to quantify the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different parts (mature leaves, immature leaves, flowers, bracts, soft stems, bark of mature stem and roots) of J. adhatoda using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, modified Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method respectively. The results revealed that all tested parts of J. adhatoda contained marked amounts of TAC, TPC and TFC. Among tested parts, immature leaves showed a significantly higher TAC (19.28 ± 1.96 mg/TE g DW) followed by flowers (16.97 ± 0.99 mg/TE g DW) and bracts (14.19 ± 1.85 mg/TE g DW). Significantly the highest TPC (11.33 ± 0.14 mg/GAE g DW) and TFC (16.66 ± 3.06 mg/RE g DW) were observed in flowers followed by bracts and immature leaves. Moreover, there were positive correlations of TAC with TPC (R2 = 0.5411) and TFC (R2 = 0.5209). According to the results, it can be concluded that immature leaves, flowers and bracts of J. adhatoda contain marked amounts of bioactive compounds and hence could be effectively used for pharmaceutical industries.

1. Introduction

Justica adathoda L. is a therapeutically important medicinal plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae. This plant is native to Asia and distributed throughout Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan and Myanmar. J, adathoda is commonly known in English as Malabar nut, Pawatta in Sinhala, Adadodai in Tamil and Vasaka in Sanskrit 1.

This is an evergreen shrub with average height of three meters. It has opposite and ascending branches. The leaves are broad, leathery and entirely lanceolate in shape with opposite formation. The stem is soft while the flowers are dense, terminal spikes with large, attractive white petals, streaked with purple on the lower lip. Different parts of J. adathoda have multiple uses in traditional Unani and Ayurvedic medicines 1, 2.

The main phytochemical group present in J. adathoda is alkaloids. The prominent compounds present in J. adhatoda are vasicine, vasicinone, deoxyvasicine, vasicol, adhatodinine, and vasicinol which are present in different parts of the plant. In addition, vitamin C, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and fatty acids are also present 2, 3 Due to the presence of an array of therapeutically active phytochemicals in different parts of J. adathoda, has been extensively used in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine to treat respiratory disorders such as cold cough, whooping cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma 1. The powdered herb is boiled with sesame oil, is used to heal ear infections and arrest bleeding. Boiled leaves are used to treat rheumatic pain, and to relieve the pain of urinary tract infections 4 It was discovered that the main component vasicine present in J. adathoda shows oxytocin action helping for speeding up the delivery during child birth 1. Moreover, this herb is important due to its anti-asthmatic and bronchodilator activity, wound healing activity, anti-ulcer activity, anti-bacterial activity, anti-allergy activity and anti-tubercular activity 4. Apart from that medicinal uses, the tender leaves and flowers of J. adathoda are used as a vegetable in India and Nepal 5 In addition, leaf aqueous extract of J. adhatoda and O. tenuiflorum exhibited antioxidative effects and impede hyperlipidemia 6.

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals which are normally produced during the metabolism of the body cells are able to neutralized by natural antioxidant systems. But imbalance of free radicals resulted to oxidative stress which related to cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. Reducing ability of plant extracts are directly related to the phytochemical content of the extract 7. Though J. adathoda is widely used in traditional systems of medicine, information on its bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity present in different parts of the plant are limited. Therefore, current study was aimed to determine the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of different parts of J. adathoda.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Sample Collection

Mature leaves, immature leaves (bud with two leaves), flowers, bracts, soft stems, bark of mature stem, and roots of J. adathoda plant were collected from Kegalle district in Sri Lanka and brought to the laboratory.

2.2. Chemicals and Reagents

Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Gallic acid, 2, 4, 6-trypyridyl-2-try-azine (TPTZ), 6-hydroxy-2, 5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxilic acid (Trolox) and Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, Mo). All other chemicals used were of analytical grade.

2.3. Sample Preparation

The fresh leaves of mature and immature stages, flowers, bracts, soft stems, bark of mature stem and roots were thoroughly washed under running water. Then they were cut into small pieces and air dried at room temperature (28 ± 2°C) for three days.

2.4. Extraction of Phytochemicals

All air-dried samples were powdered using a coffee grinder and sieved with 0.25 mm mesh. Powdered sample (0.1 g) was mixed with 5mL of 80% methanol and vortexed for 15 min. Then it was placed in a water bath at 60°C for 40 min and vortex procedure was repeated in 10 min intervals. After centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 5 minutes to remove the solid fraction, the supernatant was decanted into a 15 mL centrifuge tube and the pellet was re-extracted with 5 mL of 80% methanol. Supernatants were pooled and stored at -20°C until further usage.

2.5. Determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)

Total antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay described by Benzie and Strain 8, with slight modifications. Briefly, 100 µL of methanolic extracts of samples were mixed with 900 µL of freshly prepared FRAP (Mixing 25 mL of 300 mM Sodium acetate buffer, 2.5 mL of 10 mM TPTZ solution and 2.5 mL of 20 mM ferric chloride solution) reagent of pH 3.6 and incubated for 4 min. Absorbance was measured at 593 nm using spectrophotometer. TAC was calculated using the standard trolox curve and expressed as milligrams of trolox equivalents (TE) per g of DW.

2.6. Determination of Total Phenolic Content (TPC)

Total phenolic content of all samples was determined using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method 9. Briefly, 4 mL of distilled water and 0.5 mL of extract were added into a test tube. Then the same amounts of (0.5 mL) 0.2 N Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added and allowed to react for 3 min. Then 1 mL of a saturated sodium carbonate solution was mixed and incubated in a water bath for 2 hrs. at 30°C. The absorbance was measured at 760 nm using a spectrophotometer. TPC was calculated using the standard gallic acid curve and expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g of DW.

2.7. Determination of Total Flavonoid Content (TFC)

Total flavonoid content was determined by a colorimetric method as described by Liu et al. 10 with slight modifications. Briefly, a volume of 0.5 mLof plant extract was added to centrifuge tube containing 3.5 mL of distilled water. Then the solution was mixed with 0.3 mL of 5% NaNO2. After 6 min 0.3 mL of 10% Al (NO3)3.6H2O solution was added and allowed to stand another 6 min. Then, 2 mL of 2 M NaOH was added. The mixture was diluted with 1.4 mL of distilled water and absorbance was measured immediately using a spectrophotometer at 510 nm wavelength. TFC was calculated using the standard rutin curve and expressed as milligrams of rutin equivalents (RE) per g DW.

2.8. Statistical Analysis

To verify the statistical significance of all parameters, mean values ± SD were calculated. Statistical comparison of mean values was performed by General Linear Model (GLM) of ANOVA followed by Tukey Multiple Range Test using SAS statistical software (Version 9.4).

3. Results and Discussion

Total antioxidant capacity of tested extracts of different parts of J. adathoda was ranged from 5.73 ± 0.14 to 19.28 ± 1.96 mg/TE g DW (Figure 1). Significantly the highest TAC was observed in immature leaves (19.28 ± 1.96 mg/TE g DW) followed by flowers (16.97 ± 0.99 mg/TE g DW), bracts (14.19 ± 1.85 mg/TE g DW, bark (13.82 ± 3.5 mg/TE g DW) and roots 10.34 ± 0.65 mg/TE g DW) respectively.

Moreover, order of decrease of TAC of different extracts of J. adathoda was as follows; immature leaves > flowers > bracts > bark of mature stem > roots > soft stem > mature leaves. From the results obtained, it is clear that the higher TAC is concentrated around the bud region of J. adathoda and decreased with the maturity. This phenomenon agreed with Izzreen and Fadzelly 11, and Panawala et al 12 , which suggested that antioxidant values are high in immature leaves and decreased with the increment of maturity stage of tea and allspice respectively.. This may be due to the physiological changes of leaf with age and the unique chemical compounds transportation within the plant 13.

Results on total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different parts of J. adathoda are demonstrated in Table 1. TPC and TFC contents of different parts were ranged from 1.94 ± 0.12 to 11.33 ± 0.14 mg/GAE g DW and 3.54. ± 0.46 to 16.66a ± 3.06 respectively. Significantly the higher TPC was observed in flowers (11.33 ± 0.14 mg/GAE g DW) followed by bracts (8.46 ± 0.66 mg/GAE g DW) and immature leaves (7.4 ± 0.32 mg/GAE g DW). The significantly higher TFC was recorded from flowers (16.66 ± 3.06 mg/RE g DW) followed by immature leaves, bracts, mature leaves, bark and roots respectively. However, there was no significant difference observed among the results in immature leaves, flowers and bracts parts whereas, least TFC was recorded in soft stem parts (3.54 ± 0.46 mg/RE g DW).

Both TPC and TFC were highly reported in flowers followed by the immature bud region of the plant. Results obtained from this study agreed with the findings of Saha et al. 14, who observed the higher content of phenolics in Saraca asoca flowers among different parts of the plant.

  • Table 1. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different parts of J. adathoda

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This may be due to the presence of high content of secondary metabolites in flowers and immature parts of J. adathoda and also presence of rich in alkaloids, tannins, saponins phenolics and flavonoids 15. These components are often involved in flower pigmentation and floral fragrances to attract insect pollinators and thus enhance fertilization rates 16. Moreover, secondary metabolites are important in plant protection against biotic and abiotic stress conditions 17. According to Duraipandiyan et al. 3 J. adathoda leaves contain ketone, terpene, and phenols. Presence of phytochemicals in plants provide an important defense strategy to the plants, particularly against herbivorous insect pest and pathogenic fungi 17.

It is a well-known fact that medicinal properties of plants are due to the presence of secondary metabolites in various plant parts 15. Compounds belonging to alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids are currently used as drugs or as dietary supplements to cure or prevent various diseases 17. According to Reddy et al. 18 flowers of J. adathoda are used to cure various ailments like opthalmia, fever, gonorrhoea, to improve blood circulation, jaundice, abdominal tumour and in rheumatism since long time in traditional health practices of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Claeson et al. 5 reported that there are no records on any serious adverse effects or side effects of J. adathoda unless diarrhoea and vomiting may occur if large doses are taken. Findings of the present study showed positive correlations of TAC with TPC (R2 = 0.5411) and TFC (R2 = 0.5209). These results are agreed with the findings of Zhang et al. 19 also suggested that presence of therapeutically active biomolecules such as phenolic and flavonoid components are significantly enhance antioxidant capacity of different plant parts of J. adathoda.

4. Conclusions

According to the results, it could be concluded that all tested parts of J. adathoda contain marked number of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. Further, current study validates the traditional claim of obtaining immature leaves, flowers and bracts for drug preparation, since those parts contained the significantly higher amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity for the first time in Sri Lanka. Also, immature leaves, flowers and bracts of J. adathoda can be used as a good antioxidant supplement for pharmaceutical industries.

Acknowledgements

Authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to all who support to complete this study successfully.

References

[1]  Hossain, M.T. and Hoq, M.O. (2016). Therapeutic use of Adhatoda vasica. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2, (2), 156-163.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Rao, Bhaskar and Munjal, Minki and Patnayak, Amie and Loganathan, Karthik and Kumar, Gaurav 2013. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6. 997-1002.
In article      
 
[3]  Duraipandiyan, V., Al-Dhabi, N.A., Balachandran, C., Ignacimuthu, S., Sankar, C. and Balakrishna, K. (2015). Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of vasicine acetate synthesized from vasicine isolated from Adhatoda vasica L. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 727304.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Gangwar, A.K. and Ghosh, A.K. (2014). Medicinal uses and pharmacological activity of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2, (1), 88-91.
In article      
 
[5]  Claeson, U.P., Malmfors, T., Wikman, G. and Bruhn, J.G. (2000). Adhatoda vasica: a critical review of ethnopharmacoylogical and toxicological data. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72, 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Chowdhury I, Rahman MA, Hashem MA, Bhuiyan MMH, Hajjar D, Alelwani W, Makki AA, Haque MA, Tangpong J, Bakhtiar MTB. Supplements of an aqueous combination of Justicia adhatoda and Ocimum tenuiflorum boost antioxidative effects and impede hyperlipidemia. Animal Model Exp Med. 2020 Apr 29; 3(2): 140-151.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Dandapat, S. and Sinha, M.P. (2013). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant potency of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo. The Bioscan, 8, (2), 727-730.
In article      
 
[8]  Benzie, I.F. and Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, (1), 70-76.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Abeysinghe, D.C., Li, X., Sun, C., Zhang, W., Zhou, C. and Chen, K. (2007). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in different edible tissues of citrus fruit of four species. Food Chemistry, 104, 1338-1344.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Liu, M., Li, X.Q., Weber, C., Lee, C.Y., Brown, J. and Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, (10), 2926-2930.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Izzreen, N.Q. and Fadzelly, M.A.B. (2013). Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of different parts of Camellia sinensis leaves from Sabah Tea Plantation in Sabah, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal, 20, (1), 307-312.
In article      
 
[12]  Panawala, P.B.C. Abeysinghe, D.C. and R.M. Dharmadasa, “Phytochemical Distribution and Bioactivity of Different Parts and Leaf Positions of Pimenta Dioica (L.) Merr (Myrtaceae).” World Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 4, no. 5 (2016): 143-146.
In article      
 
[13]  Farhoosh, R., Golmovahhed, G.A. and Khodaparast, M.H.H. (2007). Antioxidant activity of various extracts of old tea leaves and black tea wastes (Camellia sinensis L.). Food Chemistry, 100, (1), 231-236.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Saha, J., Mukherjee, S., Gupta, K. and Gupta, B. (2013). High-performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis of antioxidants present in different parts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 7(9), 798-803.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Kumar, M., Dandapat, S., Kumar, A. and Sinha, M.P. (2013). Pharmacological screening of leaf extract of Adhatoda vasica for therapeutic efficacy. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 8, (4), 494-500.
In article      
 
[16]  Pichersky, E. and Gang, D.R. (2000). Genetics and biochemistry of secondary metabolites in plants: an evolutionary perspective. Trends in Plant Science, 5, (10), 439-445.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Pagare, S., Bhatia, M., Tripathi, N., Pagare, S. and Bansal, Y.K. (2015). Secondary metabolites of plants and their role: Overview. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 9, (3), 293-304.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Reddy, M.P., Shantha, T.R., Rao, V.R. and Venkateshwarlu, G. (2015). Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Evaluation on the Flowers of Justicia adhatoda L. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7, (2), 73-90.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Zhang, L., Ravipati, A.S., Koyyalamudi, S.R., Jeong, S.C., Reddy, N., Smith, P.T., Bartlett, J., Shanmugam, K., Münch, G. and Wu, M.J. (2011). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, (23), 12361-12367.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 M.M. Nipunika, D.C. Abeysinghe and R.M. Dharmadasa

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
M.M. Nipunika, D.C. Abeysinghe, R.M. Dharmadasa. Distribution of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Parts of Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae). World Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 10, No. 2, 2022, pp 60-63. http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjar/10/2/4
MLA Style
Nipunika, M.M., D.C. Abeysinghe, and R.M. Dharmadasa. "Distribution of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Parts of Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae)." World Journal of Agricultural Research 10.2 (2022): 60-63.
APA Style
Nipunika, M. , Abeysinghe, D. , & Dharmadasa, R. (2022). Distribution of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Parts of Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae). World Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(2), 60-63.
Chicago Style
Nipunika, M.M., D.C. Abeysinghe, and R.M. Dharmadasa. "Distribution of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Parts of Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae)." World Journal of Agricultural Research 10, no. 2 (2022): 60-63.
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  • Figure 1. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of different parts of J. adathoda (Mean with the same letter represent non-significant differences (p<0.05)
  • Table 1. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different parts of J. adathoda
[1]  Hossain, M.T. and Hoq, M.O. (2016). Therapeutic use of Adhatoda vasica. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2, (2), 156-163.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Rao, Bhaskar and Munjal, Minki and Patnayak, Amie and Loganathan, Karthik and Kumar, Gaurav 2013. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6. 997-1002.
In article      
 
[3]  Duraipandiyan, V., Al-Dhabi, N.A., Balachandran, C., Ignacimuthu, S., Sankar, C. and Balakrishna, K. (2015). Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of vasicine acetate synthesized from vasicine isolated from Adhatoda vasica L. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 727304.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Gangwar, A.K. and Ghosh, A.K. (2014). Medicinal uses and pharmacological activity of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2, (1), 88-91.
In article      
 
[5]  Claeson, U.P., Malmfors, T., Wikman, G. and Bruhn, J.G. (2000). Adhatoda vasica: a critical review of ethnopharmacoylogical and toxicological data. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72, 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Chowdhury I, Rahman MA, Hashem MA, Bhuiyan MMH, Hajjar D, Alelwani W, Makki AA, Haque MA, Tangpong J, Bakhtiar MTB. Supplements of an aqueous combination of Justicia adhatoda and Ocimum tenuiflorum boost antioxidative effects and impede hyperlipidemia. Animal Model Exp Med. 2020 Apr 29; 3(2): 140-151.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Dandapat, S. and Sinha, M.P. (2013). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant potency of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo. The Bioscan, 8, (2), 727-730.
In article      
 
[8]  Benzie, I.F. and Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, (1), 70-76.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Abeysinghe, D.C., Li, X., Sun, C., Zhang, W., Zhou, C. and Chen, K. (2007). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in different edible tissues of citrus fruit of four species. Food Chemistry, 104, 1338-1344.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Liu, M., Li, X.Q., Weber, C., Lee, C.Y., Brown, J. and Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, (10), 2926-2930.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Izzreen, N.Q. and Fadzelly, M.A.B. (2013). Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of different parts of Camellia sinensis leaves from Sabah Tea Plantation in Sabah, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal, 20, (1), 307-312.
In article      
 
[12]  Panawala, P.B.C. Abeysinghe, D.C. and R.M. Dharmadasa, “Phytochemical Distribution and Bioactivity of Different Parts and Leaf Positions of Pimenta Dioica (L.) Merr (Myrtaceae).” World Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 4, no. 5 (2016): 143-146.
In article      
 
[13]  Farhoosh, R., Golmovahhed, G.A. and Khodaparast, M.H.H. (2007). Antioxidant activity of various extracts of old tea leaves and black tea wastes (Camellia sinensis L.). Food Chemistry, 100, (1), 231-236.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Saha, J., Mukherjee, S., Gupta, K. and Gupta, B. (2013). High-performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis of antioxidants present in different parts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 7(9), 798-803.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Kumar, M., Dandapat, S., Kumar, A. and Sinha, M.P. (2013). Pharmacological screening of leaf extract of Adhatoda vasica for therapeutic efficacy. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 8, (4), 494-500.
In article      
 
[16]  Pichersky, E. and Gang, D.R. (2000). Genetics and biochemistry of secondary metabolites in plants: an evolutionary perspective. Trends in Plant Science, 5, (10), 439-445.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Pagare, S., Bhatia, M., Tripathi, N., Pagare, S. and Bansal, Y.K. (2015). Secondary metabolites of plants and their role: Overview. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 9, (3), 293-304.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Reddy, M.P., Shantha, T.R., Rao, V.R. and Venkateshwarlu, G. (2015). Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Evaluation on the Flowers of Justicia adhatoda L. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7, (2), 73-90.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Zhang, L., Ravipati, A.S., Koyyalamudi, S.R., Jeong, S.C., Reddy, N., Smith, P.T., Bartlett, J., Shanmugam, K., Münch, G. and Wu, M.J. (2011). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, (23), 12361-12367.
In article      View Article  PubMed