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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Authenticity and Digital Taxonomy for Pragmatic Integrative Call through Three Approaches: Teachers’ Perspectives

Marvin Wacnag Lidawan , Ahmed Saad Al Shlowiy
Journal of Linguistics and Literature. 2020, 4(1), 15-29. DOI: 10.12691/jll-4-1-2
Received September 15, 2019; Revised October 22, 2019; Accepted November 14, 2019

Abstract

The development of multimedia and technology proliferates around 21st century English language learners as it creates media–rich environment, but accessibility of these advances could be different from how other students of technologically equipped-schools conveniently learn. Many third world countries may not afford state-of-the art facilities depriving them of their needed exposures. To address this dilemma, the writers share how learners benefit indiscriminately through the application of Integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). This inquiry sought answers to questions on facilitating students’ critical thinking skills incorporating digital taxonomy alongside authentic materials through Integrative CALL revolving around three conceptualized approaches. Results demonstrate that employment of simply designed language tasks from authentic materials assisted by computer knowledge alongside digital taxonomy tend practically useful. Pragmatic innovation through the three introduced approaches that simplified Integrative CALL could address institutional problems on the scarcity of technological tools for instructions exposing learners to 21st century skills. Employment of authentic material-designed tasks with digital taxonomy promote learners’ critical thinking while varied major pedagogic implications for language acquisition are perceived. This inquiry is a descriptive research utilizing modes in determining central tendencies as well as percentages and frequencies that support gathered data’s significance collated among 35 English instructors’ responses from a higher education institution. Researches that allude to this paper must be piloted to a higher population to quantitatively investigate the correlation or significance of students’ critical thinking achievement with their engagement to digital taxonomy while infusing the interplay of modern authentic materials in Integrative CALL.

1. Introduction

The fruition of technology nowadays exposes authentic materials as one of the primary springboards for language learning propelled by media forms available to learners’ real-world environment where immediate access to these for instructions is being eased by varied forms of technology. It is perceived that the manipulation of simply designed real-world outputs as inputs may be comparable to familiarizing language, media and technology which could be achieved through basic technological procedures. Since media forms are dependent upon technology, technical instructions are incorporated for the employment of these modern ideas. Likewise, when these authentic materials are operated as toolkits for students’ achievement of a target language, other linguistic skills are further strengthened. It is a fact that these pedagogical catalysts abound to enable teachers to engross students with interesting classroom activities in conjunction to reality. The teacher’s creative goal is to design communicative tasks out of authentic toolkits linking to Nunan 1 who defines authentic material as real-world spoken or written language information formulated within the occurrences of natural communication but are not intended for language instructions. These materials surfaced as ideal teaching inputs out of teachers’ innovative approaches. When teachers are able to conceptualize techniques to impart the language in a natural way, communicative competence and performance are possibly achieved. This connects to Canale and Swain’s 2 study that highlights, languages as matters learned in real contexts where students develop grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic competence which are applicable to interactive learning. Communicative competence currently can be activated and enhanced depending on the frequency of authentic materials that teachers utilize as stimuli and the level of exposures teachers have practiced in the classrooms with the assistance of digital tools. Additionally, learners’ experiences brought about by their natural environment may extend authentic engagement connecting these underlying factors in support of each other to underpin learning. At this effect, students aren’t only given the knowledge on how to use the target language but are expose to media forms and digital skills due to computer-based knowledge. In other words, communicative approach to language teaching may be intensified by modern authentic materials that are mostly found from the Web that are constantly linked with technological tools such as computers for accessibility through instructors’ facilitation elucidating the impact of authenticity in pedagogy. McKenzie 3 adheres to this idea by affirming that today’s classroom should support learning styles while incorporating technology in a real-life manner. The significance of Hobbs’s 72 study emphasizes that teachers who are already using authentic materials such as news media, popular culture, and digital media to support academic achievement in language arts, science, history, and the arts are discovering the power of connecting students’ digital learning skills to fundamental practices in analysis, evaluation, composition, reflection, and social action. To Hobbs, the delight which students acquired through digital engagement in media literacy-related programs stretches students’ critical thinking and operative skills in using the computer and the Internet. In language instruction, the best setting for acquiring English competency occurs in a natural setting or in real social life 4. Learning in natural settings occurs as a function of authentic activities or real-life applications in which learning takes place 5. Such settings might occur in the classroom, outside the classroom, or in an online setting. In the 21st century, creating authentic activities in a language-learning setting is possible due to assistance provided by the Internet or other technological tools 6. These authentic learning activities connect students’ theoretical knowledge from classroom learning with real-life applications; bridge the contextual gap between technology, learning environments, and pedagogy; and to explore new knowledge deeply in context 7. In addition, these activities enable teachers to overcome students’ individual differences 8.

Today, students are described as “native digital” students 9 because they are surrounded with digital devices and live in the digital age. They are part of the “net generation” 10 who are exposed to communication technologies, which have become part of their daily lives. Such learners “process information and learn differently than their teachers, they will be less accepting of traditional definitions of ‘classroom’ and ‘class participation’ and the roles assigned to teachers, and they will use technology as a tool for creative expression” ( 11, p. 380). The digital-generation students tended to be more independent in their studies 10. When learners think about how they can learn 5, they explore opportunities to learn and revise their actions based on past mistakes 12. Moreover, students understood their own needs, interests, and challenges as non-native English learners and as the “net generation” 10. They sought immediate feedback, accessibility to information, an interactive environment, multi-media application availability, teamwork with others, connectivity, hands-on experiences, inquiry-based approaches, and self-directed learning opportunities 13. Therefore, such generation of students requires web-based teaching approaches 14.

2. Theoretical Framework

2.1. On Authentic Materials

Authentic materials could be relevant inputs for a successful employment of integrative CALL. It is perceived to support language instructions through real-life learning activities. The Internet has numerous authentic learning materials, such as videos, virtual radio, news channels, application forms, magazine articles, newspaper reports, television advertisements, and chat communities 6. These materials tend to be useful in facilitating real-life language teaching. This is further supported by Nuttal 15 through affirming that the authentic text may be motivating since they serve as evidence that the language is used in real-life settings, as Breen 16 highlights claiming that the kinds of tasks that we bring in the classroom designed from authentic materials naturally immerse learners in genuine communication interaction. Authentic materials are further emphasized by Brosnan, Brown, and Hood, 17 advocating that when we have these instructive springboards, we simplify the language or alter the language of these materials for instructive purposes. Students may be dealing with small amount of material, but can serve relevant pedagogic activities Brosnan et al. 17 further state that authentic materials as nonlinguistic materials, such as pictures, symbols or colors students’ comprehension, when their search for meaning in reality is evident and operative. To Berardo 18, anything can be used as authentic materials in the classroom and further declares that one of the most useful resources is the Internet since large amount of materials are accessible. This is significant to the connection between authentic materials and the facilitation of technology in the pedagogic process. 71 advocates that authentic materials and media can strongly connect to language settings inside and outside the classrooms. This is further emphasized by 19 who reiterate that authentic materials raise students’ motivation and engagement when authentic materials are introduced to teach culture through the language. Richards 20 provides how authentic materials are possible through the following conditions: if they provide favorable effects on the learners’ interests, if they deliver or relay cultural knowledge, if they provide practice on learners to deal with real, language, if they connect thoroughly with the learners’ needs and if they can sustain more innovative approach for teachers. Furthermore, according to 21, authentic materials can be classified into three general categories: authentic listening, viewing, authentic visual and authentic printed materials. To establish a close association of the tasks to these three categories of authentic materials, the writers followed these classifications in the presentations of tasks embedded under three approaches presented to demonstrate simplified Integrative CALL.

2.2. Authentic Materials’ Connection to Technological Tools

Moreover, as to the connection of authentic materials, media and digital technology tools, Motteram 22 states that the benefits of technology are integrated with project work which deals with the encouragement of students to learn about variety of things through language. Getting learners to work about topics of their interests, or subjects that are taught in other parts of the curriculum is a great way to improve their skills. Technology makes development possible wherever they are in the world. In conjunction to the latest statement, Zhu 23 reveals that theory, pedagogy, and technology are essential components in today’s contemporary learning as seen in this tri-part structure of instructional technology curriculum of which media literacy intervenes to propel technology use. These sources are largely in forms of authentic materials through the employment of search engines such as Google Chrome and Firefox Mozilla to be able to find teaching springboards in the Internet. The teachers’ method in searching for materials is tantamount to how students will undergo the tasks that were designed for them. Zhu’s views strongly mirror the principles behind integrative CALL’s principles. Moreover, Jenkins 24 emphasizes students’ need to take part in cultural interactions through social media as a way of learning since this kind of learning environment can yield the high possibility of content delivery, collaboration, and assessment. He further elaborates that the utilization of these tools in reality reinforces learning. Technological tools for authentic materials can serve as beginners’ learning process for they could create social settings in which they learners have many interactive opportunities and authentic practices. Additionally, Lombardi 25 advocates the advantages of using technology for situational learning such as in computer-aided communication in a classroom and retrieving ideas from the Internet and that it can support learning involving authentic materials such as computer applications for preparation and presentation of lessons, internet connectivity for learning sources, online communication as well as social networking tools especially that most of the sources thrive from the Internet.

2.3. Internet Materials for Simplified Integrated CALL

Importantly, authentic materials have varied forms and genres for CALL. Tasks’ inputs for contemporary classroom application of integrative CALL require varied types of authentic materials that are basically obtained from the Web. Tuzi, Mori &Young 26 state that aired or broadcast commercials have authentic contents which are written and spoken for native speakers. Lovell 27 points out that films have been advocated by American higher educational organizations where most institutions followed globally. Additionally in films, Wood 28; Zhang 29; Williams 30; Reisland 31 narrate that film communication offers links between classrooms and society, explores cultural context and may be integrated easily into the curriculum, acts as a focus for teacher-student interaction and promotes awareness of the interrelationship between modes through pictures, movements, languages, sounds, and captions. Reisland 31 further points out that advertisements are greatly seen as an element of media literacy promoting learners’ audio and visual literacy to comprehend the contexts of mass media materials employed. Likewise on film script involvement, Sweeting 32 advocates that the use of scenes can aid learners in identifying themes such as sarcasm by providing worksheets with significant lines from the movie script to be interpreted. Studies in advertising from linguistic standpoints have been attempted by several scholars. Here are some who perceived advertisements as effective tools for language interplay. Miller 33 observes that this simple classroom activity on poster utilization can possibly enable the students to produce variety of vocabularies, phrases, and sentences and even form narratives through teachers’ devised guidelines and innovative reinforcement strategies. To elaborate the significance of manipulating visuals, three design principles by Lohr 34 assist instructional designers in the processes of dealing with visual aids: the figure-ground principle, hierarchy principle and the gestalt principle. These principles support the fruition of students’ abilities in their approach to understand visual materials when employed in language learning. Furthermore, Lavery 35 shares that cartoons and comic strips can be used for language instructions especially from beginners to advanced learners with wide-ranging forms of formulated language exercises. In relation to imagery, Ferlazzo 36) declares that pictures or photos for English learners may be effective and that teaching styles can be established such as the Picture –Word- Inductive Model (PWIM) wherein students initially brainstorm words based from pictures. According to Zucker, Staut and Tinker 37 Common Core State Standards (CCSS ELA), English and language arts teachers have the responsibility to provide students the proper comprehension of information, which includes science materials that are emphasized in all sorts of reading resources such as books, magazines and newspapers as well as the website. Bayri 38 reveals that the visual nature of the art such as paintings may aid learners acquire new words when using cultural and contextual points of view. His significant findings disclose that art-exposed students have better vocabularies and command of language than students who were not exposed to the type of authentic materials. To McGrath, 39 the text from authentic printed materials should be functional which means that the text can generate the development of reading skills and that these words should be expressed in the most practical ways. The use of authentic texts has been supported earlier by Firth 40 who argues that language should be studied in actual, attested, authentic instances of use, not as intuitive, invented, isolated sentences. Leech’s 41 ground-breaking and comprehensive study on English advertising has analyzed through details different aspects referring to grammar, vocabulary, discourse and rhyme and rhetoric. Leech has effectively related these aspects towards functional factors such as attention value, readability, memorability and selling power, and having these characteristics can trigger language learning when advertisements are used as inputs in language classroom. Also, Vestergaard and Schroder 42 have studied the language use in commercial press advertising verifying several communicative functions of language such as expressive, directive, informational, metalingual, interactional, contextual, and poetic. Since these features are embedded, advertisements are strong authentic materials that can trigger language learning. Another inquisition on authentic printed material specifically, editorials, conducted by Afzal and Harun 43 reveals that editorials as authentic materials probably aid in English language. To them, editorials can serve as patterns for writing activities. Eisenberg 44 admits that recipes offer actual experiences while building contextual diagrams. These serve as forms of writing exercises for real contextual passages that manifest natural engagement, for recipes establish a real-world connection to learners. Tomalin and Stempleski 45 mentions that the use of cultural objects as printed materials that can exhibit powerful effects in language classrooms which both used as bases in conceptualizing culture compositions for the enhancement of writing skills as well as for determining cultural items from English speaking countries. Lastly, Coats 46 shares that students have global access to song lyrics as text or as recorded material to listen to, similar to how teachers themselves may obtain the type of teaching material. To her, understanding musical expressions is similar to comprehending language, culture, and humanity. All these materials mentioned are available in the Web.

2.4. English Language Curricula’s Links to Authentic Materials

Significantly, it is said that varied types of authentic materials, their connections to intended learning outcomes and how they are linked to curriculum are relevant. Zane Education, 47 advises teachers to use video as an instructional tool by observing its alliance to the specific learning objectives of the institution’s mandated English language curriculum. Moreover, Griffin 48 stresses that specific learning objectives should be determined, instructional orders should be developed and reinforcement activities should be prearranged in using authentic materials. In general, authentic materials may exist in varied forms but their usage as springboards in the language classroom as well as their favorable effects to the learners and to the English curricula bring them in common. Here are some indications. Abbasian, Mahmoudi, and Shahbazi 49 reveal that in the present day, authentic materials are useful to materials and curriculum developers in order to revolutionize traditional methods of teaching to be communicative as indicated by students’ acceptable pragmatic competence. To them, the involvement of authentic materials in teaching transforms teaching into a contemporary world with modern curriculum. Another study shows a positive outcome on the effects of authentic materials in an EFL classroom. Losada, Insuasty, and Osorio’s 50 study divulges that authentic materials created significant impact towards the enhancement of students’ vocabulary levels, cultural knowledge and the range of their focus towards the lessons being conducted. They endorse that there should be an organized implementation of authentic materials in foreign language contexts which can be connected to the materials, school’s educational context as well as teachers’ sufficient knowledge in engrossing with authentic materials to be appropriately operated in the classrooms. Said modern classrooms should support the developmental processes of language learning because participants are immersed in concrete and meaningful communicative activities with other people 5. It is then suggested that the proliferation of media forms among learners’ real world should be linked with curricular designs. It is encouraged that every learning institution must create a curriculum that caters to the timely needs of current learners. One of the major rudiments of applying CALL is to arrive at intended outcomes in measuring students’ performance. These objectives are to be aligned with the mandated English program which a teacher follows for effective instructions.

2.5. Incorporating Integrative CALL to Authentic Materials

Additionally, Integrative CALL could be significant in the Integration of modern authentic materials for language instructions alongside digital taxonomy to be able to produce desired target outputs anchored to the learning outcomes need appropriate educational technologies. Unfortunately, not all educational organizations can afford the ideal forms of technologies to be attuned with the trending times which current learners ought to be immersed with. Kuang’s 51 study on the obstacles using educational technologies pinpointed the high costs of technologies which elucidate financial barriers among learners which had been anticipated by Hooper 52 when he noted that the cost of computers will be inexpensive making them available in most schools and homes in the future. Today, Hooper’s statement shows observable significance towards reality. As an alternative in coping with educational institutions’ deficiency of procuring advanced technological tools for instructions, innovation among teachers is practically probable through CALL; not to mention that mass media authentic materials’ sources primarily thrive from the Internet. The employment of this learning style may be pragmatic, but could be promisingly significant depending on how learners are directed for the production of worth assessing outputs. The earliest record which CALL could be found was on a workshop paper authored by Davies and Steel in 1981. The following year, CALL became prevalent in language teaching around the world (Davis and Steel 53, as cited in Thomas et al. 54). Warschauer & Healey 55 reiterate that Integrative CALL attunes to modern learners which is applied through multimedia computers and the Website applications due to the onset of text, graphics, audio, animation and films of varied types that can easily be retrieved from affordable computers. In here, all sources are connected by hypermedia for learners to be able to access the resources by following or connecting in computer drives and the Websites.

2.6. Hypermedia in Integrative CALL

Moreover, hypermedia is relative to the use of computers and Internet applications. The involvement of these three essential components (hypermedia, computers and Internet applications) indicate a clear understanding of how CALL can be employed technically. Warschauer 55 offers some benefits in the learning process when hypermedia is involved such as the creation of more real learning settings, easy integration of macro skills: reading, listening, writing and speaking not to mention that viewing skills can be enhanced; learning convenience due to learner’s control of time frame and allows students’’ standard focus on the content form and learning approaches Many researches show that the involvement of CALL to process language tasks are significantly and modernly promising in formal language teaching if lessons are well- assisted and well- planned. Jones and Fortescue 56 reveals that CALL introduces computers as adjustable classroom for those involved in learning and teaching in varied settings and procedures depending on the learning aims which need to be appropriately-organized similar to normal classroom work. Rogers 57 further reveals that behaviorism scholars discovered understandable effects of teaching through computer-assisted instruction. Additionally, he points out that CALL is appropriate to process auditory and visual mass media in formal classrooms for students’ language awareness. He continues to explicate that the employment of multimedia technologies in language teaching specifically computers, can yield favorable results for instructions. With the changing times, CALL has developed into a higher form which is called, integrative CALL. Moreover, Observable principles connect to the concept of this paper as Warschauer and Healey 58 reveal contemporary standpoints on integrative CALL when they reiterated on the relevance of technological tools to regularly play crucial roles for new second language learning and socio-cognitive interpretation process. They also asserted on integrative call to pave the emergence of social and learner-focused approaches wherein language is used in a real social situation. They added that task-based, project-based and content-based methods all required the involvement of learners in a real world as well as the integration of varied language macro skills and the incorporation of various skills of language learning and use. Many researchers claim that CALL in general indicates favorable significance to learners. Jeong’s 59 gathered data indicates that the Internet is a useful instrument in obtaining and processing additional ESL learning materials. His study revealed that learners’ involvement and attitudes to internet -suggested activities were favorably perceived. He recommends that further researches involving Internet contents should be conducted to enhance understanding of how the Website may be of use on learners’ real life particularly, contexts in language acquisition. In his investigation, internet was mention as one of the trending sources of language achievement which indirectly indicates that computers will always be of significance. Jeong’s study and recommendations point out to an integrative CALL which this paper attempts to integrate. Abu-Seileek’s 60 findings showed that respondents who studied through computer- instructed tasks have higher achievement than those who were traditionally-instructed. Results manifested further that computer-assisted learning style can show better results than that of the absence of computers. Also, McEnery, Barker, and Wilson’s 61 study on the use of computers for second language learning. The results manifested that computer-based grammar instruction seem to demonstrate more effective outcomes than traditional instruction. Salomon 62 suggests that the central components of classroom environments when integrating CALL may include task, sense of control, teacher-student collaboration, and students- student collaboration, setting, and teacher behavior that infuses knowledge of the instruction. Likewise, Chapelle 63 proposes seven theories for developing CALL: (1) language focus, (2) facilitation of language input, (3) learners’ production of an output based from the linguistic springboard, (4) learners’ knowledge of their errors, (5) learners’ corrections of their errors (6) learners’ interactive involvement through languages they have learned and (7) learners engagement in the second language through other tasks. Chapelle 63 and Salomon’s (1997) suggestions closely adhere to the concept of which this paper wanted to point out to prospective readers. Both brought out common principles of CALL that are elucidated in this study. Amiri, Hashemy & Hayati, 64 and Motteram 22, propose that technology and the internet show potentials on how students learn. To them, the worldwide web is a modern and ideal ways to be able to learn with the aid of multimedia technology such as computers and Internet applications. To them, there are numerous learning styles that can be achieved such as collaborative learning, autonomous or independent learning. Both agree that through the use of computers and the Internet, situational learning of the students such as computer-mediated communication in a classroom, computer-mediated communication for long distance exchange, and accessing resources may take place. As you can see within the three proposed three approaches, claims of the said researchers are reflected. Al Khayyat elaborated that presentation of materials in an integrative way via CALL has helped students to develop their proficiency in the four skills. The researcher believes that the CALL program was designed to go with Krashen's Monitor Model Hypothesis. He mentioned the "input hypothesis" which says that input should be: comprehensible; interesting and relevant; delivered in safe and calm environment. An innovative teaching methodology Conducted by Latif 65 reveals that through the internet, instructors and learners can swap data and information using virtual resources like virtual libraries learners for more opportunity to explore and keep their knowledge updated while having exposure to the target language. To Latif, manipulation of technology delivers the mood of distributed cognition theory which usually happens in CALL setting when socio-cognition is being delivered. Similarly, Abdallah and Mansour 66 divulge that employing a virtual task-based situated language learning or (TBSLL) environment. The research revealed effectiveness of the TBSLL design within the SL environment in developing participants’ pragmatic writing and technological self-efficacy. Further, a strong connection was found between pragmatic writing test and technological self-efficacy. When the researchers drew deeply on the new learning environment design and interactive features that made the difference, effectiveness of TBSLL surfaced. This could be connected with the idea of this study that aims students’’ linguistic and technological awareness. When both are infused, order thinking skills attainment increases socio-cognitive or cognitive knowledge.

2.7. Digital Taxonomy for Thinking Skills

Originally, Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives that sequenced learners’ order thinking skills covered knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Then further studies among proponents 67, originally made in 1956, transformed into remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create. Due to the onset of technology, Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy of objectives emerged 68 linking it with the three sanctioned domains of learning which are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor anchored to Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) expressed in gerund forms. Thus, the new taxonomy of objectives comprises remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating for digitalized society which is the basis of this study. To sum up, these materials specifically centered on the use of authentic materials, innovatively designed digital and linguistic tasks anchored to order thinking skills and level objectives crucially supported by the principles of Integrative CALL. Inhere, teacher operates available technologies to facilitate learning through multimedia such as computers and Internet-based applications. Integrative CALL views the language as socio-cognitive. Its pedagogical approach could be task-based and content-based by using computers in authentic social contexts as language skills are interweaved.

2.8. Connecting Variables of This Research

To disseminate clear understanding of the conceptual relationships of this papers’ variables, a paradigm below was constructed.

Figure 1 elucidates the relevance of authentic materials as toolkits in language learning. The type of authentic material being used as a springboard dictates the kind of authentic tasks. In preparing these tasks, it is suggested that the following elements should be manipulated: authentic input, language target(s), specific objectives, expected output, technological aids through multimedia tools such as computers and Internet applications, macro skills, and the types of authentic material from Gebhard’s 21. All these components support each other for the attainment of digital and linguistic skills to demonstrate learners’ socio-cognitive and/or cognitive capacity. The cognitive levels may be through collaborative or independent performances. They are measured according to order thinking skills and level objectives. As the order thinking skills ascend from remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating to creating; the level objectives increase to indicate the degree of performance. These are achieved through the pedagogic manipulation of authentic materials basically facilitated by computers and Internet applications as presented by the three approaches on Table 1, Table 2 & Table 3 while the three classifications of authentic materials are manipulated.

3. Methodology

3.1. Questions

This study sought answers to: (1) Can pragmatic Integrative CALL be applied through authentic materials and Digital taxonomy–related tasks? (2) Can order thinking skills in digital taxonomy be enhanced through the application of Integrative CALL alongside authentic Materials? (3) Can the three approaches infuse Integrative CALL? (4) How important are these three proposed approaches in Integrative CALL as perceived by teachers?

• Approach 1: varied authentic materials with independent tasks yielding varied outputs

• Approach 2: single authentic material with intertwined tasks yielding a single output

• Approach 3: single authentic material with independent tasks yielding varied outputs

(5) How important is this pragmatic innovation in addressing institutional problems on the scarcity of technological tools for instructions? (6) What are some pedagogical implications of incorporating authentic materials and digital Taxonomy with Integrative CALL?

3.2. Respondents and Locale of the Study

To obtain varied teachers’ perceptions regarding the incorporation of this pragmatic Integrative CALL through the newly introduced approaches displayed in Table 1, Table 2 & Table 3; 35 English teachers from Remnant International College, a Commission on Higher Education (CHED) institution in Baguio City, CAR Region of the Philippines were given an academic year (2018 to 2019) comprising two semesters to integrate the cited materials in their classrooms.

3.3. Materials

These cognitive tasks embedded in the three proposed approaches are presented in three varied tables which were administered individually or collaboratively. Approach 1 in Table 1 comprises cognitive processes to be operated from varied authentic materials with independent tasks yielding varied outputs. Approach 2 in Table 2 consists of cognitive processes activated from single authentic material with intertwined tasks yielding a single output, while Approach 3 in Table 3, centers on cognitive processes initiated from Single authentic material with independent tasks yielding varied outputs. The authentic tasks under the three tables contain authentic tasks’ elements namely: (1) specific authentic input, (2) language target(s), (3) specific objectives, (4) expected output, (5) technological aid (s), (6) skills, and (7) type of authentic material. These tasks are mostly accessed from the Internet exploring authentic listening-viewing materials, authentic visual materials, and authentic printed materials 21 through computers and Internet applications as the basic technological tools.

Secondly, Table 2 is similar to the components in Table 1 containing approach 2 which explains how instruction becomes effective to students out of a 21st century single authentic listening-viewing material with interconnecting tasks. In this table, a film biography is used as an example.

Lastly, Table 3 is similar to the components in Table 1 & Table 2. This table contains Approach 3 which elucidates modern single material being manipulated independently in producing varied tasks ouputs. This uses a film poster for its cognitive activities.

As indicated, these three approaches in Table 1, Table 2 & Table 3 need available technological tools comprising multimedia, computers and Internet applications.

3.4. Data Gathering Instrument

To gather the data on teachers’ perceptions regarding the practice of these three approaches for Integrative CALL, a survey questionnaire was served after the three approaches were incorporated in their classrooms. The questionnaire was composed of six questions. Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were formulated in Likert scale–types. Specifically, questions 1, 2 and 3 provided feedback on agreement and disagreement while questions 4 and 5 produced the degree of perceived importance. Additionally, question 6 monitored the actual experiences of teachers regarding the use of Integrative CALL in exemplifying the pedagogical significance of the approaches to teachers’ pragmatic higher education language instruction practices.

3.5. Statistical Tools

Descriptive technique was used to treat the data. The main measure of central tendencies was the mode alongside frequencies and percentages to be able to provide detailed analyses and interpretations. To be précised, questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 utilized percentages and frequencies for the calculation of responses before they were interpreted. Questions 6 used frequencies and modes to describe the data of two separate variables based from their actual practices and observations. These are teacher and students’ development.

4. Discussions

The questions’ core are indicated by the tables’ labels followed by the gathered data with analyses and justifications.

Table 4 is a conglomeration of questions 1, 2 & 3 fused to express the following sequential respondents’ perceptions: pragmatic application of Integrative CALL through authentic materials and digital taxonomy–related tasks, order thinking skills through digital taxonomy’s enhancement through the application of Integrative CALL alongside authentic Materials and the three Integrative CALL approaches possible infusion to Integrative CALL. As indicated in the table, 99.9 or 100 % of the 35 respondents took part in the survey of questions 1, 2 and 3. For question 1, 20 (57.14 %) slightly agree that, Integrative CALL can be simply applied classrooms through authentic materials and Digital taxonomy –related tasks this implies that more than half of the subjects experienced favorable effect on how they are applied in the classroom. This figure secondarily supports the 12 (34.28%) who mostly agree. For question number 2, 21 (60%) of respondents manifested a high agreement on order thinking skills through digital taxonomy can be enhanced through the application of Integrative CALL with the used of authentic Materials supported by 12 (34.28 %) of the subjects who claimed that they slightly agree. These responses allow us infer that with the two semesters of actual practice, the teachers where able to perceive that Integrative CALL through authentic materials can enhance students’ critical thinking skills despite 2 (5.71%) respondents’ slight disagreement. For question number 3, on the concept that Integrative CALL is simply applied with these three approaches, 27 out of 35 teachers regarded that Integrative CALL can be applied through the three approaches which are (1) utilization of varied authentic materials with independent tasks yielding varied outputs, utilization of single authentic material with intertwined tasks yielding a single output and single authentic material with independent tasks yielding varied outputs as supported by 77.4 percent who mostly agree. All in all, the table represents majority of positive feedback regarding a high possibility of Authentic Materials and Digital Taxonomy’s Incorporation for Pragmatic Integrative CALL.

Question 4 indicates teachers’ degree of perceived importance when applying the three approaches. Approach number 1 is varied authentic materials with independent tasks yielding varied outputs. Table 5 shows that 21 respondents or 60% perceived it as very important in contrast to the 3 or (8.57%) who claimed it is slightly important. However, despite the distributed responses, all the respondents show viability of the approach since no one asserted as not important. Practice of approach number still implies the presence of learning from the kind of instruction being introduced. Secondly, when it comes to degree of perceived importance of approach number 2: single authentic material with intertwined tasks yielding a single output, 10 (28.57%) out of 35 claimed it to be very important while 23 (65.71%) expressed an important level. These figures suggest that there were promising effects of these approach when they have applied in the classrooms. Finally, approach number 3’s Degree of perceived importance when applying single authentic material with independent tasks yielding varied outputs is perceived to be very important among 12(34.28%) followed by 18(51.42%) as important. With the total percentages of both level of responses, approach number 3 is believed to be relevant approach in the practice of CALL among teachers.

Underpinned by English language teachers’ responses originating from Table 7.a, Question 5 (Table 6) presents the degree of importance in this simple innovation in addressing institutional problems on the scarcity of technological tools for classroom learning and instructions is perceived by complete number of respondents as indicated by 99.98 which is interpreted as a total participation of perception. In here, 8 (22.8%) respondents perceived it as very important followed by others’ 22 (62.85%) responses view it to be important. These two levels of perceptions from teachers display viable feedback in their practices for two semesters. Responses from question 6 reinforce a high degree of acceptability when it comes to solving scarcity of technological tools for language instructions: “There is an opportunity for modern creativity and innovation: “Instructional Materials design are practically done”, “State -of the art-technology is not necessary so long as authentic materials are integrated in CALL,” “Teachers aren’t discriminated from these techniques due to the materials that abound in their environment” and “Can adjust teaching techniques based from available technologies.”

Question 6 is demonstrated in two folds, namely: for teacher development (Table 7.a) and for students’ development (Table 7.b) based from their actual classroom experiences on the three conceptualized approaches underpinned by some published implied claims to explicate central tendencies among the subjects.

The 25 item- responses with corresponding frequencies from question number 6 that brings the pedagogical significance of this study for teachers’ development were subjected for statistical analysis through mode. When sorted out, it showed a multi-modal measure of central tendencies to represent common pedagogical concepts and these are modes 29, 15, 14, 12, 11 and 10. Responses with these numbers indicate common observations of teachers in classroom practices of the approaches. All responses are underpinned by related works that allude to respondents’ feedbacks. The feedbacks in Table 7. a are self-explanatory and do not necessarily require in-depth explanations.

Furthermore, as perceived by teachers for students’ development, the pedagogical implications of this study are represented by multimodal modes through the numbers of frequencies as seen in Table 7b.

Table 7.b reveals multi-modals which are 17-18-19-21-27-31 from frequencies as the measures of central tendencies among the subjects’ perceptions underpinned by other researchers’ implied and alluding claims practically expressed responses. Replies possessing these modes designate palpable mutual opinions among teachers when it comes to this concept’s learning processes.

5. Findings

It is discovered that the degree of importance of the said three approaches and their manipulation in language instructions is valuable. Operating them reveals the significance of authentic materials from the Internet 5, 59, 65 alongside digital taxonomy 68 and Integrative CALL 60. Involving the Internet to obtain authentic materials for tasks designs enhances learners’ digital cognition 58 through which digital objectives that manifest order thinking skills are derived and are carried-out to form simplified Integrative CALL applications. The designed tasks with their components were significant factors for the creation of the approaches that enabled the concept of pragmatic Integrative CALL.

In terms of this pragmatic innovation in addressing institutional problems on the scarcity of technological tools for instructions, it is perceived as high to teachers who have experimented these three approaches, underpinned by their statements for teachers and students’ development. It manifested that learners for 21st century skills’ acquisition were not deprived. As supported by the data, majority of the respondents agree that Integrative CALL can be simply applied for language instructions without state-of-the art technological tools. A classroom does not need to be fully equipped with contemporary instructional tools for the manipulation of Integrative CALL when material innovation and creativity from educators’ reside 20, 48, 49, 64, 65.

Significantly, the three Integrative CALL approaches are perceived to be effectively applied. Data gathered indicated the viability of these claims. To reinforce said findings, a few of these multiple pedagogical responses on teachers and students’ development attached to this investigation’s concept were remarkably and generally professed:

• On teachers’ instructional development: pragmatic Integrative CALL 60 can replace a poor and traditional classroom into 21st century learners’ learning situation where “teaching methods can be adjusted based from available technologies and Internet materials,” 64, without complex technological tools while critical thinking is integrated for students, “teachers can easily search for plenty of materials with varied genre in the websites, while they deal with integrative CALL instructions” and “students and teachers are being immersed to some digital skills 22, 58 that are necessary for tasks designs.”

• For students’ language development perceived by teachers, “media rich–environment help students’ language acquisition,” “authentic materials from the Internet 59, 64 enhances students order thinking skills while being engaged in Integrative CALL,” “while they manipulate real language,” and that “Integrative CALL engages students’ in digital participation,” 22, 24, 58 which is one of the main cores of 21st century skills.

Above all, one possible application of pragmatic Integrative CALL is to activate the three newly introduced conceptualized approaches as supposed by the respondents.

Apart from the above findings, this conceptualized pragmatic CALL shares both writers’ diversified pedagogic viewpoints as highly suggested goals. (1) develop learners’ socio-cognitive and cognitive knowledge, (2) facilitate students’ multiple learning styles and interests, (3) comprehend digital taxonomy and other thinking skills through authentic material components, (4) achieve practical concepts on how technologies and authentic materials perform crucial roles in language learning in reciprocating ways, (5) instigate innovation among teachers to take part in contemporary methods through the empowerment of authentic materials and technological implements in duly recognized pedagogical procedures despite scarcity of educational technologies under any educational institutions, (6) situate learners in the 21st century’s real-world breakthroughs entrenching natural interplay of the language, (7) familiarize language teachers in relating authentic material instructions to the learning outcomes duly mandated by their educational institutions’ English curricula or programs, (8) explicate and achieve major pedagogic significance of all authentic materials regardless of types establishing characteristics that anchor dominantly to language acquisition above digital skills (9) stress authentic visual and printed text materials for instructional designs facilitated by technology as to selection, obtaining sources and/or preparation and presentation of tasks to generate favorable instructions.

6. Conclusions

All in all, majority of authentic materials in the 21st century emanate from wide-ranging forms of media which are products of technological evolution. As technology moves, media experience changes. From these changes, materials are created in the real-world environment which is persuasively capable of being structured as instruments for language acquisition. Television programs & ads 31, commercials 26, 41, 42, films or videos 27, 29, 30 of varied classifications, film scripts 32, magazines, newspapers 31, 37, 39, posters 33, 34, 36 printed matters such as billboards 34, editorials 43, 44, comic strips, 35, printed reading materials, 45, popular music lyrics 46, paintings 38 and all media-related Internet 59 and mobile phone contents are prevalent in the lives of students today. It is then noteworthy that the foundation years of students should be the crucial stage where media and technology resources are critically and thoroughly accentuated. From a resourceful language teacher’s pedagogical point of view, these media forms are authentic materials aided by technologies which can facilitate learning. It is professed that the most practical and innovative way to attain these pedagogical objectives even with the fruition of high technologies is the application of integrative CALL’s principles. Through its standards, no modern learner is left behind. Furthermore, it isn’t only the language that is honed when we deal with authentic materials propelled by technologies; digital skills powered by the cognitive skills usually enhance language learners’ psychomotor skills. This stated idea thoroughly links to the discoveries of Livingstone 69, who underscored that besides having basic literacy skills, today's generation also needs technological skills. For these skills to be functional, pragmatic innovation through the role of technological tools and authentic materials to develop critical thinking in language classrooms with careful utilization of digital taxonomy should be the foci of Integrative CALL.

7. Recommendations

Finally, an empirical language research alluding to this paper may favorably be conducted quantitatively to find out the correlation or significance of students’ critical thinking skills’ achievement through the manipulation of digital taxonomy pervading the interplay of modern authentic materials. Additionally, a comparative research to investigate the level of OTS proficiency between language learning outcomes that integrates digital taxonomy to that of results with non-involvement of digital taxonomy in authentic material- designed tasks and a study that investigates the correlation of respondents’ learning styles and attitudes to that of digital taxonomy and how integrative CALL play a significant role to 21st century learners are likewise suggested.

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Marvin Wacnag Lidawan, Ahmed Saad Al Shlowiy. Authenticity and Digital Taxonomy for Pragmatic Integrative Call through Three Approaches: Teachers’ Perspectives. Journal of Linguistics and Literature. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp 15-29. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jll/4/1/2
MLA Style
Lidawan, Marvin Wacnag, and Ahmed Saad Al Shlowiy. "Authenticity and Digital Taxonomy for Pragmatic Integrative Call through Three Approaches: Teachers’ Perspectives." Journal of Linguistics and Literature 4.1 (2020): 15-29.
APA Style
Lidawan, M. W. , & Shlowiy, A. S. A. (2020). Authenticity and Digital Taxonomy for Pragmatic Integrative Call through Three Approaches: Teachers’ Perspectives. Journal of Linguistics and Literature, 4(1), 15-29.
Chicago Style
Lidawan, Marvin Wacnag, and Ahmed Saad Al Shlowiy. "Authenticity and Digital Taxonomy for Pragmatic Integrative Call through Three Approaches: Teachers’ Perspectives." Journal of Linguistics and Literature 4, no. 1 (2020): 15-29.
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  • Table 5. Level of importance of the three approaches’ perceived level of importance in Integrative CALL
  • Table 6. Pragmatic innovation’s perceived level of importance in addressing institutional problems on the scarcity of technological tools for instructions
  • Table 7.a Pedagogical implications of incorporating authentic materials and digital Taxonomy for Integrative CALL
  • Table 7.b Pedagogical implications of incorporating authentic materials and digital Taxonomy for Integrative CALL
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In article      View Article
 
[3]  Mackenzie, W. (2012) Intelligence Quest. Project-based learning and multiple intelligences international society for technology in education.
In article      
 
[4]  Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Lantolf, J. (2000). Second language learning as a mediated process. Survey Article. Language Teaching, 33, 79-96.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Zong, G. (2008). Developing preservice teachers’ global understanding through computer mediated communication technology. Teaching and Teacher Education 25(5), 617-625.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Banas, J. R., & York, C. S. (2014). Authentic learning exercises as a means to influence preservice teachers’ technology integration self-efficacy and intentions to integrate technology. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(6), 728-746.
In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
[13]  Barnes, K., Marateo, R. C., & Ferris, S. P. (2007). Teaching and learning with the net generation. Innovate, 3(4), 771-772.
In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      View Article
 
[21]  Gebhard, J. G. (1996). Teaching English as a foreign language: A teacher self-development and methodology. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.
In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
[24]  Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Lombardi, M. (2007). Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview Ed. By Oblinger, D. ELI Paper 1: 2007. EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. Retrieved March 1, 2017, from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3009.pdf.
In article      
 
[26]  Tuzi, F., Mori, K., Young, A. (2008). Using TV commercials in ESL/EFL classes. The Internet TESL Journal, 14, 5-11.
In article      
 
[27]  Lovell, J. (1987). Potential applications are wide-ranging. Ed300848 1988-00-00 using film, video and TV in the classroom. Mentioned by ERIC Development Team. ERIC Digest, 11. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED300848.pdf.
In article      
 
[28]  Wood, D. J., (1995). Good video movies for teaching English as a foreign or second language. Bulletin of the International Cultural Research Institute of Chikushi Jogakuen College, 6, 105-125.
In article      
 
[29]  Zhang, H. (2012). The application of English movies in higher vocational English teaching. Sino-US English Teaching, 9(3), 1010-1014.
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