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Managing Early Intervantion Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers: Situation and Lesson

Tran Thu Ha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(11), 665-672. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-11-2
Received September 27, 2021; Revised November 02, 2021; Accepted November 05, 2021

Abstract

The article examines the status of early intervention and the management of early intervention activities on 10 administrators, 40 teachers and 55 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Hoa Binh City. The paper reports the findings of a study on the status of early intervention at specialized facilities in Hoa Binh City. The majority of the facilities obtained certain effects during the intervention process, but the quality is still lacking, growth and long-term influence on the development process. Furthermore, the management of early intervention initiatives is still fraught with issues, posing significant challenges in the implementation process. On that premise, the author draws several lessons acquired in order to achieve high management efficiency.

1. Introduction

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a diverse group of neurodevelopmental diseases characterized by deficiencies in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, as well as repetitive behavioral patterns. restrained (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) 1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one out of every 59 children will have ASD (J. Baio, L. Wiggins et al., 2014) ASD has a significant impact on illness progression 2. Child development from childhood to adulthood (Critchley, E et al., 2021) 3. Early intervention is highly connected with the increased prevalence of ASD and its detection during the first three years of life (Boyd, B. A et al., 2010) 4. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in detecting early symptoms of ASD in newborns and young children (Brian, J et al., 2008; Estes, A. et al., 2015; Gammer, I et al., 2015) 5, 6, 7. Early identification of ASD can provide a significant chance for quick intervention, which is thought to be critical to having the best possible outcome (Pierce et al., 2016) 8. Early diagnosis is currently actively advocated due to the overwhelming evidence of the favorable effects of early intervention (Warren Z. et al., 2011; Estes, A. et al., 2015) 9, 10, which is regarded as one of the most important keys to reducing the lifelong burden of ASD and its associated expenses (Lavelle et al., 2014; Z. Cidav et al., 2013) 11, 12. As a result, early intervention can improve results, increase independence, and lower long-term expenses (Cidav, Z et al., 2017; Estes et al., 2015) 10, 13.

Sullivan, K et al (2014) evaluated the scientific literature on the neurological basis of primary core impairments in ASD and recommended three features from around the world 14. The key elements of early intervention are (1) the early initiation of intensive intervention to take advantage of the immature brain's plasticity and regeneration, (2) the use of therapeutic strategies to address core deficits in social dynamics through an emphasis on active social participation and stimulus moderation, and (3) the promotion of complex and connected neurons through thematic, methodological multi-sensory, and multi-domain teaching. Understanding the mechanisms of effective early intervention will allow the identification of common or fundamental active components that promote optimal outcomes in ASD children. Hume, K., Bellini, S., and Pratt, C. conducted a study titled “The usage and perceived effects of early intervention and early childhood programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder” in 2005 (Hume, K., Bellini, S., and Pratt, C, 2015) 15. This study looked into families with autistic children who used early intervention and early development services. The findings revealed that families and interventionists did not implement a variety of recommended strategies, and that the degree of participation was lower than intended. Parents believe that parent training is the most effective service they can provide to their child's development. Several interventions/service delivery modalities and developmental outcomes across domains, including social, emotional, and cognitive development, were found to have significant but minor associations. The significance of evaluating social value in relation to outcomes is discussed. The results of the study "Early intervention methods and inclusive education for children with autism spectrum disorder" have been published in Vietnam, emphasized by the research project of Nguyen Thi Hoang Yen as chairwoman and colleagues (Nguyen Thi Hoang Yen et al., 2014) 16. The authors describe and assess the developmental process in children aged 0 to 6 years old. Based on the findings of the study, the authors advocated early intervention strategies and inclusive education for children with ASD in our country. Based on these orientations, parents can have evaluations done to self-test their children's abilities and offer early intervention strategies to children at home. The study "Early intervention measures to educate children with autism spectrum disorder" by Do Thi Thao shows that the number of children with autism spectrum disorders has increased in recent years, so there are many children with autism spectrum disorder participation facilities for children 17.

2. Content

2.1. Organization for Research
2.1.1. Research Objectives

Conduct an assessment of the status of early intervention activities (perceive the role and impacts of early intervention, the status of objectives, forms, and techniques, and the evaluation of early intervention activities) and manage intervention activities. Early intervention (administration of planning, implementation, direction, and management of testing and assessment activities) for children with ASD in Hoa Binh city special centers. As a result, some important lessons have been taken in the process of managing early intervention activities for children with ASD.


2.1.2. Research Content

- Surveying research subjects' awareness and attitudes about the role and consequences of early intervention activities for children with ASD.

- Conducting a survey of the current state of early intervention activities in specialized schools in Hoa Binh City, including objectives, forms, techniques, and results evaluation.

- Surveying the current condition of early intervention activities management in facilities: management of intervention planning, management of intervention plan implementation, current situation of Board of Directors' direction, operation management check.


2.1.3. Participants

Ten managers from five centers, 40 early intervention teachers, and 55 parents of children with ASD participated in the survey. In addition, we also surveyed the opinions of 4 officers of Department of Education and Training of Hoa Binh province and 4 officers of the Department of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs of Hoa Binh province. The survey was completed by 113 customers.


2.1.4. Research Methods

Distribution of survey questionnaires to center administrators, instructors, and parents in order to measure the level of knowledge of undertaking early intervention activities and managing early intervention activities in specialized schools. The scoring is based on a three-level Likert scale: average (1 point); acceptable level (2 points); and excellent level (3 points). The results are descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, and ranked using SPSS 20.0 to analyze the acquired data and statistical analysis to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative to assure the reliability of the obtained results.

2.2. Research Results
2.2.1. The Current State of Early Intervention Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

2.2.1.1. Understanding the significance of early intervention in children with ASD

The results in Table 1 show that, assessment of the significance of educational interventions for children with ASD is high, with an average score of 2.61 points; with this score, the subjects in Hoa Binh city have a high level of agreement on the significance and necessity of early intervention for children with ASD. The clearest and most visible manifestations are the results of evaluating observed variables, such as "Assist in the timely, appropriate, and effective early intervention of children with ASD in accordance with the intervention program" which ranked first with 2.75 points, and "Reduce, prevent, and overcome the constraints of undesired behaviors that impede children's growth" which ranked second with 2.71 points. To overcome and limit undesired flaws in children, experts recommend that they be detected and treated as soon as possible; this is also the advise that scientists give to parents in general, and parents of children with ASD in particular. Variables such as "laying the groundwork to help create favorable conditions for children with ASD to learn in an inclusive environment" ranked third with 2.62 points, and "As the foundation for implementing interventions and services to support education for children with ASD" ranked fourth with 2.53 points. With 2.42 points, the lowest ranking is "Obtaining the participation and support of professionals, researchers, instructors, parents of autistic children, and educational forces". It is clear that, despite the lesser importance of the factors and the role evaluation results, the common points in the above results are rather high. "In recent years, the number of children with ASD in the city has been steadily increasing, and the intervention to reduce the disadvantage for children is very humane, can realize the responsibility not only of the centers but also of the society as a whole so that children can have a better social life when they grow up" said teacher Tran Huong.

As a result, the survey participants all had a correct understanding of what early intervention for children with ASD meant, that is, early assistance for children in a timely, appropriate, and successful manner according to the program. Not only that, but the study revealed that the individuals' perspectives were relatively similar, with all agreeing that early intervention for children with ASD is crucial and very necessary.

2.2.1.2. Current state of early intervention goals for children with ASD

The results in Table 2 show that, despite limitations in terms of facilities and experience in early children with ASD, focusing on the goals of young children with ASD is extremely interesting, thus the assessment is pretty favorable, with 2.42 points. When the results on each observed variable are compared, there is a clear similarity, with "positive influence on children's physical, intellectual, emotional, and linguistic development, assisting them in integrating into a suitable educational environment" ranking first with 2.48 points. It is clear that this is an important objective, and when this goal is recognized and positively assessed, it will serve as the foundation for the effective implementation of other goals. The observed variable "Assisting children with ASD to live active lives similar to children of the same age who do not have ASD” on the other hand, has no significant difference when compared to the findings of the examination of the first order observed variable, with 2.45 points. This demonstrates humanity in caring for and educating children. Along with the above goals, which received high ratings, the goal "Assist youngsters in overcoming and compensating for faults and limits caused by autism" ranked third with a score of 2.43, and the goal "Taking use of and developing children's needs and positive potential through learning, activities, and training to support children's growth" ranked fourth with a score of 2.32, indicating interest and appreciation. Goals to be reached in children following early intervention methods are evaluated. "Through examination and monitoring of professional activities of early intervention in children with ASD at special education centers, it can be seen that the centers have quite clear operational goals, which is also proven in practice by the fact that families trust and send their children to the centers more, and the coordination between the two parties is also closer" said teacher Le Minh.

2.2.1.3. The reality of implementing early intervention approaches for children with ASD

The results in Table 3 show that, the implementation of various forms of child care organization for children with ASD attracted active attention, as did the initiative in the centers, with 2.40 points indicating the arrangement of educational forms in special education centers in Vietnam. Hoa Binh has had a number of beneficial outcomes. "Early intervention in teaching activities, planning activities for youngsters" with 2.50 points, placed first, is one of the notable manifestations. "Early involvement in schooling directly to each young individual" is placed second with 2.46 points. Centers always include a combination of individual interventions paired with group treatments when arranging early intervention, both boosting the advantages that children have and enabling children to learn new abilities. Individual skills are developed, while social skills are developed through group treatments.

Furthermore, "Early intervention in care and support services for children with ASD" placed third, with 2.43 destinations in the form of "Early intervention can be achieved through group activities and communal activities" ranked fourth with 2.41 points, while the form of "Parental guidance and other educational factors are used in early intervention for children with ASD" placed fifth with 2.38 points, all exhibit similarities. The evaluation findings make this quite evident. This fact demonstrates that the diversification of early intervention forms for children with ASD has met both the requirements of comprehensive educational reform in the spirit of the Party's Resolution 29 on fundamental and comprehensive renovation of education, as well as the requirements for early childhood education. Even if the form of "Early intervention for children with ASD through mass media propaganda and education, social media,..." scored sixth, with 2.23 points, this result is seen as pretty positive. It is critical because propaganda about children with ASD has gotten little attention previously, but it has recently garnered attention, demonstrating the spirit and humanistic meaning for children with undesired impairments who require social assistance care.

2.2.1.4. The reality of early intervention strategies for children with ASD

The results in Table 4 show that, the use of early intervention strategies for children with ASD yielded very favorable outcomes, with a score of 2.41. Despite the fact that the instructors in the city's special education centers are fairly young, with limited knowledge and practical experience in early intervention for children with ASD, numerous attempts have been made to enhance the quality of life advance intervention. This is demonstrated by the results of an evaluation of conventional early intervention approaches, which received 2.42 points, and particular verbal intervention methods, which received 2.50 points. Not only that, but ways such as visual illustration, practice via games, practice by example, methods of dealing with early intervention problems, and methods of employing emotions, gestures, actions, words, encouragement, and encouragement are all addressed. The evaluation results are all over 2.32 points, so it's fairly evident. "In general, the teachers at the center are very well trained in the field of preschool education, and when we are accepted by the center, we are all Having studied through special education, should have skills and methods of early intervention education and practice these skills right on the children, which is a favorable condition for continuing to strengthen and develop professional competence subject - teacher Le Hong said - however, in order to have specialized talents, new skills, and information, we must be sent by the center every year to engage in training with experts, researchers, or should invite specialists to the center to help us in early intervention".

2.2.1.5. Current status of assessing early intervention outcomes for children with ASD

The results in Table 5 show that, the evaluation of the results of early intervention for children with ASD with 2.15 points demonstrates that this is not a very high result, but when compared to previous years' results, it is clear that there has been significant development. Since the centers established organically, admission of children is seldom interested in the first screening assessment, but the findings are currently shown in "Evaluation and diagnosis before early intervention for children with ASD." 2.25 points, rank 1; it is obvious that the centers paid relative attention to assessing the extent of abnormalities in children before to admission to study at specialized centers. Furthermore, not only before early education, but also during the learning process, the centers assess the diagnosis according to the process of "Assessment while conducting early intervention for children with ASD" with 2.18 score, ranked second and assessed with the participation of experts, so "Assessment by experts, teachers, and parents of children with autism, based on the coordination of educational forces" have good results with 2.16 points. The assessment is mostly handled by the center itself, therefore there are some challenges in terms of facilities, teacher evaluation requirements, and expert participation, but not many. As a result, in order to get more sophisticated assessment findings, more specialists, researchers, and standard exams must be used to analyze children's progress after each process of intervention.


2.2.2. The Current State of Early Intervention Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers

2.2.2.1. Managing early intervention planning for children with ASD

2.2.2.2. Managing the implementation of an early intervention plan for children with autism spectrum disorder

Table 7 shows that the management of early intervention activities for children with autism spectrum disorder is average, with 2.12 points, which is not a high outcome. Taking into account the evaluation results for each observed variable, observations with outstanding results, such as "Create and execute norms, rules, and regulations for the execution of early intervention programs in specialized facilities for children with ASD" with 2.20 points, "Plan to hire instructors who have experience with early intervention for children with ASD" which received 2.19 points, and "Organizational structure and regulations governing collaboration among departments involved in early intervention for children with ASD" which received 2.16 points. These findings are remarkably comparable, indicating that management has excellent coordination and a relatively narrow focus on more representative operations. In contrast, the outcomes of management activities such as "Inspected, evaluated, and controlled the execution of early intervention programs for children with ASD in specialized centers" were substantially lower, with a score of 2,01 point. Taking a deeper look and analyzing the problem, the explanation is that these management actions are sometimes sluggish to implement; some teachers believe that the centers are not devoting enough time to this. conduct out inspection and evaluation of intervention programs, even without contacting specialists, to determine which programs are suitable and which need to be altered or augmented. As a consequence, this outcome clearly shows the management outcomes that have been accomplished as well as the limits that have been sluggish to be overcome.

2.2.2.3. Direction of the Board of Directors of specialized centers in early intervention management of children with autism spectrum disorder

Table 8 demonstrates that the current direction of the Board of Directors of special education facilities in Hoa Binh city in the administration of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder has yielded definite outcomes., with 2.16 points. The most noteworthy efforts are "Direct the general plan's execution at the centers and the specialized plan's implementation in each department” with 2.24 points, "Coordination of activities amongst departments involved in early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder" with 2.22 points, and "Ensure that adequate, realistic, and practicable strategies are developed" with 2.21 points. The Board of Directors has been proactive in guiding planning and delegating tasks to each department; also, the plans have satisfied the fundamental standards owing to practical experience from early intervention. With outcomes, a document to execute early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. A directing work such as "Directing the recruitment of early intervention instructors for children with autism spectrum disorder" with 2.09 points, and the lowest rated result is the observed variable "Directing the training of forces participating in early intervention of teachers and drawing on experiences, modifying program contents and training plans" with 2.07 points. These works have partially satisfied the real needs in the face of contemporary problems in meeting societal standards, aiming at the early intervention management of children with autism spectrum disorder to satisfy the expectations of society families.

2.2.2.4. Manage early intervention testing and evaluation for children with autism spectrum disorder

The findings of data Table 9 demonstrate that, with 2.19 points, the management of testing and assessment of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder is not very daring, but there are notable outcomes. The highlight of the tests, which were regarded as good, was the result of "Examine and assess the outcomes of early intervention for children with ASD in specialized centers" which received 2.27 points. According to research on early intervention activities for children with autism spectrum disorder, children are inspected and clinically assessed before going to the facilities, and all children are diagnosed and evaluated after they arrive. input to assess the severity of autism, therefore giving information for families and early intervention instructors of children with autism spectrum disorders, as well as identifying the needs and skills of children in order to give appropriate therapy. Furthermore, the centers still face some challenges in terms of facilities, but they are working hard to upgrade and invest in order to meet the requirements of the common ground for children with autism spectrum disorder, so the assessment of "Examine and assess the current state of building and utilization of facilities and equipment for early intervention for children with ASD in specialized centers" received a good rating of 2.21 points. With 2.16 points, "in specialist centers, examine and evaluate several forms of early intervention management programs for children with ASD”.

  • Table 9. Status of coordinating testing and evaluation activities for the implementation of early intervention for children with ASD (1 ≤ M ≤ 3)

Obviously, the inspection and evaluation work has been prioritized, but more attention is required, not only to meet the common ground, but also to fulfill the practical requirements of early intervention care of children with common diseases. Hoa Binh City has autism. Along with the observed variables with superior results, the results for the observation variable "Testing and evaluating the results of fostering forces participating in early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in centers" were lower, with 2.12 points; not only that, but this fact is also relatively focused by the centers. Obviously, the inspection and evaluation work has been prioritized, but more attention is required not only to meet the common ground, but also to satisfy the practical needs of early intervention management of children with common ASD in Hoa Binh city. Along with the observed variables with superior results, the results for the observation variable "Examining and assessing the outcomes of training for personnel involved in early intervention for children with ASD in specialized centers" were lower, with 2.12 points; not only that, but this fact is also relatively focused by the centers, which can be seen through the research of the authors Dao Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Mai, Ho Thi Net (2016) 18.

2.3. Lessons Learnt

On the basis of the situation obtained, the author draws the following lessons acquired in the process of managing activities of children with ASD:

i) For the Department of Education and Training of Hoa Binh province

The Department of Education and Training of Hoa Binh province should actively participate in the supervision and direction of teachers' and early education intervention staff's professional work.

ii) For Department of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs of Hoa Binh province

The Department of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs in Hoa Binh province is now primarily concerned with gathering data on the number and severity of autism in children. However, in the future, the Department of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs of Hoa Binh province will need to act as a consultant and advise the provincial government on how to assist special education centers with loans for facility building, advise the province to have policies in place for children with autism spectrum disorder in terms of early examination, treatment, and intervention, and to assist families with autistic children in receiving preferential loans or interest-free loans for intervention children to join early if families have needs. Participating in propaganda to promote awareness and responsibility of social forces, as well as early intervention and education of children with autism spectrum disorder, causes social classes to perceive this as a responsibility. The society as a whole Hoa Binh province's Department of Labour, Invalids, and Social Affairs can take part in arranging seminars, activities to invite specialists to exchange centers, seminars with instructors, employees, and families with children of their own. about the family's efficacy and role in the early intervention of children with autism spectrum disorder.

iii) For the Hoa Binh municipal government

Participate in directing relevant departments to assist centers when special education centers require them, such as propaganda, lobbying, policy on material resources, etc., in order to create special education centers in the city with good facilities and professional activities. Propaganda to encourage social forces to provide finances and facilities so that all children may engage in early intervention, obtain exemptions, or have economic support policies for underprivileged families.

iv) For heads of Hoa Binh City's special education centers

The Board of Directors, principals, and staff in charge of early intervention management and education of children with autism spectrum disorder in centers and preschools that organize early intervention must be proactive and active in investing in building facilities, developing a plan to recruit professional quality teachers, and actively sending teachers and early intervention staff to courses, advanced training courses for professional development. Subjects, talents, and early intervention skills for children with autism spectrum disorder. Advising the municipal administration on how to promote and mobilize the involvement of all socioeconomic groups and families in contributing funds to the construction of a more contemporary special education facility to suit the requirements of the community. Now and in the future, all children with autism spectrum disorder receive early intervention.

v) For early intervention teachers educating children with autism spectrum disorder

Actively advise and suggest to managers the implementation of regimes and policies that support nurturing and self-improvement in order to increase professional credentials and early intervention in autism education. Proposing to management levels the enhancement and expansion of training activities, as well as the exchange of experiences in early intervention and education of children with autism spectrum disorder in and around Hoa Binh City. Actively coordinate with families of children with autism who are receiving early intervention education at special education centers in Hoa Binh city to ensure that plans, programs, contents, measurements, and administration of early intervention education activities are united.

3. Conclusion

Thus, the implementation of the goals of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in special education centers in Hoa Binh city is quite positive, but besides the difficulties in implementing early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, many difficulties have emerged, the most significant of which is a lack of investment resources for the construction of facilities. The results of the implementation of the organizational forms of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder are quite diverse and flexible, so century in the centers is quite average through the results of evaluating children with autism spectrum disorder through the results of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. The management of early intervention planning for children with autism spectrum disorder at the centers is pretty effective, with the master plan for early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder being the standout plan. However, there is a lack of management and planning for training and professional development for managers, teachers, and parents about early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders. The results of the management, examination, assessment, and control of the implementation of the early intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorder at the centers have not been shown in the management and implementation of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder at the centers. To overcome the difficulties, the Board of Directors has made many efforts in directing early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, as well as the management, examination, and evaluation of the implementation of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in special education centers in Hoa Binh city has met the common ground, but in order to better meet the practical needs of the centers, it is necessary to further proliferate.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Tran Thu Ha

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Normal Style
Tran Thu Ha. Managing Early Intervantion Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers: Situation and Lesson. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 9, No. 11, 2021, pp 665-672. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/9/11/2
MLA Style
Ha, Tran Thu. "Managing Early Intervantion Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers: Situation and Lesson." American Journal of Educational Research 9.11 (2021): 665-672.
APA Style
Ha, T. T. (2021). Managing Early Intervantion Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers: Situation and Lesson. American Journal of Educational Research, 9(11), 665-672.
Chicago Style
Ha, Tran Thu. "Managing Early Intervantion Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hoa Binh City Special Education Centers: Situation and Lesson." American Journal of Educational Research 9, no. 11 (2021): 665-672.
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  • Table 7. Status of management the implementation of early intervention plans for children with ASD (1 ≤ M ≤ 3)
  • Table 8. Status of direction of the Board of Directors in early intervention management of children with ASD (1 ≤ M ≤ 3)
  • Table 9. Status of coordinating testing and evaluation activities for the implementation of early intervention for children with ASD (1 ≤ M ≤ 3)
[1]  American Psychiatric Association, 2013, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 58-62.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  J. Baio, L. Wiggins, D. L. Christensen et al., 2018, Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 Years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014,” MMWR, Surveillance Summaries, 67(6), 1-23.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Critchley, E., Cuadros, M., Harper, I., Smith-Howell, H., & Rogish, M., 2021, A parent-sibling dyadic interview to explore how an individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder can impact family dynamics, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 111, 103884.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Boyd, B. A., Odom, S. L., Humphreys, B. P., & Sam, A. M., 2010, Infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Early identification and early intervention, Journal of Early Intervention, 32(2), 75-98.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Brian, J., Bryson, S.E., Garon, N., Roberts, W., Smith, I.M., Szatmari, P., & Zwaigenbaum, L., 2008, Clinical assessment of autism in high-risk 18-month-olds, Autism, 12, 433-456.
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