Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Improving Social Attitudes and Knowledge Through Role Playing Method

Tati Arifah Nurdin , M. Japar, Ishak G. Bachtiar, Adi Apriadi Adiansha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(7), 1040-1045. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-7-23
Published online: February 12, 2019

Abstract

The objective of this research was to improve of social attitudes and knowledge at class V SDN Jatibening IV Kota Bekasi. Method of the researc is action research. The data were collected through participant observation using interview, observation, test, and recording. The data analysis and interpretation indicates that: (1) Syntax of role-playing model: warm up the group, select participant, set the stage, prepare the observers, enact, discuss and evaluate, rerenact, discuss and evaluate, share experiences and generalize. (2) Students have a positive response to the learning of role playing methods. (3) Learning through role playing methods can improve social attitudes and knowledge. The findings lead to the recommendation to practice continous education, to increase social attitudes and knowledge through role playing methods.

1. Introduction

This understanding of values and morals is often associated with the material of Citizenship Education (Civics) which is regarded as the spearhead of moral values that will be invested in the students. This is evidence that Civics is an important subject matter, especially at the primary school level. Awareness is then implemented by the government with the formation of Curriculum 2013 which is more emphasis on formation generation of smart and have the personality in accordance with the value of Pancasila.

The 2013 curriculum has several aspects of assessment in learning outcomes. Aspects are assessed in the learning outcomes consists of three aspects, namely aspects of knowledge (cognitive), aspects of attitude (effective), and aspects of skills (psychomotor). From the results of this study will be seen signs or results that have been achieved by learners during the learning activities in school. If in the process of learning and teaching conducted by the teacher runs smoothly and well, then the possibility of learning outcomes to be achieved by learners will be good.

Learning outcomes are very important as an indicator of learning success. For a teacher, learners 'learning outcomes are an evaluation guide for learners' successful learning. A teacher can be said to succeed if more than half the number of learners have reached the established standard of mastery. As for learners, learning outcomes are a useful means of measuring the level of ability or success of learning, whether experiencing positive changes or changes that are negative. Learning outcomes consist of three aspects later recapitulated and will be converted into an authentic assessment. Authentic assessment (Authentic Assessment) is statistically significant measurements for the learning outcomes for the realm of attitudes, skills, and knowledge.

Aspects of assessment in the Curriculum 2013 into the tools, instruments, and criteria of learning success. The success of learning itself is not only determined by the scores or high scores obtained by learners, but the application is reflected in the behavior of learners that become an important and major component in determining the success of learning. The ability of learners in implementing the material taught by the teacher becomes a goal in every learning. Especially in today's schooling. Civics that become the benchmark of material planting moral values contained in KI 1 and KI 2 then become important in the curriculum in 2013. The phenomenon of less active learners in learning to be a common thing in some classes. This makes the teacher feel the need to change the learning method used, that is usually the teacher often uses the lecture method, question and answer, and assignment. At the time the teacher taught using the lecture method, several reasons have underpinned this research, including after the teacher convey a material, learners are given some practice questions. At the time of working on the problem, some learners look confused in solving the problem. Learners do not understand because they do not pay attention when the teacher explains. On another occasion, the teacher asks some learners about the material already taught. The teacher asks if they understand the explanation that has been delivered. One of the learners responded that the student actually did not understand, but was embarrassed to ask. Phenomena have an impact on the low learning outcomes of learners where the average class obtained by learners is lower than the KKM.

In addition to the cognitive aspect, the assessment of the social attitude aspects of the learners is still low. This can be seen from the many students who feel embarrassed by a little talk, and more withdrawing, when asked to answer in a quiet voice, there are still some students who are less acceptable in the class because of his behavior towards friends who are not as good as the likes disturbing friends, issuing bad words. Low social attitudes make children less able to interact effectively with their environment. They tend to think that aggressive action is the most appropriate way to tackle social problems and get what they want. As a result, they are often rejected by parents, peers, and the environment. The intention is to be rejected here is the child is often scolded or even ignored by his parents, all of them are also isolated from friends and also often derided for aggressive action.

Social attitudes that are part of the affective domain are often said to be very important in learning but are a domain that is rarely integrated, often ignored, still vague, and considered unclear indicators of assessment. In the implementation of formal learning that takes place in the classroom, the majority of teaching staff are more likely to touch the domain of cognition so that the materials, methods, and learning media are used and directed to the empowerment of cognitive aspects. Similarly, the evaluation of learning is developed, the cognitive aspect becomes a very emphasized part rather than the effective aspect. It becomes one of the causes of awareness to receive input and direction from others as well as ethics and morals are often overlooked.

Researchers as teachers feel the need to overcome these problems in the learning activities by changing the learning method used that can improve the knowledge aspects as well as improve the character of learners. One method that is assumed to improve the knowledge and character of the learner, especially the aspect of social attitude is the method of role-playing.method Roleplaying is a way of mastery of learning materials through the development of imagination and appreciation of learners. The development of imagination and appreciation of the students by playing it as a living or inanimate object. This game is generally done more than one person, it depends on what is played.

Role-playing begins with problem situations in the lives of the students. It explores how values drive behavior and raise student consciousness about the role of values in their lives and those of others. A direct effect is greater understanding about and empathy with differences in values as people interact. Another direct effect is strategies for resolving conflicts in fashions that respect different points of view without giving up the need for the agreed on humane values. 1

Definition of attitude by Hanurawan cites several opinions, including, Baron and Byrne argued that the definition of attitude is ratings subjective person towards an object of attitude. Strickland explains attitude is a predisposition or a tendency to respond cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally directed to a particular object, person, and situation in certain ways. Colman understands that attitude is a persistent pattern in the form of evaluative responses about people, objects, or issue. 2

According to Bruno in Muhibbin, attitude is a relatively sedentary tendency to react in a way good or bad against certain people or goods. 3 It is easy to quote Ahmadi's opinion that attitudes as learned predispositions that influence behavior, change in intensity, are usually consistent all the time in the same situation and the composition is almost always complex. 4

In general, understanding attitudes is the feeling, the mind, and the tendency of someone who is more or less permanent to know certain aspects of his environment. The components of attitude are knowledge, feelings, and tendencies to act. In another sense, attitude is an evaluative bias toward an object or subject that has consequences that is how one is faced with the object of attitude. The emphasis in most studies today is feeling or emotion. Attitudes contained in the individual will give the color or style of behavior or the actions of the individual concerned. By understanding or knowing individual attitudes, it can be estimated the response or behavior to be taken by the individual concerned.

So it can be interpreted that attitude is a response or tendency towards an object that is evaluative. Man in the world must have a different attitude when faced with an object. The response can be a feeling of sadness, happiness, anger and so on depending on how the man himself views the object.

Social attitudes are attitudes that exist in groups of people who are shown as an object of concern to all members of that group. For example, the Indonesian nation has a positive attitude towards the red and white flags and others. These objects can be things, groups of people, social values, life views, laws, community institutions and so on. 5 Social attitudes are the consciousness of the individual who determines the real, repetitive actions of the social object. This happens not only to others in a society. 6 This social attitude relates to the concept of social intelligence which means that the ability to understand and manage others, as the skill that humans need to live well in the world. 7

Prawira explains that social intelligence is the ability of individuals to confront and react to social situations or live in society. 8 Social intelligence is not a person's emotions toward others, but a person's ability to understand others can do something with the demands of society. Individuals with high social intelligence will be able to interact, mingle, or communicate with others easily, able to adapt to various socio-cultural environments. So that social intelligence is a maturity on the awareness of thinking and acting and the ability to understand themselves or the environment optimally to establish relationships with the environment or community groups in order to be able to become a responsible and effective community member.

Based on the descriptions of some theories above, it can be concluded that social attitudes are the consciousness of the individual who determines the real action to behave in a certain way towards others and attach social goals to the personal goals in the life of society, which can be measured on behavior: honest, disciplined, responsible, polite, caring, and confident in interacting with family, friends, teachers, neighbors, and the state.

Knowledge is the ability of a person to recall caller names, terms, ideas, formulas, etc., without expecting the ability to use them. Knowledge or memory is the lowest thought process.

Aspects of knowledge is an aspect that is in the learning materials to increase the insight of learners in a field. In the structure of the 2013 curriculum for elementary school level has a weight of knowledge as much as 20% and 80% aspect of the character. 9 According to Mulyasa that the value of the knowledge aspect is emphasized on the level of understanding of learners in terms of lessons that can be obtained from daily tests, mid or late semester tests, and repeat class increases. 10

Bloom in Mudjiono classifies aspects of knowledge or cognition into six classes/levels, namely: a) Knowledge, in this case, learners, are required to recall one or more of the simple facts; b) Understanding, ie learners are expected to be able to prove that he understands a simple relationship between facts or concepts; c) Usage/application, where learners are required to have the ability to select or choose specific generalizations/abstractions (concepts, laws, propositions, rules, ways) to apply in a new situation and apply them appropriately; d) The analysis is the ability of learners to analyze relationships or complex situations or basic concepts; e) Synthesis is the ability of learners to incorporate the basic elements into the new structure; f) Evaluation is the ability of learners to apply the knowledge and skills that have been owned to assess a case. 11

In the process of teaching and learning, this cognitive aspect is the most prominent and can be seen directly from the test results. Where here educators are required to carry out all of these goals. This can be done by the educator by incorporating the element into the given question. Questions given to learners must meet the elements of the goal in terms of cognitive so that learners can achieve the expected learning objectives.

Based on the description of some experts above, it can be synthesized that the knowledge aspect is the level of understanding of learners in terms of lessons that can be obtained from the daily test, middle or late semester test, and grade repetition.

Role-playing is a way of mastery learning materials through the development of imagination and appreciation of learners, which is one of the learning process belonging to the simulation method. 11 Bruce Joyce, et al. states that the role-playing model is versatile and can be used to try to achieve some important educational objectives. Through role-playing, students can enhance their abilities to recognize their own behaviors for difficult situations and improve their problem-solving skills. 1

The method role-playing is a way of mastery of learning materials through development of imagination and appreciation of learners. the development of imagination and appreciation of the students by playing it as a living figure or inanimate object. This game is generally done more than one person, it depends on what is played. 12

The essence of role-playing is the involvement of participants and observers in the realm of engenders. The role-playing process provides a live sample of human behavior that serves as a vehicle for student to: (1) explore their feelings; (2) gain insight into their attitudes, values, and perceptions; (3) develop their problem-solving skills and attitudes; and (4) explore subject matter in varied ways. 1

Sanjaya states that the role-playing method is a method of learning as part of a simulated form that is directed to recreate historical events, create actual events, or events that appear in the future. 13

Role-playing implicitly advocates an experience-based learning situation in which the "here and now" is the content of instruction. The model assumes that it is possible to create authentic analogies to life. Thus, the enactment elicits genuine emotional responses and behaviors from the students. 1

Based on several theories above, it can be concluded that the method of role-playing is a method of learning directed to creation on an event with role-playing techniques so that learners can appreciate their respective roles and the experience has a positive impact on the mastery of certain materials, so as to achieve the purpose of learning.

The description of the theoretical framework in this study is as follows:

2. Methods

This research was conducted at SDN Jatibening IV Bekasi City, located in Jatibening Urban Village, Pondok Gede Subdistrict, Bekasi City, West Java Province. The research was conducted in class V SDN Jatibening IV Kota Bekasi with the number of students as many as 32 students. The research time is planned in the first semester of the 2017/2018 academic year, precisely from October 2017 to March 2018.

This research is action research conducted in the classroom. Action research is research conducted by the teacher in the class itself with how to plan, implement, and reflects the collaborative action and participation with the aim of improving its performance as a teacher so that the learners can be increased.

Many models can be used as guidelines for designing and conducting classroom action research. Researchers in this study used the concept of action research from Hopkins. The Hopkins model of action research model can be described in the chart as follows. 14

The instrument of data collection to measure the social attitude of learners using observation sheet. Assessment of social attitudes is derived from two assessments, namely the main assessment and the assessment of support. The main assessment is obtained from daily observations written in daily journals. While supporting assessment obtained from the self-assessment and assessment between friends, which results to be used as a confirmation tool of assessment by the attitude of educators. The data collection instrument to measure the knowledge aspect of the learner is assessed through a written test. Based on the Technical Guidance Guidance in Elementary School it is mentioned that the answers are in the form of multiple choice, stuffing, right-wrong, matching, and description. The written test used in this study is a test that measures the learner's knowledge of the subject of Civic Education.

3. Results

The learning actions conducted in this study consist of two cycles, namely cycle I and cycle II. Implementation of learning in each cycle consists of two meetings, each meeting with a time allocation of 2 x 35 minutes. Broadly speaking the steps of implementation of learning through the method role-playing consists of nine phases, this is in accordance with the opinion of Joyce stating that: role-playing model is versatile and can be used to try to achieve some important educational objectives. Through role-playing, students can improve their abilities to recognize their own and others' people feelings, acquire new behaviors for handling previously difficult situations, and improve their problem-solving skills. 1

The results of observation of the learners in the learning activities through the method role-playing to see the response of learners obtained data as follows:

The activity of learners in observing, expressing opinions, facial expressions, seriousness, and teamwork, increased from cycle I action which only reached 58,54% increase in cycle II to 87,29% or increase amounted to 50.69%. Thus, the use of method role-playing in learning activities is very effective in improving the activities of learners in learning activities, especially on the subject of Civic Education.

The results of teacher assessment of the social attitudes of learners to see the learning success method of role-playing per cycle can be seen in the following table:

The results of students' self-assessment of social attitudes to see the success of learning methods of role-playing per cycle can be seen in the table as follows:

The result of the assessment of social attitudes to see the success of the defender distance method of role-playing per cycle can be seen in the following table:

The post-test result of learning evaluation to see the success of learning on knowledge aspect per cycle can be seen in a table as follows:

From table recapitulate the knowledge aspect assessment, can be depicted in the following charts:

When viewed from the level of mastery learning, it can be described in terms of bar chart as follows:

4. Discussion

The results of the research show that improving learning by using method role-playing can improve the knowledge aspect of learners on the subject of Civic Education. This can be seen from the improvement of learning outcomes from before the improvement (pre-cycle) with after doing the learning action until Cycle II. So that the method role-playing has a positive effect on improving the knowledge aspect of learners.

Bruce Joyce, et al. states that the role-playing model is versatile and can be used to try to achieve some important educational objectives. Through role-playing, students can enhance their abilities to recognize their own behaviors for difficult situations and improve their problem-solving skills. 1

The method role-playing is a way of mastery of learning materials through development of imagination and appreciation of learners. the development of imagination and appreciation of the students by playing it as a living figure or inanimate object. This game is generally done more than one person, it depends on what is played. 12

Bruce Joyce, et al. the essence of role-playing is the involvement of participants and observers in the realm of engenders. The role-playing process provides a live sample of human behavior that serves as a vehicle for student to: (1) explore their feelings; (2) gain insight into their attitudes, values, and perceptions; (3) develop their problem-solving skills and attitudes; and (4) explore subject matter in varied ways. 1

Bruce Joyce, et al. Roleplaying implicitly advocates an experience-based learning situation in which the "here and now" is the content of instruction. The model assumes that it is possible to create authentic analogies to life. Thus, the enactment elicits genuine emotional responses and behaviors from the students. 1

This is in accordance with the opinion of Djamarah which states that the advantages of method role-playing in learning activities are: (1) can be strong and durable in the memory of learners, in addition to being a pleasant experience also gives knowledge inherent in the memory of the brain, 2) is very interesting for learners, enabling the class to be dynamic and enthusiastic, (3) generate passion and spirit of optimism in the learners and foster a sense of togetherness, and (4) learners can jump directly to portray something that will be discussed in the learning process.

5. Conclude

The conclusion of this research is the use o method role-playing in learning activities can improve social attitudes and knowledge aspects of the students of class V SDN Jatibening IV Kota Bekasi.

Implementation of method role-playing in the learning activity in this research refers to the opinion of Fannie Shaftel and George Shafel that stage of playing role consists of nine steps: (1) warm up the group (2) select participant, 3) set the stage, (4) prepare the observers, (5) instrumental) (6) discuss and evaluate (discussing and evaluating), (7) plays back, (8) discuss and evaluate, and (9) share experiences and generalize. Learning through method role-playing can improve students' social attitudes. social learners in this study were obtained from three sources namely the assessment made by teachers, self-learners, and assessment of the between friends. Aspects assessed include honest attitude, discipline, responsible, courteous, caring, and confident.

Learning through method role-playing can improve the knowledge aspect. This is evidenced by the increase of test result value from before the improvement (pre-cycle) with the acquisition of the average grade value of 66.56 with the classical completeness of 25.00%, increased after the learning action until Cycle II with the average value obtained class average of 80,31 with classical completeness equal to 93,75%.

The implication of this research is the improvement of social attitude and knowledge aspect of learners can be done by using method role-playing. This means that if the use of methods role-playing implemented by teachers and implemented well, then the social attitudes and knowledge aspects of learners increased. Thus, the use of method role-playing is one of the negligible factors in achieving social attitudes and knowledge aspects of learners.

The use of method role-playing in learning activities has several advantages such as can be memorable with strong and durable in the memory of learners, in addition to being a fun experience also gives knowledge inherent in the memory of the brain, is very interesting for learners, thus allowing the class to be dynamic and enthusiastic, arouse the passion and spirit of optimism in the learners and foster a sense of togetherness, and learners can jump directly to portray something that will be discussed in the learning process.

Suggestions that can be given from the results of this research is the method of role-playing can be used as an alternative learning methods that can be applied by teachers in learning activities, especially on the subject of Citizenship Education, so that learning becomes more fun and the involvement of learners in learning activities so more increased, positive impact on improving social attitudes and knowledge of learners. In order to streamline the use of method role-playing in learning activities so that the learning objectives can be achieved well, then there are some things that need to be considered by the teacher, including; teachers need to pay attention to the allocation of time in the activities role-playing because the implementation of role-playing requires a relatively long time, the application of method role-playing requires creativity and creativity of the teacher and students, and this is not all teachers have, the motivation and motivation of teachers to overcome learners who are embarrassed in acting out a particular scene. For the principal, it is expected to continue to encourage and facilitate teachers in improving the competence, especially the mastery of learning methods so that teachers can afford and be more innovative in carrying out learning activities in the classroom.

References

[1]  Joyce, Bruce, Marsha Weil, Emily Calhoun. (2015). Models of Teaching. Ninth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Hanurawan, Fattah. (2012). Social Psychology An Introduction. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[3]  Shah, Muhibbin. (2010). Educational Psychology with New Approach. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[4]  Mahmudah. (2011). Introduction to Psychology. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
In article      
 
[5]  Sarwono, SW. (2010). Social Psychology. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.
In article      
 
[6]  Ahmadi, Abu. (2007). Social Psychology. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
In article      
 
[7]  Goleman, Daniel. (2007). Emotional Intelligence. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Prawira, Purwa Atmaja (2013) Educational Psychology in a New Perspective. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media
In article      
 
[9]  Directorate of Primary School Development. (2016) Assessment Guide For Elementary School (SD). Jakarta: Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Ministry of Education and Culture
In article      
 
[10]  Mulyasa (2013) Development and Implementation of Curriculum 2013. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya
In article      
 
[11]  Mulyono (2012) Learning Strategy. Malang: UIN Maliki Press
In article      
 
[12]  Hamdani (2011) Teaching and Learning Strategy. Bandung: Loyal Library
In article      
 
[13]  Sanjaya, Vienna. (2010). Strategy of Learning-Oriented Standard Process. Jakarta: Prenada Media
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Sanjaya, Vienna. (2009) Classroom Action Research. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Tati Arifah Nurdin, M. Japar, Ishak G. Bachtiar and Adi Apriadi Adiansha

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Tati Arifah Nurdin, M. Japar, Ishak G. Bachtiar, Adi Apriadi Adiansha. Improving Social Attitudes and Knowledge Through Role Playing Method. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 7, 2018, pp 1040-1045. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/7/23
MLA Style
Nurdin, Tati Arifah, et al. "Improving Social Attitudes and Knowledge Through Role Playing Method." American Journal of Educational Research 6.7 (2018): 1040-1045.
APA Style
Nurdin, T. A. , Japar, M. , Bachtiar, I. G. , & Adiansha, A. A. (2018). Improving Social Attitudes and Knowledge Through Role Playing Method. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(7), 1040-1045.
Chicago Style
Nurdin, Tati Arifah, M. Japar, Ishak G. Bachtiar, and Adi Apriadi Adiansha. "Improving Social Attitudes and Knowledge Through Role Playing Method." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 7 (2018): 1040-1045.
Share
[1]  Joyce, Bruce, Marsha Weil, Emily Calhoun. (2015). Models of Teaching. Ninth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Hanurawan, Fattah. (2012). Social Psychology An Introduction. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[3]  Shah, Muhibbin. (2010). Educational Psychology with New Approach. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[4]  Mahmudah. (2011). Introduction to Psychology. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
In article      
 
[5]  Sarwono, SW. (2010). Social Psychology. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.
In article      
 
[6]  Ahmadi, Abu. (2007). Social Psychology. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
In article      
 
[7]  Goleman, Daniel. (2007). Emotional Intelligence. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Prawira, Purwa Atmaja (2013) Educational Psychology in a New Perspective. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media
In article      
 
[9]  Directorate of Primary School Development. (2016) Assessment Guide For Elementary School (SD). Jakarta: Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Ministry of Education and Culture
In article      
 
[10]  Mulyasa (2013) Development and Implementation of Curriculum 2013. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya
In article      
 
[11]  Mulyono (2012) Learning Strategy. Malang: UIN Maliki Press
In article      
 
[12]  Hamdani (2011) Teaching and Learning Strategy. Bandung: Loyal Library
In article      
 
[13]  Sanjaya, Vienna. (2010). Strategy of Learning-Oriented Standard Process. Jakarta: Prenada Media
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Sanjaya, Vienna. (2009) Classroom Action Research. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.
In article