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Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam

Hoang Thi Kim Phuong, Do Thi Thao , Dang Loc Tho
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1365-1371. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-5
Received September 10, 2018; Revised October 13, 2018; Accepted October 18, 2018

Abstract

This article aims to assess the current state of musical activity in limiting stereotypical behavior in 5- to 6-year-old ASD in some special education centers in Hanoi, Vietnam. A number of lessons for teachers in organizing musical activities for ASD children will be discussed. The results of theoretical and practical research indicate that: 1) stereotype behavior has a significant impact on play, learning and social participation in ASD children; 2) Music is the pathway to the emotional world of children, the appropriate use of music will help ASD children to reconcile emotions and reduce stereotyped stereotype; 3) Organizing music activities not only helps children to focus attention, helps children relax, increases calm, but also helps children improve interpersonal skills, group activities as well as language development. speech, body and behavior; 4) The process of organizing musical activities of teachers and parents for ASD children has not had a consistent, clear process as well as coordination among stakeholders has not really tight. Consequently, educators need to continue to research and propose appropriate measures and procedures for organizing appropriate music activities for teachers and parents, which is needed in young ASD intervention centers.

1. Introduction

Stereotyped behavior is one of the most challenging behaviors commonly displayed in children with ASD to intervene. Educational interventions of behaviors should indicate a system of plans, methods, and purposes based on individual characteristics of the child to reduce unexpected behaviors and change them into expected ones, teach new behaviors and provide opportunities to maximize the development for children with ASD 1. stereotyped behavior is one of the core diagnostic criteria for ASD of ICD-10 2 and DSM-5 3.

The study by Amy M. Wetherby, Angieber Barber and Lindee Morgan (2008) 4 suggested that stereotyped behavioral behaviors repeat in ASD infants with high frequency from 18-24 months (range 2 first year of life). Bishop SL, Richler J, and Lord C. (2006) 5 investigated the relationship between stereotype and ASD-free speech IQ, which showed repetitive behaviors does not have much relevance to non-verbal IQs, but educators base non-ages and nonverbal IQs to offer appropriate behavioral corrective measures. Susan M. Ravizza, Marjorie Solomon, Richard B. Ivry and Cameron S. Carter (2013) investigated the causes of stereotyped behaviors and showed the link between attention deficit and difficulty in mobilization 6. Szatmari P, Liu XQ, Goldberg J, Zwaigenbaum L, Paterson AD, Woodbury-Smith M, Georgiades S, Duku E, Thompson A (2012) showed that ASD girls are more likely to exhibit lower stereotypes compared to ASD boys 7.

There are many methods and measures proposed to limit ASD behaviors such as ABA, TEACCH, PECS, mood sensation, but overall there is no improvement in behavioral problems in children. Today, music therapy is being considered and introduced in ASD to help children develop vocabularies, improve communication, increase emotional well-being, and limit unwanted behaviors. Case studies include Molnar-Szakacs I1 and Heaton P (2012) 8, Heaton P, Allen R (2009) 9, Heaton P (2009) 10, Rachel Marie Weinzapfel (2011) 10, Brownell, MD (2002) 11, Nguyen Van Tho 13. These studies have shown that the musical ability of ASD children differs from non-ASD children of the same age. Music therapy activities have a very beneficial effect on the learning and development of ASD children. However, the study of measures to organize musical activities in order to limit stereotyping behavior for children is not deeply concerned.

In this article, we focus on analyzing and analyzing the status of musical activity aimed at limiting stereotypical behavior in ASD children aged 5-6, from which lessons are learned in the process of behavioral education for young ASD.

2. Content

2.1. Stereotypical Behavior and Organization of Musical Activities Aimed at Limiting Stereotypical Behavior in ASD Children 5-6 Years

* Behavioral stereotyping in ASD children

According to Leo Kanner, rigid stereotypical behavior is typical among ASD children and manifests itself in a variety of forms such as repetition, shaping of body movements, maintaining shaping habits, DSM- IV (2000) 14.

Baumeister (1978) argued that stereotypes are often repetitive, seemingly identical, and seem to have no adaptive function. Specific child-specific reactions include self-harm and self-irritability. These often interfere with the child's attention span, limiting the effectiveness of education and other programs 15.

According to Schreibman, Heyse and Stahmer (1999), Behavioral stereotyping can be verbal or nonverbal, can be simple or complex and can occur with or without the subject. The most common manifestation of the stereotype is clapping of hands, body swaying, hoofing, spinning, sniffing, mimicking or delaying, and running out of control of adults. 16.

According to the DSM-5 (2013) 3 diagnostic criteria, stereotypes, behaviors, interests, and activities in autistic spectrum disorders are often expressed in at least two manifestations of the four manifestations: (1) Stereotyping and repeating speech, movement or activity with objects; (2) Maintaining excessive habits, verbal and nonverbal behaviors in the pattern and resistance to change (moving in a patterned pattern, insisting on the route, repeating the question or tense when there is a change); (3) Showing strong interest in some things with high emotion and concentration (strong attachment or persistent attention by unusual objects, limited interests, and maintenance (4) Upper or lower threshold sensation or concern for an abnormal stimulation from the environment (apathy with pain / heat / cold, negative reaction to negative specific materials and bars, excessive sensitivity to smells or touches on objects, delirium with lights or rotating objects.) Behavioral problems of autistic spectrum disorders are often inconsistent ones such as winging, turning on and off lights continuously, flicking fingers in front of the face, waving hands, looking continuously at a ceiling fan...). Those behaviors cause children to have many difficulties in learning and daily activities 3.

Rigid behavior is associated with one or all senses of ASD:

Sight: Glaring at light bulbs or light-emitting objects, squint, or raising fingers before eyes, or clapping hands.

Hearing: Hitting hands, turning the fingers for sound, or making sounds from the mouth.

Touch: Using hands or other objects to rub the skin. They may also scratch their skin.

Vestibule: Swinging from front to back or sides, moving continuously

Taste: Putting objects or fingers into the mouth.

Smell: Smelling objects and even other people.

The manifestations of stereotypical behavior are divided into the following groups: (1) Stimulating stereotypical behavior (i) Social interaction: Without on-the-spot assistance, the decline in social communication causes visible deficiencies. Difficulties in starting social interactions and having clear examples of atypical or unsuccessful responses to the social recommendations of others. There may appear a narrowing of interest in social interactions. Formative behavior: Rigid behavior hinders some functions. Difficult to switch between activities. Having difficulty organizing and planning on your own (ii) Restrictive and repetitive behavior: Concerns, ritualistic or repetitive behaviors that occur frequently, are clearly identified by accidental observation and interfering with activities in many different situations. Uncomfortable or frustrated when repeated routines or behaviors are interrupted, difficult to divert attention; (2) Self-harming stereotypical groups: (i) Social communication: A serious deficiency of verbal and nonverbal communication skills causes severe impairment of activity. Very limited social interaction initiation and minimal social response from others; (ii) Repetitive behaviors and repetitive behaviors: Concerns, ritualistic behaviors, or repetitive behaviors that significantly impede activity in all areas. It is uncomfortable or stressful when habits or repetitive behaviors are interrupted, it is difficult to shift attention to other things and often return to old haste quickly.

Thus, rigid stereotypical behaviors are typical behaviors of ASD children, which are repetitive behaviors and unaltered responses, occurring at high frequency rates, without revealing the adaptation such as: flipping fingers, clapping hands and arms, jumping up and down, shaking head, jumping from one foot to the other, standing and turning around, toeing…

* Organizing musical activities to limit stereotyping behavior in ASD children 5-6 years old

Music is an art that combines sound according to certain rules. Music originates from the sound of life, it reflects human emotions.

Music is an art that uses sound to express. Its main elements are altitude (tone adjustment), rhythm (and its associated concepts: tempo, speed), tone, and sound qualities of tone and musical structure. Music is a vocal sound or sounds from an audio instrument (or both) combined in such a way to create the beauty of form, harmony and emotional expression.

The meaning of music to ASD children: The purpose of music education is moral education, aesthetic education for children. Music education is also a means to improve intellectual ability, physical development, help children develop imagination, strengthen children's knowledge through learning, play. Through contact and activities with music such as listening to music, moving to music, playing music games, singing lessons ... will help children develop vocabulary, movement, emotions and behave appropriately.

In spite of many limited social and interpersonal interactions and stereotyped behaviors, ASD children still have the ability to feel, play and sing, and many children enjoy non-verbal music. Children love to reduce the stress, embarrassment brought about by the environment. Music comes into the world of children, which helps them gain progress.

a) Music helps children develop communication skills. Applying music to ASD's educational program has a positive meaning in supporting the development of communication skills for children. Neha Khetrapal (2009) asserted "Music is an effective way of improving communication in ASDs." Music activities have positive implications for the use of nonverbal language through the eyes, gestures. If children are involved in regular music activities, music games with rhythm will help children bravely perform activities, express themselves before everyone. Sometimes when the child's favorite games are stopped by the teacher, the child will take the initiative to act like a bell or put the instrument into her hands to continue the game. A group of young people who are often instructed by your teacher to listen to a melodious piece of music, at some point when the music is turned on, can take the initiative to take your hand need to speak. It can be said that music does not directly teach children how to act to express themselves, but if children are exposed to music and appropriate music activities, can handle emotions, from that supports other activities. Gradually, passive children may be more aggressive in expressing themselves, the hyperactive child may use reasonable actions instead of words to express needs. Rotation skills are a typical defect in ASD children who do not care about people around them, regardless of the attitude of others. On the first days, teachers will have difficulty organizing activities for a group of children in which need for rotating skills. For example, by organizing a child to play with the drum in turn, the teacher will have to be tactful when some children refuse to pass the drum to friends. With each child's characteristics, the teacher must have appropriate treatment so that he or she is interested in repeating his drum action, accepting the drum for others and waiting for his or her turn.

b) Music helps children increase their ability to interact with their surroundings

Participating in music activities creates more opportunities for children to interact with their friends. However, the selected group of children should have the same musical preference. They will begin to interact with one another when they are guided together in a circle, coordinating the transmission of the rhythmic movement, the tone of the song. In order to move the ring, it is necessary to move the rhythm of all individuals. At the same time, music is the bridge that helps individuals in the group to pass the rhythm. Music helps children interact naturally through the medium. In addition, the rhythm of the drum, the sound of dice and the rhythm of a song will help children feel happy, connected to each other in a natural way.

When children sing along to the melody of a favorite song, they can confidently walk the beat of everyone's track without being afraid. Music used properly will help the children come over the wrap of the fear, and become addable, strong and active in the active.

c) Music helps to improve the behavior:

Music can manipulate people's emotions. Composer Beethoven once said, "Music puts the fire in the man's heart and gives it to the woman's eyes." With ASD, music that is used in accordance with the child's interests can help the child to anger, prevent negative behavior from occurring. If a child who is in a state of irritability, can hold, throw anything, the teacher can use melodeon, play a favorite song. This can make the child get attracted to forget the angry. In addition, children learn how to use instruments such as drums, tambourine to help themselves gradually reduce the stereotyped behavior ... However, to remove the stereotyped behavior, children should work regularly, otherwise children will get back to the old habits. Appropriate music games will appeal to children. When activities combine with musical instruments, the rhythm will delight the child, creating positive emotions. Maintaining positive emotions in ASD helps to reduce negative behaviors in children.

2.2. Actual Organization of Musical Activity to Limit Stereotyping Behavior for ASD Children 5-6 Years Old
2.2.1. An Overview of the Survey Process

The aim of the study was to assess the current state of ASD stereotype behavior; The current state of the organization of musical activities is to limit the stereotypical behavior of ASD, which is the basis for drawing some lessons learned in the process of organizing music activities to limit the behavior among ASD children.

The content of the The content of the survey: Awareness, skills of teachers and parents in the organization of music activities to limit stereotyping behavior for ASD children. (2) Measures to organize music activities to limit stereotypical behaviors for ASD children. (3) Advantages and disadvantages of teachers in organizing music activities to limit the stereotypical behavior of ASD children.

Survey methods and tools: (1) Questionnaire: questionnaires for 35 teachers of ASD children, 30 parents of ASD children at the special education and music therapy center Phoenix, Center Huong Ban - Hanoi to collect information from teachers and parents about the organization of music activities to limit making stereotypes for ASD children; (2) Observation: Observation to record information about the organization of musical activities for ASD children at educational institutions; (3) Interview: to interview teachers about the current situation, roles and factors affecting the organization of musical activities to reduce stereotypical behaviors for ASD children; (4) Data process: The results were calculated and processed with statistical devices which helped draw the comments and conclusions.

We surveyed over 35 teachers working with children with ASD including: Huong Ban Mai Center Teacher, Special Education Center and Music Therapist Phoenix Ha In-home and home teaching for children with ASD. All teachers have educational experiences for children with ASD for 12 months or more; and 30 parents of ASD children.


2.2.2. Survey Results and Analysis of Survey Results

a. Teachers' and parents' perceptions of the necessity of organizing musical activities for ASD children 5-6 years old

Surveying the opinions of teachers on the necessity of music activities to limit stereotyping behaviors for ASD children, we find that most teachers and parents find that music is necessary for teaching and behavioral education for children. Details are as follows:

Most teachers said that the organization of music activities is essential for education, limiting the stereotypical behavior of children with RLTPK 60%, about 40% of teachers said that the music activities is necessary, and no teacher thinks this is unnecessary. Ms. TH, a school intervention teacher, said: "Any sounding melodic effect is quite positive for the children that I intervene, it is hard for them to hear the command, but it is very easy to mix music to dance, there are lessons when I let students listen to music and movement, their concentration is longer than normal.

On the parent’s side, there was a certain understanding of the musical activities, namely that 43.3% of parents said that the organization of music activities is essential for the maturity. More than half of parents surveyed (56.7%) said that this was necessary for the child, no parents claiming that the activity was unnecessary. Mr. C, a parent of an ASD, commented on the organization of the musical: "I personally find it important to associate activities with music or organize music activities. For example, my child has a very big problem of feeling and when he hears some strange noise or noise he will cringe or scream, but if he hears a light, familiar song, the concentration Your child's education is good, not even showing any behavior”, "I personally do not understand what musical activities are, so I wonder if organizing these activities would help my child reduce his or her behavior," said AN, a parent of an ASD. "But I like listening to songs, I notice that when I grow up, I open my favorite songs, and I'll forget that I'm irritated and sing along with the song." As a result, many parents consider organizing music activities necessary. However, there are still some parents who are not aware of the musical activities and the effects of these activities on their children, so educators need to help them understand the role and meaning of organizing these musical activities for ASD children.

Thus, there is a discrepancy in the assessment of the need for musical activities between teachers and parents, but the difference is negligible, indicating that both teachers and teachers have had the same new ideas and support the organization of music activities to limit stereotyping behavior for ASD children.

b. The role of the organization of musical activity in limiting stereotypical behavior for ASD children 5-6 years.

The results of the survey on the role of organizing musical activities in reducing stereotypical behaviors for ASD children are presented in Table 1.

Both teachers and parents have a high appreciation for the role of musical activity in limiting stereotypical behavior in ASD children.

The surveyed teachers believe that using music activities will help children relax, reduce the stimulating factors for children to enjoy activities (94.3% and ranked first); Ranked 2nd is helping children to focus attention (91.4%). The third is to help children enhance the ability to interact with others (77.1%); Finally, helping to develop language accounts for 68.6% and helping children play with objects accounts for 37.1%. The results show that teachers highly value and appreciate the organization of music activities for ASD children.

On the parents’ side, the parents said the organization of music activities for children will help children to focus, attention (89.2% and ranked first); The second most important role is to help children relax, release stress and enjoy activities with 86.2%; followed by increase in interpersonal interaction (73.8%); Fourth and fifth place is to help children develop their language (60%) and play with a variety of objects (30%).

Thus, both the teachers and parents have the same ideas about the role of organizing musical activities to help ASDs to limit rigid stereotyping behaviors.

c. Degree of use and effectiveness of musical organization measures to limit stereotyping behavior in ASD children.

The survey was conducted on 35 teachers in 2 specialized facilities with the following scoring and scoring methods: Use: Frequency = 3 points, occasional = 2 points, never = 1 point. Effectiveness: Efficiency = 3 points, less effective = 2 points, inefficient = 1 point (Table 2).

In terms of use: teachers have used a lot of measures to organize music activities. These measures are applied flexibly depending on the subject, context as well as the characteristics and needs of each young group. The most frequently used method is teacher’s modeling sample multiple times (3 times or more) with M = 2.66, for music activities, teachers regularly model and repeat many times. This is in keeping with the physical prompts for the children to participate as positively and effectively as possible. The second measure is to organize thematic activities with M = 2.6; followed by the design of musical activities to help children have fun with M = 2.57; Using musical instruments, visual aids in music activities with M = 2.54, the teachers agreed that with musical activities children have the support tools attached or the means Visualization will stimulate children's ability to focus and enjoy more.

The next step is to choose a musical activity based on the preference of the child with M = 2.51; Have children play a role in music with M = 2.43 and finally visualization of content and meaning to help children understand better with M = 2.37.

"For the measures to organize music activities, they often focus and try to flexibly meet the needs and characteristics of children, the most popular is still Teachers use words and intonation to guide incorporating theme topics to design activities that inspire children".

Thus, the level of using these organizational measures is quite frequent and is used flexibly by teachers depending on the target group.

In terms of effectiveness: The teacher's assessment of the effectiveness of the measures that teachers are currently using to organize music activities in the centers, we see each measure has a certain effect, the effectiveness was assessed at the highest level as the teacher repeatedly (3 times or more) with M = 2.86, followed by measures using the instrument, visual aids in the operation music with M = 2.77, which is said to be very effective and profitable for teachers because the means of support play an important role in helping children enjoy and focus in lesson; The third effect is the measure of musical activity that helps children to enjoy with M = 2.74; Choice of music based on the interests of children with M 2.71; Organizing theme music with M 2.69 and the last one is illustrating content and meanings through pictures to help children understand better with M = 2.60 and for children to play when operating music with M = 2.54. "Each measure has its own characteristics, so each measure will have certain effects, but the subject of each teacher is different in their effectiveness," - said Ms. H, center teacher Huong. Dawn.

Comparison of the usage level and the efficiency of use, although there are differences in quantity, proportions but not significant and proportional. That means more effective measures will be used more often. The effectiveness of M-measure was 2.86; M = 2.66; the use of visual aids in musical activities with the regular use of M = 2.54 has an efficiency of M = 2.77. Ms. H, said: "Most teachers will try to mix the measures into the music activities for students feel new and interesting, but teachers will often tend to measure the effectiveness of the lesson. are usually preferred to use, just to use the flexibility or change the tempo a bit to create a new.

d. Advantages and disadvantages of organizing musical activities to promote stereotyping for ASD children

Through observation, we found that teachers and parents have many advantages, but also many difficulties in the process of organizing music activities to limit stereotypical behavior for ASD children.

* Advantages: Have the attention and coordination of family and school; teachers and teachers are actively involved in activities as well as training courses on organization of intensive music activities as well as providing all conditions for teachers and staff to study the materials, learn from each other. In which, being actively involved in the training courses, the training was highly appreciated by the teachers and the parents with 84.6% (82.9% and 86.7% respectively). The activities were attended by teachers and teachers at home, school and society, accounting for 81.5% (teachers accounted for 71.4% and parents accounted for 93.3%); Finally, the teachers and facilitators were able to study the related materials and to improve their experiences (between teachers and teachers, teachers with parents and parents with parents). % (Teacher accounts for 60% and CM accounts for 76.7%) (see Table 3).

Thus, the organization of musical activities aimed at limiting the stereotypical behavior of ASD children in the centers has many advantages, we need to take advantage of that to develop skills, skills as well as minimizing inappropriate behaviors in children.

* Difficulties:

In addition to these advantages, teachers and parents also encountered many limitations in the process of organizing music activities to limit the stereotypical behavior of ASD children (Table 4).

Looking at the table above, teachers and teachers have many difficulties and challenges when organizing music activities for children aged 5 to 6 years. The biggest is the lack of materials, equipment, furniture and music activities accounted for 83.1% (teachers accounted for 88.6% and parents accounted for 76.7%). Ms. H (AN’s parent) said: "There are musical instruments in the classroom, but sometimes I want to have children to participate in music activities, but the house does not have anything but knock on the table, chair or create music on TV ". Then there are the inadequacies of the organization space occupied 78.5% (teachers occupy 77.1% and 80% of CM), A also shared: "because the music activities are dynamic, cause Noisy, it attracts children, but sometimes this will inadvertently affect other children or cause children to feel low threshold uncomfortable. Third difficulty is the cooperation of the child 67.7% (teachers occupy 65.7% and 70% CM); It is not possible for all children to be involved in activities, with children who are fearful of sound or have a low threshold of sensation, the use of musical activities may have a negative effect. This is also a problem that teachers and teachers need to base on the characteristics of children's interest accounted for 66.1%. Finally, there are two difficulties, respectively, that teachers and trainers have not been trained professionally (64.6%) and there is no method to attract and work with children effectively (49.2%) (see Table 4).

There are also differences in opinion between parents and teachers in some difficulties, however, this difference is not significant and that further proves the anxiety and worries of teachers and parents in employment. How to organize musical activities for the stereotyped children.

2.3. The Lesson is to Improve the Effectiveness of Organizing Music Activities to Reduce Stereotypical Behavior in ASD Children 5-6 Years Old

Based on the general situation of organizing musical activities aimed at limiting stereotypical behavior of 5-6-year-old ASDs in two specialized institutions in Hanoi, we draw some lessons to raise Highly effective organization of musical activities to limit stereotyping behaviors for ASD children 5-6 years as follows:

Teachers and parents need to be trained in how to organize their musical activities and to choose the music that best fits the types of behavior they express in order to increase their effectiveness in restraint. Insufficient stereotyping behaviors in ASD children 5-6 years old ... In addition, the regular professional training and exchange between teachers, teachers and parents is also an important issue. need to care.

It is necessary to ensure adequate facilities, music room, environment and space suitable for organizing music activities at ASD's intervention centers.

Musical activity is a useful activity, helping children raise awareness, reduce behavior also help children health, spirit of playful. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure adequate facilities, music room, environment and space suitable for organizing music activities at the intervention centers. It is designed to help children enjoy and focus on activities.

The process of organizing musical activities for ASD children should have a consistent, coherent process as well as close coordination among stakeholders. Each child (group) needs to have a personal plan that is appropriate for the level of musical perception and behavior that the child is experiencing.

Proposing measures to improve the understanding, grasping and using, organizing musical activities to limit stereotypical behavior for ASD children 5-6 years is needed. Develop a process and system of measures to improve the quality of the organization of music activities and to help them integrate into the community and to have the opportunity to integrate in the future.

3. Conclusion

Behavioral stereotyping influences the child's ability to pay attention, participation in learning and play activities 1. Finding a way to limit the behavior of children with ASD between 5 and 6 years is essential. Teachers have taken many measures to organize musical activities to limit inappropriate behaviors in ASD children, but the implementation has not been effective due to the lack of equipment, mastering the musical activities of teachers, the coordination with young parents. Organizing effective music activities for ASD children needs to: 10 understand the characteristics of the child's stereotypes, the relationship between the behavior and the senses, the cognitive ability, the communication of the child; 2) Choosing music that is consistent with the child's stereotype to help remove stereotypical non-functional behavior into meaningful actions; 3) Know how to organize musical activities that integrate with other fun activities, learning to practice regularly, minimizing stereotyped behavior; 4) Continuing professional training, sharing experiences and proposing measures and procedures for organizing appropriate music activities for young teachers and teachers is essential in young ASD intervention centers.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Hoang Thi Kim Phuong, Do Thi Thao and Dang Loc Tho

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Hoang Thi Kim Phuong, Do Thi Thao, Dang Loc Tho. Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 10, 2018, pp 1365-1371. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/10/5
MLA Style
Phuong, Hoang Thi Kim, Do Thi Thao, and Dang Loc Tho. "Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6.10 (2018): 1365-1371.
APA Style
Phuong, H. T. K. , Thao, D. T. , & Tho, D. L. (2018). Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 1365-1371.
Chicago Style
Phuong, Hoang Thi Kim, Do Thi Thao, and Dang Loc Tho. "Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 10 (2018): 1365-1371.
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  • Table 3. Advantages in the organization of musical activities aimed at limiting stereotypical behavior of ASD children aged 5-6
  • Table 4. Difficulties in arranging musical activities to limit stereotypical behavior of ASD children aged 5-6
[1]  Do Thi Thao, Tran Xuan Kieu. (2017). Stereotyped behaviors and strategies to intervene stereotyped behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders from 3 to 6 years old at special preschools, HNUE Journal of Science, 62(6), 147-157.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  ICD-10, World Health Organization. International classification of diseases. Switzerland: WHO; Geneva: 1990.
In article      
 
[3]  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, (DSM-5). (2013). American Psychiatric Association (APA).
In article      
 
[4]  Amy M. Wetherby, Angieber Barber và Lindee Morgan. (2008). Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38:1518-1533.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Bishop SL, Richler J, Lord C. (2006). Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 12: 247-267.
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