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Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles (Research on Content Analysis on Captain Phillips Subtitling Films)

Mira Hardiyani , Aceng Rahmat, Rahayu Surtiati Hidayat
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(9), 624-631. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-9-4
Received July 06, 2019; Revised August 10, 2019; Accepted September 10, 2019

Abstract

The translation of audiovisual materials like movies and television program is growing rapidly. It helps audiences who have limitations of language to understand the meaning and message of the movie. This paper will specifically discuss the translation strategies in dialog movie of Captain Phillips and describe its uses influence the equivalence in source text and target text. This research uses qualitative methods with comparative analysis techniques. The data of this study were nautical terms and its translation. Meanwhile, the study indicates thirty nautical terms found in the source text were translated by using translation strategies transfer, paraphrase, and deletion. The most used translation strategy in this research is transfer. Therefore, the application of translation strategies is the most essential for translator to produce a good subtitle.

1. Introduction

Translation is a bridge of communication between languages so that language differences can be overcomed. Translation not only bridges language differences but also functions as an intercultural bridge. In this case translating texts containing cultural elements can be a separate obstacle in translation. According to Benny Hoedoro Hoed, which is often an obstacle in translation is language customs (usage) and language style, which is part of culture 1, 2. Cultural differences in the source language and target language cause problems for translators in maintaining the source language culture and adapting it to the target language. Understanding of cross-culture is the main provision for the translator so he will be able to use the right translation methods and strategies.

Analysis of culture also needs to be considered especially in the translation of subtitles. Gottlieb argues as quoted by Hasuria Che Omar in his book, subtitle translation is an adaptation of source language messages into the target language culture. Therefore, a film that contains a message of cultural elements cannot be moved totally from one culture to another 3. That creates a limit in the translation process. With the large public interest in watching foreign films, the quality of subtitle translation and voiceover needs to be improved. This is due to the difficulties faced by the audience for various terms, slang, idioms, and cultural terms used in each film. Thus, a commensurate translation that can maintain the nuances and meanings is needed so that the audience can enjoy and dissolve in the storyline. This is where the subtitles play a role in helping viewers with limited language access understand the message conveyed in a film.

Translating dialogue in the form of subtitles uses one of the translation procedures, namely cultural equivalents 4, 5. So, unconsciously translating activities is an act of transferring culture. Thus, this researcher who concentrates in the field of applied linguistics feels the need to study the strategy and process of translating maritime terms into dialogue in the form of subtitles in Captain Phillips films.

The strategy for translating subtitles used in this film will explain the meaning of the maritime terms of the dialogue spoken. For example, in the following example:

Cancel the limits. One two nine. Do it. Port, 5 degrees. (00:25:06).

Port, 5 degrees is a maritime term used to give steering commands on a ship. Matching the port words in the dialog above is a phrase that is 'turn left' and to maintain the meaning of the translator choose the paraphrasing strategy in translating it.

In the process of translating into Indonesian, it is sometimes unavoidable that the interpreter maintains the cultural word in English as in the following example:

She's selling khat up there. (00: 05: 56,648)

The word khat which is translated using an additional strategy aims to maintain the culture of the source language while explaining the equivalent of the word khat so that there is no deviation of meaning.

Research on the translation of film dialogue in the form of subtitles can be found in a national journal article written by Agus Darma Yoga Pratama 6, 7. This researcher focuses on the function of taboo words used by each character in the film. Then look at the strategies used by the translator to get equivalence so that offensive words can be translated into the target language without leaving the technical aspects of subtitling translation. From the study found 69 taboo words and 3 strategies namely omission, transfer, and euphemism. There are also 16 taboo functions, namely sympathy, surprise, disappointment, disbelief, fear, annoyance, metaphorical interpretation, reaction to the mishap, emphasizing the associated item, adjectival intensifier, name-calling, anaphoric use of epithet, oath, curse, unfriendly suggestion, and dysphemism.

Other studies related to translation strategies were also found in international journal articles written by Ying Zhang & Junyan Liu 8, 9. The two researchers compared the translation of dialogues in subtitles from Chinese to English. The translation of the dialog in the form of subtitles compared is between the Chinese version of the Chinese and the Hong Kong version of the VCD. The results show that there are more than one hundred differences divided into three categories. First, the lack of translation in the English version of Hong Kong; second, differences in interpretation in the same dialogue; third, the difference in layout caused by technical limitations between the VCD and DVD versions.

Similar research is also available in national journal articles written by Agus Darma Yoga Pratama, et al. 10, 11. This researcher found out about the use of strategies to translate slang words in the film "The Shawshank Redemption". The theory of subtitling strategies used is referring to the theory put forward by Gottlieb and for the slang, the word theory refers to the theory offered by Larson. The results of the study state that there are 12 slang words found but only 24 sentences and phrases containing the word slang. From the data, this researcher found that transfer strategies are the most frequently used translation strategies.

Subsequent research related to the translation of dialogue was found in national journal articles written by Fitri Iskandar 12, 13. This study discusses the types of idiom expressions and the accuracy of the translation of subtitle idioms from English into Indonesian. The results of the study state that the frequency of using idiom removal, paraphrasing, and using idiom similarities is most often used by translators.

This researcher chose Captain Philips film as the source language text because he wanted to see the equivalence of the translation of the dialogue contained in this film. Captain Phillips's film is a film that is based on a true story that happened in 2009. The film tells the story of piracy of a container ship carried out by four Somali pirates. The ship, which at that time was carrying a cargo of 17,000 tons and carrying 20 crew members, was sailing from Salalah port in Oman to Mombasa in Kenya. The film appeared as a box office film that successfully earned more than $ 218 million with a budget of $ 55 million. In 2014, the film received six Academy Awards nominations.

Based on the description above, this author was interested in taking the theme of the translation of maritime terms in a thesis entitled Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles Form (Research on Content Analysis of Captain Phillips Subtitling Films).

Research Problem Formulation

Based on the description of the background of the problem above, the problem statement in this study is a translation strategy that results in correspondence of messages between the source text and Target Text in Captain Phillips? The formulation of the problem can be developed into several research questions, as follows: (1) What translation strategies are used in the Captain Phillips film? (2) What effect does the translation strategy have on the comparability of the message between the source text and the Target Text in Captain Phillips?.

Research purposes

This research uses descriptive content analysis and comparative methods to get the depth of understanding about first, the influence of translation methods and procedures from English to Indonesian in Captain Phillips subtitles. Second, the influence of the translation strategy on the equivalence of translation messages between the source text and the Target Text.

2. Methods

The method used in this research is the content analysis method that uses a qualitative approach. The analysis in this study refers to the basic idea of content analysis described by Mayring 14. This analysis adjusts the material into the communication model. This must be determined after the communication studied, as in the aspects of the communicator (experience and feeling), with the situation of the text produced, with cultural background, with the text itself, or with the consequences of the message.

In addition to using the content analysis method, this researcher will also use a comparative analysis method because there are two texts analyzed in comparison. The use of both methods of analysis is certainly related to data which includes words, phrases, and sentences in English and Indonesian versions of film dialogues. Analysis of the text of the translation is related to the comparison between the target text and the source text. As revealed by WiIliams and Chesterma 15, we can see the existing translation problems and then analyze the translation strategies used by translators.

This comparative analysis compares the results of a translation into a particular language with the source text in the source language. Previously in translation science, these two types of texts were called parallel texts which were later changed after the emergence of Corpus-based translation science into comparable texts 15. Parallel texts are the type that places both languages, namely the source language and target language on one printed page side by side. The most common example of parallel texts is the translation of religious scriptures.

This study seeks to find the characteristics of the message, describing the cultural equivalence of dialogue in English into the translation of Indonesian subtitles. The research method is applied by setting research steps, data collection techniques, and data analysis techniques. The detailed stages are as follows.

The research procedures carried out by these researchers are as follows: (1) Determine the source of data, data, and translation units to be studied; (2) Establish problems and research objectives; (3) Compare source text and Target Text to identify translation strategies used by translators; (4) Assessing the tendency to use translation strategies in order to determine the acceptability of translation; (5) Assess the effect of translation strategies on the compatibility of the Target Text; (6) Draw conclusions and submit research suggestions.

Data and Data Sources

In this study, the data to be collected includes words, phrases, and sentences contained in Captain Phillips' film dialogues and their translations in Indonesian in the form of subtitles. Source text uses English and is translated into Indonesian (Target Text). The data is classified in tables according to the theory of translation methods and procedures. The data source in this study is the dialogue of the Captain Phillips film that aired in 2013, and the translation is in the form of subtitles.

Data Analysis Procedure

In qualitative content analysis research, Mayring 16, 17 distinguishes deductive and inductive categorization. This researcher uses inductive categorization given that the method of content analysis is a process that is directed to generalize. In essence, translation is the process of searching as closely as possible the equivalent meaning of source language text in the target language text. The concept is in line with what Mayring said, namely, to develop aspects of interpretation and categories as close to the material as possible.

The development of this research was carried out by using inductive procedures, through the following stages: (1) Determining the formulation of the problem and detailing it into the research question; (2) Determine the object of research (Captain Philips film dialogue and subtitle translation); (3) Developing theories and problem definitions that have been formulated in a theoretical framework; (4) Analyzing research problems by answering questions that have been proposed based on the theories that have been developed (by making research criteria, in this study the units collected are linguistic (words, phrases, sentences), and speech acts that contain cultural elements and strategies translation); (5) Conduct an examination of the validity of the data, and interpret the findings.

To assess the equivalence of translations with the source text, this researcher made a comparison, namely comparing between the source text and Target Text. This researcher uses an instrument of translation acceptance with a scale determined by this researcher.

Data Validity Check

Data validity checks are needed to ensure the validity of data in qualitative research. Lincoln and Guba mention that there are four criteria used to guarantee the confidentiality of the results of qualitative research, namely the degree of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability.

The technique of checking the validity of the data used in this study is the triangulation technique. According to Lexy J. Moleong 18, "triangulation is a technique for checking the validity of data that uses something else outside the data to check or compare it with that data". Furthermore, Norman K. Denkin in Lexy. J. Moleong defines triangulation as a combination or combination of various methods used to examine phenomena that are interrelated from different perspectives and perspectives. In this case, it combines qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods. There are four kinds of triangulation techniques, namely: (1) Triangulation of methods is done by comparing information or data in the form of interviews, observations, and surveys from various informants; (2) Triangulation between researchers is done by using more than one person in data collection and analysis; (3) Triangulation of data sources is to explore the truth of certain information through various methods and sources of data acquisition. For example; interviews, observations, written documents, archives, historical documents, official records, personal notes or writings and pictures or photographs; (4) Triangulation of theories. The final result of qualitative research is an information formulation or thesis statement. Where the information obtained is compared with the relevant theoretical perspective to avoid the individual bias of this researcher on the findings or conclusions produced.

3. Results

The research data is obtained from Captain Phillips's English language dialogue and its translation in Indonesian. This researcher found 30 data from data sources. Data obtained to find the use of translation strategies, at the linguistic level (words and phrases). Next, examine the effect on the equivalence of messages between the source text and Target Text.

This researcher groups 30 dialogues into three translation strategies proposed by Gottlieb, namely transfer, paraphrasing, and deletion. Data relating to focus and sub focus will be presented descriptively. Following is the presentation of research findings on translating dialogue from English into Indonesian.

Translation Strategy

The translation strategy used by translators to translate 30 dialogues from English into Indonesian is transfer, paraphrasing, and deletion. The following is the frequency table and the percentage of the use of translation strategies which are presented sequentially based on the source text and Target Text.

The following is a further description of each subtitling strategy. Each strategy is equipped with an explanation and example:

a. Transfer

Transfer strategy is a strategy used to translate source text accurately and completely. There is no additional explanation or change in perspective because the translator translates the dialogue literally. The frequency of occurrence of paraphrasing strategies is the most in this study. The following list is some exposure to illustrate some examples of findings of data classified into transfer strategies.

Of the 30 collected data, 15 are translations with the transfer strategy. The following are some examples of data classified into the transfer category:

b. Paraphrase

Paraphrasing strategies are used when translators do not use the same syntactic structure in translating the dialogue. In this case, the translator changes the structure so that it can be easily understood and accepted. The frequency of using the second most transfer strategy in this study. Of the 30 collected data, 11 are translations with paraphrasing strategies. The following list is some exposure to illustrate some examples of findings in data classified in the paraphrase strategy category.

c. Deletion

Deletion is a subtitling strategy to eliminate some parts of the text so that it can reduce messages from the source text. This disappearance occurs especially when dialogue does not have important verbal aspects. But still conveying the most important message to the audience. Of the 30 collected data, 4 are translations with a deletion strategy. Following are some examples of data classified into the category of deletion strategies.

Based on the findings of the research related to the use of translation strategies, this researcher then looked at the equivalence of messages at the level of words and phrases. The frequency of using various strategies can be seen in the following table.

Based on the table above, it is known that at the word level, transfer translation strategies dominate with 11 uses. Follow the paraphrasing strategy with 3 uses. Meanwhile, no removal strategy was found. At the phrase level, the frequency of use can be seen in the following table.

Based on the table above, it is known that at the phrase level, paraphrase translation strategies dominate with 8 uses. Follow the transfer strategy with 4 times the use, then the removal strategy with 4 times the use.

Effect of Translation Strategy on Matching Messages between Source Text and Captain Phillips Movie Target Text

The translation is the process of transferring messages from the Source Language to the target Language. In the transfer, equivalence between the two languages is needed. The equivalence is marked by the accuracy of the message transfer in the translation. Based on 30 collected data, it is determined that the assessment criteria are acceptable, less acceptable, and unacceptable. Here is the explanation:

a. Receive

The translation is said to be acceptable if the translation feels natural, technical terms used are commonly used and are familiar to the reader, phrases, clauses and sentences used are by the rules of Indonesian language. Based on the search, found several acceptable translations. Acceptance is seen at the level of words and phrases that are grouped into three translation strategies, namely transfer, paraphrasing, and deletion. In the transfer strategy category, 10 translations were received at the word level and 1 translation at the phrase level. In the paraphrase strategy, category 3 translations are received at the word level, 4 translations at the phrase level. In the removal, strategy category found 3 translations that are acceptable at the phrase level.

b. Less Acceptable

The translation is said to be less acceptable if in general, the translation feels natural. But there is a slight problem with using technical terms or there is a slight grammatical error. Based on the search, it was found that some translations were less acceptable. In the transfer, strategy category found 1 translation at the word level and 2 translations at the phrase level. In the paraphrase, strategy category found 3 translations that are less acceptable at the phrase level and not found at the word level. In the elimination, strategy category found 1 translation that is less acceptable at the phrase level.

c. Unacceptable

The translation is said to be unacceptable if the translation is not natural, the technical terms used are not commonly used and are not familiar to the reader, phrases, clauses and sentences used are not by the rules of Indonesian language.

Based on the search, found 1 unacceptable translation. The non-acceptance appears at the level of the phrases in the paraphrase strategy and transfer strategy categories. Whereas in the elimination strategy category no unacceptable translation was found, both at the level of words and phrases.

4. Discussion

The results of the study are the findings of two sub-focused aspects, namely, subtitling strategies and their effect on the correspondence of messages between the source text and the target text. The first discussion was directed at research findings related to various translation strategies used in this research data. The second discussion is directed at the research findings related to the effect of strategies on the correspondence of messages between the source text and Target Text. The relationship between strategy and comparability can be seen in Table 9.

Discussion of Translation Strategy and its Use in Captain Phillips Subtitling Film Framework

Translation strategy is a translation procedure used to solve problems in delivering messages from one language to another. Gottlieb offers ten translation strategy theories that can be used by translators. But there are only 3 strategies in 30 data collected. The seven strategies are (1) transfers, (2) paraphrases, and (3) deletions. Based on the data obtained, the transfer strategy ranks first with 15 uses, followed by paraphrases with 11 uses. The last sequence is taken by deletion with 4 times. The following is a discussion of each strategy in detail:

a. Transfer

The transfer is a strategy for translating overall and accurately. There is no additional explanation or change in perspective because the translator translates the dialogue literally. The transfer is a translation strategy category with the highest frequency of occurrence. Transfers used by translators aim to maintain the source text structure. The researchers found 15 data or 50% of all data containing maritime terms in the Captain Phillips film.

Viewed from the aspect of acceptability, most of the data shows acceptable translations. Of the 15 data, 11 data are translated as acceptable, while 3 data are less acceptable and 1 is not acceptable. Data that shows accurate translations can be seen below.

The data that shows acceptable translations can be seen below:

Text source: They're coming back. I want to max revs. Take the limits off. Five degrees starboard. (00:33:26)

Text Target: Maximize the machine. Out of bounds. Five degrees to the right. (00:33:26)

The use of the transfer strategy to translate the word starboard is accurate because, in the Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary, published by Oxford University Press in 2007, it is interpreted as a side of an aircraft ship that is right when you are facing forward. So the translation of the phrase five degrees to the right can explain the steering command in maritime terms.

The data that shows less acceptable translations can also be seen at the level of the following phrases.

Source text: Full starboard bow thruster. (00:13:16)

Target Text: The right push power is full. (00:13:16)

The use of a transfer strategy to translate bow thruster phrases is considered less acceptable because the phrase refers to a ship propeller device that functions so that the ship can maneuver quickly or slowly. The translation of the phrase 'thrust' is considered less acceptable because it feels unnatural.

Data that shows unacceptable translations can be seen below.

Source text: "Second mate and helmsman to the bridge." (00:20:24)

Target Text: "Navigator and captain to the bridge." (00:20:24)

The use of the transfer strategy to translate 'second mate' and helmsman is less accurate because the second mate is responsible for the shipping flow and navigation equipment. The use of the word navigator is considered less commensurate because there are other terms to translate the second mate profession. Then the helmsman is only responsible for driving the ship while the captain is fully responsible for the ship, crew, and cargo. So that there is a deviation of meaning in the use of the word captain.

b. Paraphrase

The paraphrase translation strategy is most often used in translating Captain Phillips movie dialogues. The use of this strategy aims to change the structure so that it can be easily understood and accepted. In this case, the translator does not use the same syntactic structure to translate the dialogue. The high intensity of the use of this strategy is caused by several maritime terms Source Language (English) that do not have equivalents in the Target language. Based on the search data found 11 times the use of the paraphrase strategy. Of the 11 uses, 6 were translated acceptable, 4 were translated as less acceptable, and 1 was translated as unacceptable. Data that shows acceptable translations can be seen below:

source text: Keep those hatches locked down. (00:14:30)

Target Text: Close and hold the shaft. (00:14:30)

The use of the paraphrase strategy to translate the word hatches is acceptable because in the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, published by Oxford University Press in 2007, the word hatches means opening to a ship or the bottom of an aircraft, through which goods to be carried are passed. This word is translated into a hatch phrase so that people can understand the message being conveyed.

For data that shows less acceptable translations can also be seen as follows.

source text: Uh, what? Fire, man overboard? (00:17:11)

Target Text: What? Kebarakan, are all jumping into the sea? (00:17:11)

The use of the paraphrase strategy to translate the man overboard phrase is less acceptable because in that context meaningful phrases training is done when someone falls into the sea. The translation jump all jumped into the sea ’experienced a deviation of meaning so the message was not delivered.

For data that shows unacceptable translations can be seen as follows.

text source: Coalition Warship 237, this is Maersk Alabama. Coalition Warship 237, Maersk Alabama. Our position is 2 degrees 2 north by 49 degrees 19 east. Our course is 180. Our speed is 18.5 knots. We are being approached by two pirate skiffs with a possible mothership following. We require immediate assistance. We have a crew of 20. (00:23:31)

Text of Target: 237 coalition warship, this is Maersk Alabama. 237 coalition battleship, this is Maersk Alabama. Our position is 2 degrees 2 latitude north with 49 degrees 19 east longitude. Of course 180. Our speed is 18.5 knots. We are being approached by two pirate ships, there may be a mother ship. We need help as soon as possible. The crew of our ship 20. (00:23:31)

Use the paraphrase strategy to translate our unacceptable course phrases because there is a deviation in the meaning of the word course. The course referred to here is not necessarily meaningful or affirmative but the intended course has a concept of direction or purpose.

c. Removal

This translation strategy aims to eliminate some parts of the dialogue that lack semantic elements. This deletion does not affect the information contained in the dialogue so that important messages remain conveyed to the audience. Based on search data found 3 times for the use of this strategy. Of the 4 data, 3 data are translated with acceptable and 1 data is less acceptable. Data showing the use of an acceptable abolition strategy can be seen below.

source text: This is real-world. Someone coming up on our quarter board quarter. (00:19:35)

Target Text: This is real. Something came from the right. (00:19:35)

The use of an elimination strategy that eliminates the acceptable quarter word because the starboard quarter phrase is used to tell the position of the arrival of a ship or a foreign object while at sea. With the use of an elimination strategy, the term will feel familiar to the reader.

The data that shows less acceptable translations can be seen at the level of the following phrases.

source text: Bow clear. Stern lines are clear. (00:13:13)

Target Text: Safe bow. Stern safe. (00:13:13)

The use of the abolition strategy in stern translation is less acceptable because the context of the words stern lines in the dialogue is not the name of the place but rather the rope tied to the stern when the ship is leaning back. In this dialogue, it is told that the ship is off and all the rope that is bound must be declared safe or released so that the ship can sail perfectly. The use of this elimination strategy causes a deviation in the meaning of the term.

Effect of Translation Strategy on Matching Messages between Source Text and Captain Phillips Movie Target Text

The translation is the process of transferring messages from the Source Language to the target Language. In this transfer, a strategy is needed to solve the problem of translation between the two languages. With the use of strategies in translation, it also affects the correspondence of messages between texts. The equivalence is marked by the accuracy of the message transfer in the translation. Based on 30 data collected, the assessment criteria are accurate and inaccurate. Here is the explanation.

a. Accepting

The translation is said to be acceptable if the translation feels natural, technical terms used are commonly used and are familiar to the reader, phrases, clauses and sentences used are by the rules of Indonesian language. Based on the search, found several acceptable translations. Acceptance is seen at the level of words and phrases that are grouped into three translation strategies, namely transfer, paraphrasing, and deletion. In the transfer strategy category, 10 translations were received at the word level and 1 translation at the phrase level. In the paraphrase strategy, category 3 translations are received at the word level, 4 translations at the phrase level. In the removal, strategy category found 3 translations that are acceptable at the phrase level.

b. Less Acceptable

The translation is said to be less acceptable if in general, the translation feels natural. But there is a slight problem with using technical terms or there is a slight grammatical error. Based on the search, it was found that some translations were less acceptable. In the transfer, strategy category found 1 translation at the word level and 2 translations at the phrase level. In the paraphrase, strategy category found 3 translations that are less acceptable at the phrase level and not found at the word level. In the elimination, strategy category found 1 translation that is less acceptable at the phrase level

c. Unacceptable

The translation is said to be unacceptable if the translation is not natural, the technical terms used are not commonly used and are not familiar to the reader, phrases, clauses and sentences used are not by the rules of Indonesian language. Based on the search, found 1 unacceptable translation. The non-acceptance appears at the level of the phrases in the paraphrase strategy and transfer strategy categories. Whereas in the elimination strategy category no unacceptable translation was found, both at the level of words and phrases.

5. Conclude

Based on data analysis and discussion of translation strategies and their effects on the equivalence of Captain Phillips movie subtitles which involve translation, it was concluded that the strategy most often used by translators is transferred. The findings indicate that the purpose of the translator to translate the source text is to make the translation commensurate and acceptable to the reader.

The most rarely used strategy is deletion. Some of the Source Language words are deleted to make them easier to understand. This illustrates that the translator also pays attention to aspects of efficiency in translating the source text considering the translation is in the form of subtitles.

The application of many paraphrasing strategies results in less acceptable translations. Therefore, the use of paraphrases contributes negatively to the translation. Based on the results of data analysis, the translation of Captain Phillips subtitles is categorized as an acceptable translation. The acceptable translation is a translation that feels natural, the term translated is familiar to the reader so that it can easily be understood by its meaning and message.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Mira Hardiyani, Aceng Rahmat and Rahayu Surtiati Hidayat

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Mira Hardiyani, Aceng Rahmat, Rahayu Surtiati Hidayat. Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles (Research on Content Analysis on Captain Phillips Subtitling Films). American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 7, No. 9, 2019, pp 624-631. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/7/9/4
MLA Style
Hardiyani, Mira, Aceng Rahmat, and Rahayu Surtiati Hidayat. "Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles (Research on Content Analysis on Captain Phillips Subtitling Films)." American Journal of Educational Research 7.9 (2019): 624-631.
APA Style
Hardiyani, M. , Rahmat, A. , & Hidayat, R. S. (2019). Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles (Research on Content Analysis on Captain Phillips Subtitling Films). American Journal of Educational Research, 7(9), 624-631.
Chicago Style
Hardiyani, Mira, Aceng Rahmat, and Rahayu Surtiati Hidayat. "Translation of Maritime Terms at Film Dialogues from English into Indonesian in Subtitles (Research on Content Analysis on Captain Phillips Subtitling Films)." American Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 9 (2019): 624-631.
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