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Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program

Janine C. Soreta
Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. 2021, 1(2), 97-106. DOI: 10.12691/jitl-1-2-6
Received April 23, 2021; Revised May 27, 2021; Accepted June 08, 2021

Abstract

The study describes and explains the level of implementation of the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST) along Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, Curriculum and Planning, Assessment and Reporting and Plus factors in secondary schools of Bula district in the Philippines. Significant findings of the study using the overall mean in teachers’ Individual Performance Rating (IPR) results revealed that among five parameters in PPST, the first in rank is Plus Factor which focuses on various related works and activities of teachers that contribute to the teaching-learning process like participating in training or seminar, coaching and mentoring learners in competitions and others. However, Assessment and Reporting got the lowest overall mean among the parameters. Problems such as parents’ low participation rate in attending meetings and home visitations were identified as well as lacking of communication platforms or modalities agreed by both parents and teachers. In addition, the researcher also used Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to 4 teachers in small schools, 30 teachers in medium schools and 18 teachers in big school to know the other factors that could affect teachers’ competency. These are personal factors which include the teachers’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in teaching, social factors such as support system from parent, colleague and school head and lastly, institutional factors consisting of organizational innovations and improvements. Among the said factors, it showed that social factor has a big impact in nurturing and enriching the competency of teachers since they were the immediate support group of teachers. This study recommends the adoption of the researcher-developed program entitled, Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program. This program contains a self-evaluation dashboard, E-C PATHS Individual Plan and four different projects to effectively cater the needs of the secondary teachers especially in Bula district in terms of Assessment and Reporting.

1. Introduction

Education is important as it affects the growth and development of a country. Quality instruction will always be linked to quality teachers. Teachers as one of the main focal persons in the educative process must be competent and knowledgeable enough to be able to impart his knowledge and skills to the learners. In the study of Chentes 1 she emphasized that teacher quality is important as they affect the achievement and progress of students, thus, they also play an important role to stakeholders such as colleagues, administrators, parents, and community. In the Philippines, the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) 2 was utilized to set characteristics of an effective and efficient teacher. Domain 1 of NCBTS states that teachers serve as positive and powerful role models of the values of the pursuit of learning. Similarly, the study of Mateo 3 enumerated the essential traits of en effective and efficient teachers. This includes passionate in teaching, mastery of content knowledge, use of different strategies in teaching, good working relationship with colleagues and conduct self-reflection to his teaching performance. Moreover, Department of Education also issued through DepEd Order No. 7 series of 2015 or Hiring guidelines for Teacher I positions 4 aimed to produce highly competent teachers in public elementary and secondary schools by setting professional standards that will better ensure that the teachers hired are able to significantly contribute to the development of lifelong learners.

The findings of the abovementioned programs and researches proved that teachers must fulfill the necessary personal and professional qualities of competent teachers to achieve a better academic achievement for the learners. However, despite of the said programs made by the institution there are still problems and challenges need to address. Esguerra 5 claimed that “the teachers’ workload, especially in public schools are a serious matter as they perform and assume different roles and responsibilities”. The same with study of Linchoco 6 which states that special assignments or tasks of teachers hinder them to teach the learners because of the reports that need to be done. Likewise, Soreta 7 in her study found out that teachers need trainings focusing on improvements of teachers in delivering the lesson, honing different skills aside from teaching and developing the teacher as a whole, and David et al. 8 states that “there are a lot of problems teacher encountered in the teaching process”.

Given these problems, Briones 9 DepEd secretary, mentioned in an online article that the institution is providing support to teachers by implementing varied educational developments and innovations in the country. One of which is the Philippine government initiated DepEd Order No. 42, s. of 2017 or known as Philippine Professional Standards for teachers (PPST) 10 that outlines the required skills and competencies of quality teachers, enabling them to cope with the emerging global frameworks. The components of these standards are Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, Curriculum and Planning, Assessment and Reporting and Plus factors. This was in consonance to the study of Ko et al. 11 that emphasized “teachers’ effectiveness is manifested through well-accomplished school goals and objectives”. He also stressed the importance of knowing the goals as it provides them a clear direction of the things they need to accomplish.

The different reforms and programs pertaining to teachers’ competence in improving the quality of education in the Philippines will prove the importance of pursuing this study. The results of this study will surely promote academic excellence and quality education in secondary schools of Bula district and in Department of Education as a whole in view of making these schools a center of academic excellence made the researcher decide to conduct this study.

2. Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the level of implementation of the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST) along Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, Curriculum and Planning, Assessment and Reporting and Plus factors in secondary schools of Bula district using the Individual Performance Results (IPR). Likewise, to determine the factors that affects their teaching competency, respondents were selected through a random sampling comprises of 20% of population of the teachers in Bula district among small, medium and big schools and were interviewed using Focused Group Discussion (FGD). In addition, this study aims to propose developmental activities to enhance the competencies of the teachers.

3. Materials and Methods

This research made use of statistical procedures in analyzing data to answer the research questions. This study utilizes mean, over all mean and ranking in analyzing the teachers’ level of competence using the IPR. The mean was interpreted based on the likert type of scale indicated in the PPST. The researcher also prepared questions to teacher-respondent through FGD. The respondents are group into three to five teachers. They are also guided by the researcher who introduces questions for discussion in a natural discussion amongst them. The researcher allows the participant to share with each other their ideas, perspectives and experiences so that it provides an insight into how a group thinks about the question. A detailed transcription of their responses was made by other person to avoid prejudice.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Teachers’ Level of Competence Using PPST Tool

This study showed teachers’ competence in five areas of PPST coming from small, medium and big schools with their overall mean, interpretation and rank.

Along Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, over all mean was 4.44 or Very Satisfactory (VS). The highest parameter was applying knowledge of content within and across curriculum teaching areas with 4.48 or interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS) and the lowest was on applying a range of teaching strategies to develop critical and creative thinking as well as other HOT skills with 4.40 or interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS). Teachers got the highest average in applying content knowledge within and across curriculum teaching areas because they teach their own specialization and their personal characteristic such as passion and drive in teaching also contribute to effectiveness and efficiency in their teaching. However, applying a range of teaching strategies to develop critical and creative thinking as well as other HOT skills got the lowest overall mean due to the teachers working load. Teachers’ tasks as adviser or subject teacher, coordinatorship with other special assignments, paper works, and teachers’ professional and personal life gave the teacher a limited time to think and develop teaching strategies that develops critical and creative thinking as well as other HOT skills.

Along Learning Environment and Diversity, overall mean was 4.45 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS); highest parameter was managing learner behavior constructively by applying positive and non violent discipline to ensure learning focused environment 4.47 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS). Lowest was using differentiated developmentally appropriate learning experiences to address learners strengths, interests and experiences, 4.41 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS). The highest parameter was managing learner behavior constructively by applying positive and non violent discipline to ensure learning focused environment. This could be attributed to teachers’ adequate knowledge about ways on how to discipline students using the positive discipline policy of the institution. Lowest parameter was using differentiated developmentally appropriate learning experiences to address learners’ strengths, interests and experiences. This is because of the challenges related to teachers in knowing more deeply his/her students skills, motivations and aspirations.

Along Curriculum and Planning, overall mean was 4.37 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS); highest parameter was selecting, developing, organizing and using of appropriate teaching learning resources including ICT to address specific learning areas 4.46 interpreted as very satisfactory (VS). Lowest was reviewing with colleagues, teachers and learner feedback to enrich teaching practice 4.26 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS). Highest parameter was selecting, developing, organizing and using of appropriate teaching learning resources including ICT to address specific learning. This is because of teachers’ resourcefulness and innovativeness to think of way and how to solve problems in the actual teaching learning process. On the other hand, teachers were not able to enrich their teaching practices because of lack or no supervision coming from an expert in a particular field at the same time available and accessible for the teachers to coach, mentor, lead and provide them with necessary information about teaching.

Along Assessment and Reporting, overall mean was 4.20 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS); highest parameter was designing, selecting, organizing and using of formative and summative assessment strategies consistent with curriculum requirements. Lowest was communicating clearly the learners needs, progress and achievement to key stakeholders including parents; 4.07 interpreted as Very Satisfactory (VS). Highest parameter was designing, selecting, organizing and using of formative and summative assessment strategies consistent with curriculum requirements. This is because of the uniform curriculum guide containing the content and performance standards for the students to attain for every topic or quarter. Lowest was on communicating clearly the learners needs, progress and achievement to key stakeholders including parents because of problems in communication platforms or modalities that are not agreed by both parents/guardians and teachers.

Along Plus factor, overall mean was 4.72 or Outstanding (O). Medium schools got the highest overall mean with 4.96 or interpreted as Outstanding while big schools got the lowest overall mean with 4.72 or Outstanding (O). Big schools got the lowest average because coordinatorships are distributed among teaching and non teaching personnel. Big Schools are very able to divide their task to any of the teachers and even can ask for help to other non-assigned teachers. Meanwhile, medium schools got the highest average because the ratio of working loads to teachers is adequate resulted to dealing with coordinatorship responsibilities, the emerging problems and the current issues in the assigned particular area.

4.2. Factors Affecting Teachers’ Competence

FGD results revealed that there were three factors affecting teachers’ competency. These are personal, social and institutional factors. The personal factors affecting teachers’ level of competence is extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. In terms of extrinsic motivation, teachers considered teaching as means to give them good salary. They also feel motivated in their profession because students appreciate their efforts, their students become successful and when they witnessed a positive change in students’ behavior. On the other hand, teachers become intrinsically motivated because of their desire and passion in teaching, gain higher position in the future and able to attend or finish post graduate school like Masters or Doctorate degree.

The social factors affecting teachers competence focuses on support system from the school head, colleagues and parents. Teachers identified some characteristics of a good leader such as being considerate in giving teaching loads and open to suggestions and comments from his/her subordinates. In terms of their workers’ support, teachers wanted to have colleagues that are cooperative and supportive especially in their coordinatorship and special assignments. Lastly, teachers mentioned that in spite of the meetings and home visitations being conducted by them, there are still loopholes that need to be addressed such as low participation rate of parents to meetings and home visitation.

The institutional factors affecting the competence of teachers focus on teachers’ professional learning activities and complexity of work. Teachers cited that seminars and trainings have positive impact in their professional development because it gave them an overview and mandate about Deped. In addition, they wanted seminar that focuses on classroom management and on how to give meaningful strategies and activities in teaching-learning process. In complexity of work, teachers believed that in teaching there are lots of paper works and problems such as shortage of books and other facilities like classroom.

4.3. Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS)

Based on the results and findings of the study, the researcher is proposing a program called Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS). In this program, stakeholders such as parent, student and school head and most especially the teachers will conduct a self evaluation using the E-C PATHS Dashboard. E-C PATHS dashboard contains list of salient tasks or goals that need to be done by them as mandated by the Department of Education. Likewise, it is an electronic evaluation tool that gives a numerical and adjectival rating for every quarter. To ensure that teachers attain the goals set in E-C PATHS Dashboard, there is a need for the teacher to accomplish the action taken, progress and notes report for every month wherein for the action taken, the teacher will write the actions that s/he take in order to achieve the goals, progress report means that teacher will conduct a self evaluation as to the attainment of the goals, 10 as the highest and 1 as the lowest and the note report means the teacher will write a note about the progress or status of goals. Teachers should also accomplish the E-C PATHS Individual Plan. Specified in the E-C PATHS Individual Plan is the following questions: 1) What went well? 2) What problems did I experience? 3) What could I have done differently? 4) What did I learn from this experience that will help me in the future?

The researcher believed that with the help of E-C PATHS Dashboard it allows the teacher to further his/her own learning journey and career by allowing him/her to reflect on his/her own performance from an outside perspective, enabling him/her to really learn what his/her strengths and weaknesses are. This also means s/he will be able to see what points s/he has that can further cultivate and grow, and which points within hi/her need further attention.

Aside from the dashboard, the researcher is also proposing four (4) projects to effectively cater the needs of the secondary teachers in Bula district in terms of Assessment and Reporting. These are Project I-Connect and Project Craft Monitoring Tools which focus on different communication modalities to parents as well as developing teacher made monitoring tools. On the other hand, Project beyond Learning Notebook and Project Success-List are researcher designed summative and self assessment tools for the students and teachers. All of these aims to improve and develop further the skills of teachers especially in Assessment and Reporting in order to fully implement the goals and objectives of PPST as basis for the learning and development of teachers.

5. Conclusion and Recommendation

Teachers need to continue in upgrading their content knowledge and skills by attending relevant teaching seminars and trainings in order for them to cope with the new demands, trends and discoveries. Likewise, teachers’ heavy workload can lessen through a shared partnership among the persons involved in the students’ educative process by fulfilling their assigned roles. Teachers should create communication tools and platforms instead of relying on observation in knowing his/her students’ skills and motivations in order to effectively target instruction towards students’ learning needs. In addition, schools need to establish a friendly environment so that stakeholders can be involved in shared decision making. Crafting programs that would attract and within the interest of the community and stakeholders would encourage them to participate and get involved in the school concerns. Furthermore, to enrich the teaching practices of the teacher it is also recommended to conduct teacher’s self assessment to reflect in their teaching and learning goals and to recognize their strength and targets for development,

References

[1]  Julie Ann G. Chentes. (2019). “CLICK Program: A community of Practice promoting teachers self-regulating attributes and leadership potentials.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[2]  Department of Education. (2006). National Competency-Based Teacher Standards, Retrieved from: https://www.scribd.com/doc/28909953/NCBTS-TSNA-Self-Assessment-Tool,
In article      
 
[3]  Loida R Mateo, “Teachers; qualities, principals’ leadership styles and parental involvement, inputs to the development of a stakeholders’ collaboration framework.” (Unpublished master’s dissertation University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City, 2016).
In article      
 
[4]  Department of Education. (2015). DEPED HIRING GUIDELINES FOR TEACHER I POSITIONS EFFECTIVE SCHOOL YEAR (SY) 2015-2016, Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/2015/03/27/do-7-s-2015-hiring-guidelines-for-teacher-i-positions-for-school-year-sy-2015-2016/.
In article      
 
[5]  Esguerra, D.J. 2018. DepED urged to lighten teacher workloads following suicide reports. Philippine Daily Inqurer. August 27. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1025288/deped-urged-to-lighten-teacher-workloads-following-suicide-reports (accessed on October 2, 2018).
In article      
 
[6]  Benny P. Linchoco. (2019). “ASSIST: A project supporting teachers with multiple coordinatorships” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[7]  Janine C. Soreta. (2021). “Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[8]  Afework- Afework. (2014). Found out that lacking of learning resources have impact to the students’ learning. This finding is related to the study since one of the components of the PPST is learning environment. The learning environment enriched when there are sufficient tools and supported by an ideal learning environment.
In article      
 
[9]  Clarissa C. David et al. (2019). Pressures on public school teachers and implications on quality. Retrieved from: https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidspn1901.pdf.
In article      
 
[10]  Leonor Magtolis Briones. (2017). ”DePED, Teacher Education Council: Philippine Professional standards for Teachers.” Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/order/2017/DO s2017042.pdf.
In article      
 
[11]  Department of Education (2017). DO 42, S. 2017 – NATIONAL ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PHILIPPINE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS, Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/2017/08/11/do-42-s-2017-national-adoption-and-implementation-of-the-philippine-professional-standards-for-teachers/.
In article      
 
[12]  James Ko, et. al. (2015). ”Effective Teaching.”Retrieved from https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/~/media/EDT/Reports/Research/2015/r-effective-teaching.pdf.
In article      
 

APPENDIXES

A. THESIS OUTPUT
EMPOWERING COMPETENCE OF TEACHERS IN

ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING

ASSESSMENT PLAN USING FOUR STRATEGIES

1. Activity/Strategy

PROJECT I- CONNECT

Concept:

Communication modalities, Parental Involvement

Introduction:

Efficient communication creates understanding and confidence. Once the parents and teachers comprehend and trust each other they will be able to work as one in sustaining learner’s progress and development which is the center of the teaching-learning process.

Project I-Connect aims to build strong partnership to parents or guardians through three modalities: In person, Technology based and written communication, depending on what’s agreed and appropriate for parents or guardians. It also seeks to make simpler the communication process and guarantees parents and teachers can communicate with each other.

1. In-person communication

- Home Visitation

- Homeroom and General Parent Teacher Association Meetings

- Small Group Parent Communication

(The objective of this small group parent communication is to meet the parents whose child is at risk to have a failing grade for one subject only in a particular grading period.)

- One on One teacher-parent communication

(The objective of one on one teacher-parent communication is to meet the parents whose child is at risk to have a failing grade for two or more subjects in a particular grading period)

- Open houses

(The schools are open for the parents or guardians to visit and engage in schools’ activities)

2. Technology-Based Communication

1. Cellular Phone - (Phone calls, Text Messages)

2. School’s internet resources – (Email, School Page)

3. Teachers’ utilized resources – (Group Chat, Zoom, Viber)

3. Written Communication

1. Teacher’s review and comment to students’ outputs

2. Letters

3. Teacher’s journal

Goals:

To give regular modality in giving information about their students’ written works and performance tasks to parents or guardians in any modalities that were agreed by parents/ guardians and teacher.

To create a positive learning atmosphere that support students’ progress by engaging parents or guardians in students’ learning.

Indicators:

1. 75% parents’ attendance during in person communication modality.

2. Teachers’ work plan and accomplishment report for communication modalities.

3. Increase 10% students’ rate of attendance in their classes and other school activities quarterly.

4. Achievement level of at least 75% of students in promotion rate per learning area.

5. Decrease of at least 5% of repetition rate.

2. Activity/ Strategy

PROJECT CMT: CRAFT MONITORING TOOLS

Concept:

Monitoring tools

Introduction:

Primary reason of supervising learners’ progress is to report and assist the improvement of assessment process for the advantage of the learners as well as the teachers.

Project CMT aims to craft teacher made monitoring tools that could help them to easily identify the students’ progress and achievement. The following are researcher’s sample monitoring tools and its uses:

• Student Progress Achievement Log

The student will personally record his/her score in written works and performance tasks for every learning area in the student progress achievement log. The result of this monitoring tool should be signed by the parents or guardians. They can also write their review or comments about their child’s performance.

• Behavior Observation Report

Teachers during classroom discussion or students’ unguarded moments will fill out this monitoring tool by writing his observation in the following components:

a. Enthusiasm in Learning

b. Performing individual and group tasks

d. Ability to follow instructions

e. Willingness to work with others

f. Attitudes toward school personnel and classmate

• Learners’ strength and needs report

In every month, grade level subject teachers will identify students that have problem in academic subjects. Teachers will write their report about the learners’ strength and needs. Teachers will also identify the strategies or techniques on how to address the learner’s need through the use of identified strength of the students. In addition, the said student will undergo remedial classes with the consent of the parents or guardians. At the end of the remedial class session, the teacher will write a remark of the progress or development of the student.

• Individual Monitoring Data

Written in this tool are the performance and content standards set by the Department of Education for every quarter. The student will check among the three options: unsatisfactory, good or very good, based from their own learning assessment. The students should also state the reasons why they have picked unsatisfactory, good or very good.

• Progress Monitoring Report

Written in the monitoring tool are the learning competencies set by the Department of Education for every quarter. The student will check his or her learning based from the identified competency. He will mark himself (4) as the highest and (1) as the lowest in terms of the learning he got in a particular competency.

Before the quarter ends, it will be given to the teacher for them to know the learning of the student. The teacher can use it to recall or re teach the least mastered learning competencies of the learners.

Goal:

To give information concerning their child’s strong points and developmental needs in relation to the curriculum set by the Department of Education, as well as information about students’ progress and achievement.

Indicators:

1. Crafted 1 to 3 teacher made monitoring tools

2. Improved learning area’s mean performance level by at least 5%

3. Increase Mean Percentage Scores (MPS) by 5%.

4. Decrease of at least 5% of failure rate

5. Increase in students’ written work and performance task of at least 5-10%

3. Activity/ Strategy:

Learning Notebook

Concept:

Summative Assessment

Introduction:

Improving learners’ creative and critical thinking skills are significant as it provides them the capability to address problems in a more well-organized and logical way. In this activity, the student will write in their Learning Notebook (LN) their knowledge of the lesson discussed.

This activity wants to widen and support higher order thinking skills by responding to the questions wherein students are anticipated to understand and relate the topic to other disciplines/ subjects, examine, synthesize and assess information. These questions are the following:

How does the lesson help me?

Why should I know the topic?

Why is the topic important to me?

The teacher will evaluate the answers of students whether they learned in the topic or lesson that was discussed. The students’ answers will be compiled in their one LN to be signed by them, parent or guardian, subject teacher and school head.

Goal:

To understand, examine, relate and assess the topic to other disciplines/ subjects.

Indicators:

1. 90-100% students submitted in their LN output.

2. Improved students’ participation by 10%.

3. Improved academic performance in students learning area by at least 3%.

4. Activity/ Strategy:

The SA-List

Concept:

Self-Assessment

Introduction:

Self-assessment can give as an idea of our learning and can assist in identifying learning difficulties. It is necessary to conduct self-examination of own learning to improve the areas that need progress.

The activity called E-C PATHS Dashboard is a researcher made tool for students, parents, school heads and teachers to gauge their progress. In this activity, they will put a mark (1) whether they met each criteria or requirements in teaching-learning process.

Goal:

To improve on how to attain learning competencies and standards set by Department of Education for teachers and students.

Indicators:

1. Increase by 2% in school performance indicators such as:

1.1 Gross Enrolment Rate

1.2 Completion Rate

1.3 Cohort Survival Rate

1.4 Retention Rate

1.5 Transition Rate

2. COT indicators improvement by at least 1 point

3. Teachers submit reports on time

B-FGD RESULTS

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Janine C. Soreta

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Janine C. Soreta. Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program. Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2021, pp 97-106. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jitl/1/2/6
MLA Style
Soreta, Janine C.. "Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program." Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning 1.2 (2021): 97-106.
APA Style
Soreta, J. C. (2021). Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program. Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning, 1(2), 97-106.
Chicago Style
Soreta, Janine C.. "Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program." Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning 1, no. 2 (2021): 97-106.
Share
[1]  Julie Ann G. Chentes. (2019). “CLICK Program: A community of Practice promoting teachers self-regulating attributes and leadership potentials.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[2]  Department of Education. (2006). National Competency-Based Teacher Standards, Retrieved from: https://www.scribd.com/doc/28909953/NCBTS-TSNA-Self-Assessment-Tool,
In article      
 
[3]  Loida R Mateo, “Teachers; qualities, principals’ leadership styles and parental involvement, inputs to the development of a stakeholders’ collaboration framework.” (Unpublished master’s dissertation University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City, 2016).
In article      
 
[4]  Department of Education. (2015). DEPED HIRING GUIDELINES FOR TEACHER I POSITIONS EFFECTIVE SCHOOL YEAR (SY) 2015-2016, Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/2015/03/27/do-7-s-2015-hiring-guidelines-for-teacher-i-positions-for-school-year-sy-2015-2016/.
In article      
 
[5]  Esguerra, D.J. 2018. DepED urged to lighten teacher workloads following suicide reports. Philippine Daily Inqurer. August 27. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1025288/deped-urged-to-lighten-teacher-workloads-following-suicide-reports (accessed on October 2, 2018).
In article      
 
[6]  Benny P. Linchoco. (2019). “ASSIST: A project supporting teachers with multiple coordinatorships” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[7]  Janine C. Soreta. (2021). “Empowering Competence through Performance Awareness of Teachers and Stakeholders (E-C PATHS): A Development Program” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City.
In article      
 
[8]  Afework- Afework. (2014). Found out that lacking of learning resources have impact to the students’ learning. This finding is related to the study since one of the components of the PPST is learning environment. The learning environment enriched when there are sufficient tools and supported by an ideal learning environment.
In article      
 
[9]  Clarissa C. David et al. (2019). Pressures on public school teachers and implications on quality. Retrieved from: https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidspn1901.pdf.
In article      
 
[10]  Leonor Magtolis Briones. (2017). ”DePED, Teacher Education Council: Philippine Professional standards for Teachers.” Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/order/2017/DO s2017042.pdf.
In article      
 
[11]  Department of Education (2017). DO 42, S. 2017 – NATIONAL ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PHILIPPINE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS, Retrieved from: https://www.deped.gov.ph/2017/08/11/do-42-s-2017-national-adoption-and-implementation-of-the-philippine-professional-standards-for-teachers/.
In article      
 
[12]  James Ko, et. al. (2015). ”Effective Teaching.”Retrieved from https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/~/media/EDT/Reports/Research/2015/r-effective-teaching.pdf.
In article