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Improving Descriptive Writing Capabilities in Class Students V School Based Islam Integrated Al Istiqomah Karawang through Scaffolding Approach

Wiwik Windarti , Totok Bintoro, Fahrurrozi, Adi Apriadi Adiansha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(8), 1093-1097. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-8-5
Received June 23, 2018; Revised August 01, 2018; Accepted August 09, 2018

Abstract

This study aims to improve the quality of the process and the results of writing the description of students of grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Kosambi, Klari District, Karawang regency by applying Scaffolding approach. This research is a classroom action research consisting of planning, action, observation, reflection, and evaluation using the scaffolding approach. The subjects of the study were 60 students and grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Kosambi the study was conducted in II cycle. Data were collected through tests, interviews, observations, field notes, and documentation. To ensure the validity of data used triangulation technique. This research shows that there is an increase of learning result of writing a description on student and student of grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Kosambi Karawang. The result of the writing of the description has increased, seen from the value of the students who reached the value of KKM 75 before the action there are 39 students (65%) who have not reached the KKM and after the action, 57 students (95%) reached the KKM score. The conclusion of this research is the learning of writing the description by using the scaffolding approach can improve the result of writing grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Kosambi, Karawang year 2018.

1. Introduction

Indonesian subjects are very important in the national education system. This is due to the very strategic role of the Indonesian language, namely as the language of instruction in the world of education and national language or the language of the country. Therefore, the quality of Indonesian language learning has a strong impact on the quality of national education and the consistency of Indonesian unity and unity. 1 In order for Indonesian language able to develop the role, the Indonesian language needs to be fostered and developed through formal and informal channels.

Indonesian language subjects are an early moment for children to improve their abilities and skills. From elementary school, get the learning that becomes the habits that they will do in the future. So, the role of teachers is very important in instilling good habits for students, as well as instill skills that can then improve the ability of students.

One of the skills students expect from elementary school is good writing skills, since writing is the most important capital for students in primary school. According to Taufik, et al said that writing skills should be directed not only to writing for literary works, training and developing the ability to make sentences, paragraphs or a language standard, but also directed to provide the ability to organize the information they obtain. Thus, writing lessons is a medium for the development of basic students' power of reasoning skills, but also a modest level of ability developed. 2 If you want to practice writing skills to students should also be involved in reading skills and input obtained so as to improve writing skills. The ability to write will not come automatically but rather through many practice and regular practice. 3

Writing is a productive and expressive activity, in this writing activity then the writer must be skilled use of graphology, language structure, and vocabulary. This writing skill will not come automatically, but must be through many practice and regular practice. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Zulela stated that writing is a difficult job, but in writing, the author has an opportunity to communicate something about himself, ideas, can even learn something he does not yet know. 1, 3

Writing descriptions is one of the techniques in the conversation of this technique the author finds a pattern to make a writing. We describe what the purpose of our writing is about people, places, and so on. Writing good descriptions creates a sense, from using real things as well as more specifically describing something - the same experience as the reader or listener. Writing with a pattern of description is the same as writing a narration. The difference between narration and description on the use of narrative writing steps. While the description focusses on taste and word creation. 10, 12, 13, 14, 15

In this regard Hardley says that it is important to consider ways to integrate writing with listening, speaking, and reading exercises, so that reading skills become intact. 16.

Writing is a skill language that is used to communicate indirectly, not face-to-face with others. Writing is a productive and expressive activity. In this writing activity the writer must be skilled in using graphology, language structure, and vocabulary. skill This writing will not come automatically, but must be through many practice and regular practice.

It is no exaggeration to say that writing skills are a hallmark of a learned person or an educated nation. In this connection there is a writer who says that "writing is used by an educated person to record / record, convince, report / inform, and influence and intentions and purposes as such can only be achieved well by those who can compose their thoughts and exclude them clearly, this clarity depends on the mind, the organization, the use of words, and the structure of the sentence. 17

Based on current observations, the facts in the field show that the study of writing descriptive in SDIT Al-Istiqomah Karawang is still monologue, ie the teacher only gives the task of writing to the students without giving guidance and direction to the given task. The more varied learning methods are not provided and the media given is just a paper assignment, the pupils are only given a command to write based on the existing task sheets, then the students are directly instructed to write on their respective tables and develop ideas as appropriate on the worksheet. The learning pattern applied by the teacher to each task is just an instruction, and the description of the description is not explained in detail, simply telling that the description describes something according to the assignment.

In addition, the average score in writing the description of the students of grade V SDIT Al-Istiqomah Karawang is still relatively low, about 70% is still below the value of KKM or only 30% of which reach KKM is students who get a minimum score of 70 based on the results of the daily test of the first semester.

Efforts to improve student learning outcomes can not be separated from the various factors that influence it. In this case, the teacher should be more creative by trying some interesting learning methods and liked by the students. The classroom atmosphere needs to be planned and built in such a way by using appropriate learning methods so that students can have the opportunity to interact with each other so as to obtain optimal learning outcomes.

Such problems need to be taken seriously. Many ways that can be an alternative choice, either through the use of various methods, approaches, strategies and learning techniques that are oriented to improve student learning outcomes. Therefore, in this study, researchers interested in using scaffolding approach which in this learning can help teachers in achieving learning objectives and learning outcomes of the students themselves. The advantages of using a scaffolding approach is to motivate and associate students' interest with learning tasks, simplify the learning task so that it can be more well known and achievable by the child, providing guidance to help children focus on achieving goals, clearly showing the difference between child work and standard solutions or which is expected, reducing frustration or risk, modeling and clearly defining expectations about the activities to be performed.

The advantages of learning by using a scaffolding approach is to motivate and link student interest with learning tasks, simplify the task of learning so that it can be more well known and can be achieved by the child, giving instructions to help children focus on achieving goals, clearly shows the difference between child work and standard solutions or expected, reduce frustration or risk, model and clearly define expectations about the activities to be performed. Many researchers have used scaffolding approach to improve students' learning outcomes such as those conducted by Nur Rachma Rufiana in "Learning Model With Scaffolding on Writing Writing Skills Descriptions of Child Mild Tunagrahita" Surabaya State University, based on the results of his research can be concluded that there is a significant influence model learning by scaffolding on the skill of writing descriptive essay for light tunagrahita children in grade IV SDLB Keleyan Bangkalan State. It can be seen from the calculation of Z value, the calculated value is 2.05 greater than the critical value of Z 5% is 1.64 (for one-sided test) and the critical value of Z 5% is 1.96 (for two-sided test ) so that both forms of testing have been made known that the null hypothesis is rejected and the work hypothesis accepted this means there is a significant influence in the study of learning model with scaffolding on the skills of writing a description of the child's light tunagrahita in SDLB Keleyan Bangkalan State.

The scaffolding approach in descriptive writing on the fifth-grade students of SDIT Al-Istiqomah is expected to fulfill the objectives of the writing of the Indonesian language in accordance with the criteria or characteristics of descriptive writing as appropriate. this learning can make students more appreciative of differences of opinion and diversity, because scaffolding approach is an approach in the way of guidance and assistance from adults (teachers) or more skilled children who can adjust the amount of guidance provided with the child's achievement. 18 When students learn a new task, a skilled person can use direct instruction. As student competencies increase, guidance can be reduced.

Based on the description in advance, the researchers are interested in using scaffolding approach in an effort to improve the results of writing descriptive Indonesian students of grade V SDIT Al-Istiqomah Karawang.

2. Methods

The research method used in this research is action research. This research intends to make improvements to the learning process of writing Bahasa Indonesia specially to improve children's learning outcomes about Writing Description, by way and method of scaffolding approach so that the learning process is more dynamic, contextual and integrated. Besides, it can also develop the profession of educators in learning in the classroom by looking at the condition of the students.

This form of action research was chosen on the premise that elementary school teachers are the implementers of classroom educators who are able to identify learning problems, but have limitations in solving problems especially in relation to learning to write Description Description.

3. Results

3.1. Pre-Cycles

In order to provide maximum results. In addition to making changes and improvements in the quality of learning in the classroom, especially in the lessons of Bahasa Indonesia.

Furthermore, the researcher will give a preliminary test at the next meeting to find out the learning result of Indonesian learners in class V SDIT Al Istiqomah using picture media as writing material by description. Based on the results of the students' initial tests after being corrected by the investigators showed that of the 60 students who took the initial test, none (0%) scored between 85-100 (criterion A), and 17 students (30%) got a score of 75-84 (criterion B) and 43 students (70%) scored between 65-74 (criterion C), and no students scored less than 54-64 (criterion D). Preliminary test results above the average score of 71.7 If it is based on Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria (KKM), it is known that a thorough student of seventeen students (30%) and an unfinished student is forty-three (70%).

3.2. Description of Cycle Data I

Based on the results of the first cycle study, the results of the test of descriptive writing, and after correction by the researchers showed that of the 60 students who took the first cycle test, there were 9 students (15%) who got the score between 85-100 (criterion A ), 33 students (55%) scored between 75-84 (criterion B) 18 students (30%) got a score of 65-74 (criteria C), and no students (0%) scored less than 55-64 (criterion D). The results of writing cycle I above the average score of 77.9. If it is based on Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria (KKM), it is known that there are 42 complete students (70%) and 18 (30%) unfinished students.

3.3. Descriptive Data Cycle II

As for the data on learning outcomes in cycle II can be seen that learners who scored above the KKM has reached 57 students or 95% of the number of students. To be more clearly presented in the table as follows:

From the table above can be seen the results of learning cycle II has increased about 25% of the cycle I and 60 students got value above KKM.

4. Discussion

4.1. Description on the Implementation of the Cycle I can be Explained as Follows

Develop a lesson plan by applying scaffolding with this approach students are given the task to pay attention to the drawing and suggest a title line that corresponds to the image medium, and analyze it to find the answer so that the students build their own knowledge to improve their learning outcomes.

Implement the learning activities according to the stage that has been planned. In the initial activities do appreciation with question and answer activities related to the material and ask how the students experience related to the material to explain the learning objectives. then students pay attention to the material explanation submitted by the teacher as a material to write a description of the essay to be completed and activities to make students creative and hone their thinking ability.

Giving direction and guiding students to make learning more effective. Give students opportunities to create ideas, search for new information and synthesis and create reports from the results of group discussions conducted. Provide student worksheets to determine the level of descriptive writing skills in learning activities.

Learning by applying class V scaffolding demonstrates a fun learning activity and looks more active than conventional learning, although not all students show increased confidence, are active in expressing their opinions and courage to ask both peers and teachers, but 75% of students have participated active, these conditions are what teachers expect as a material to plan on the next action.

4.2. Description on the Implementation of Cycle II can be Explained as Follows

Action in cycle II teachers initiate learning activities by conducting question and answer aims to remind the concept that has been studied previously. The teacher presents the material of the stages in writing the essay of the focus on content organization and grammar material. Based on the results of the ability to write a description on the first cycle shows that students are still lacking in control, while for the content of ideas and spelling is good, for more details attached value.

Based on data analysis and research findings, learning by scaffolding can improve student learning outcomes of essay writing essay with human sub theme and objects in their environment. Further comparison of student learning outcomes from pre-cycle, cycle I and cycle II is presented in the following table.

In the table presented can be seen that the value of student learning outcomes on pre-cycle learning, cycle I and cycle II increased, this can be seen from the learning outcomes of students in the pre-cycle of learners who achieve the completeness criteria only 21 students, in the first cycle student learning results increased to 42 students who achieve the value of mastery, this is because that interesting learning and use media with scaffolding can increase the ability of writing descriptive students, on the second cycle 57 students achieve minimal value mastery.

Based on all available data, the percentage of pre-cycle learning result that only 21 students reached the completeness level, or 35% of the total students, followed by the action cycle I increased to 42 students who can achieve a minimum mastery or 70% of the number of students, in cycle II student learning outcomes experienced an increase of 57 students who achieved a minimum mastery level or 95% of the number of students. More is presented in tabular form below.

Percentage of student learning outcomes in pre-cycle, cycle I and cycle II there has been a significant increase so it can be seen that the learning in cycle II can be said to have been maximal. To make it easier to see the comparison of learners' learning outcomes in the pre-cycle, with cycles I and cycle II, below will be illustrated in the comparison graph of student learning outcomes above figure.

The results of the study of descriptive writing of grade V students showed that from 60 students who took the initial test, no students (0%) get 85-100 score (criterion A), there were 21 students (35%) scored between 75-84 (criterion B). 39 students (65%) scored between 65-74 (criterion C), none of which scored less than 55-64 (criterion D). Based on preliminary test results above the average score of 71.7. Then complete students, in the first cycle reached (15%) or 9 students with a score of 85 -100, there were 33 students or (55%) score of 75-84, and 18 students or (30%) got a score of 65-74 with an average rating of 77.9. In the second cycle, there was a significant improvement that is the result of the study of class descriptive writing skill showed that from 60 students who took the test in Cycle II, 15 students (25%) got 85-100 score (criterion A), there were 42 students (70%) get score between 75 - 84 (criterion B). and 3 students (5%) got a score of 65 - 74 (criterion C), Based on the results of the test in Cycle II above the acquisition of the average value of 82.6 overall completeness of 95% overall.

5. Conclude

Based on the results of research and discussion conducted on the implementation and the results of action by applying scaffolding approach to improve the ability to write the description of students of grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Karawang, it can be concluded as follows:

1. Results learn the ability to write the description of grade V SDIT Al Istiqomah Karawang can be improved through approach scaffolding.

2. The steps and procedures for applying scaffolding approach are as follows: stages of writing description with scaffolding. Guidance in determining the contents or ideas put forward that is the suitability of the title with a short title image directly on the core, the beginning of the word should be capitalized except preposition (preposition) and conjunction (conjunctive), attention-grabbing, logical and without punctuation at the end of the title. Development of the idea of a topic sentence plus several explanatory sentences, usually the number of sentences explaining 4-7 sentences. How to set the topic of an image that is the topic should be in accordance with the theme, interesting, appropriate issues that are developing in the community and the mastered so that ideas / ideas can be poured into writing well. The guidance of the content organization is in accordance with the main idea, start the story with a challenging sentence, make it as if the reader participates feel or see the real activity, the author starts from the most important to the low, there is the completion of the reading section whose function indicates the reading has been completed. Effective grammar guidance, and can use punctuation well.

References

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[2]  Agus Taufik., Hera L Mikarsa., Puji L Priyanto., Education of Children in Elementary School (Tangerang Selatan: Open University, 2015), p. 14.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Wiwik Windarti, Totok Bintoro, Fahrurrozi and Adi Apriadi Adiansha

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Wiwik Windarti, Totok Bintoro, Fahrurrozi, Adi Apriadi Adiansha. Improving Descriptive Writing Capabilities in Class Students V School Based Islam Integrated Al Istiqomah Karawang through Scaffolding Approach. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 8, 2018, pp 1093-1097. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/8/5
MLA Style
Windarti, Wiwik, et al. "Improving Descriptive Writing Capabilities in Class Students V School Based Islam Integrated Al Istiqomah Karawang through Scaffolding Approach." American Journal of Educational Research 6.8 (2018): 1093-1097.
APA Style
Windarti, W. , Bintoro, T. , Fahrurrozi, F. , & Adiansha, A. A. (2018). Improving Descriptive Writing Capabilities in Class Students V School Based Islam Integrated Al Istiqomah Karawang through Scaffolding Approach. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(8), 1093-1097.
Chicago Style
Windarti, Wiwik, Totok Bintoro, Fahrurrozi, and Adi Apriadi Adiansha. "Improving Descriptive Writing Capabilities in Class Students V School Based Islam Integrated Al Istiqomah Karawang through Scaffolding Approach." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 8 (2018): 1093-1097.
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[1]  Zulela HM Saleh., Skilled Writing in Elementary School of Writing Learning Development in Elementary School (Tangerang: Pustaka Mandiri, 2013), h. 1.
In article      
 
[2]  Agus Taufik., Hera L Mikarsa., Puji L Priyanto., Education of Children in Elementary School (Tangerang Selatan: Open University, 2015), p. 14.
In article      
 
[3]  Henry Guntur Tarigan, Writing as a Language Skill (Bandung: Space, 2008), p. 3-4.
In article      
 
[4]  Martini Jumaris, Learning Difficulties, (Jakarta Panamal Murni, 2009) p.202.
In article      
 
[5]  Daeng Nurjamal, et al. Skilled Speaking, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2011) h.69.
In article      
 
[6]  Anne Roggles, Cere, Writing and Learning, (New York: MacMedia Publishing Company, 1995) p.4.
In article      
 
[7]  James M, Mc Crimon, Writing with a Purpose, (Boston: Houghton Milan Company, 1967) p.122.
In article      
 
[8]  Marwoto, Practical Composition, (Yogyakarta: Hanindita Graha Widya, 1987) p.12.
In article      
 
[9]  PLPG Team, Bahasa Indonesia SD / MI, Bandung: UPI, 2012) h.42.
In article      
 
[10]  Dawn sova, Writing clearly A-Self-Teaching guide, (United States of America: John Wiles & Sons, 2004) p.8.
In article      
 
[11]  Muchlison, Education Bahasa Indonesia, (Jakarta: Open University, 1998) p.349.
In article      
 
[12]  Sunarti & Maryani, The Essence of Indonesian Language and Literature, (Bandung: Loyal Library, 2005) p.152.
In article      
 
[13]  Jon Daniels Patera, Orderly and Systematic Writing, (Jakarta: Erland, 1993) h. 10.
In article      
 
[14]  Supriyadi, et al, Education Bahasa Indonesia 4, (Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture, 1995) p. 247.
In article      
 
[15]  Suparno and Muhammad Yusuf, Writing Skills of Primary Schools (Jakarta: UT, 2011) h.4.8.
In article      
 
[16]  Mohamad Syarif Sumantri, Integrated Learning Model at Primary School (Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2016), p. 116.
In article      
 
[17]  Henry Guntur Tarigan, Writing as a Language Skill, (Bandung: ANGKASA, 1994), h.4.
In article      
 
[18]  John W. Santrock, Life Span Development (Jakarta: Erland, 2011), p.252.
In article      PubMed