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Continuing Professional Development Program as Evidenced by the Lenses of QSU Licensed Professional Teachers

Romiro G. Bautista , Violeta G. Benigno, Jamina G. Camayang, Jordan C. Ursua Jr., Cynthia G. Agaloos, Fluther N.G. Ligado, Kris N. Buminaang
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(11), 1172-1176. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-11-10
Published online: December 06, 2017

Abstract

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) program as applied in the teaching profession puts every Licensed Professional Teacher (LPT) at the center of leveraging the conditions and quality of teaching and learning in the Philippines. This study puts forward the idea that LPTs are self-directed and autonomous and lifelong learner-professionals driven by their internal motivation to be armed with the current knowledge in the educational topography. Employing the Explicative-Reductive Research design of Descriptive Research, it was found out that the LPT-respondents had a good to very good state of awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to their profession which manifests that they are self-directed, internally motivated, and autonomous and lifelong learner-professionals. Singles were found to be more cognizant on the impact of undergoing CPD than their married counterparts although both were much aware of its educational significance. Moreover, majority of the respondents were not in-favor of the CPD implementation in the country. It was concluded that LPTs are self-directed and autonomous and lifelong learner-professionals driven by their internal motivation to undergo professional development activities in arming themselves with the current knowledge to meet the needs of the times.

1. Introduction

The advent of internationalization and globalization in education has directed professionals to come across the call to constantly improve their craft through CPD program as well as Continuing Professional Education (CPE). Undergoing such program is paramount to a professional leverage on teacher quality, teaching practices, and indemnification of the service acumen of every LPT on the total development of every potential learner 1, 2, 3.

In the Philippines, CPD law is enacted to revolutionize the par of excellence in every profession through CPD programs and CPE with a mandatory number of professional credits to be gained over a period. For the teaching profession, LPTs are required to have at least 45 CPD credits before they can renew their professional identification card 4, 5, 6. In its implementation, this law is crippled by its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) as perceived by many. It was claimed that it is politicized by a few by enforcing an obligatory attendance in gaining a minimum CPD credit over a period at a high cost of training or program which is usually born by every LPT.

Theories and research results articulate on the impact of undergoing CPD programs and activities to a describable change in practice and the inner-drive to change their practice drawn from their participation. Adult Learning Theory explicates that adults like LPTs are self-directed professionals driven by their internal motivations to gain more current knowledge and willingness to spend personal time in advancing to their professions 7, 8, 9. Corollary to this advancement is the Self-Efficacy Theory that underscores the belief that every individual can make a difference through creativity and self-efficacy 10. Moreover, learners are self-determined and self-regulated 11, 12. Learners in this state set standards for themselves, monitor their behavior and attainment of the set standards, and impose consequences to whatever action they commit in implementing their plans and tactics towards their goals 13, 14. Over the time of concordances and affordances, these beliefs become robust repertoire of a community of practice on pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge 3, 15, 16, 17. Adherence to such orientations is tantamount to LPT’s effort for knowledge update through reflective activities 18, 19. In this paper, the awareness of the respondents on the impact of undergoing CPD program and the acceptability of the Philippine CPD law are determined.

The crux is: LPTs are self-directed and autonomous and lifelong learner-professionals who constantly seek for professional growth by attending seminars, workshops, conferences, research fora, advanced studies, among others 3, 8, 13, 14. In so doing, LPTs hone their craft in extending their teaching roles, responsibilities, and obligations among their stakeholders.

2. Methodology

This study employed the Descriptive-Comparative Research design focused on the determinants of QSU-LPTs’ awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to their profession and their stand on the implementation of the Philippine CPD law. Appositely, the Explicative-Reductive Method was employed in this study focused on the determinant of the respondents’ awareness of undergoing CPD program. The Explicative Method was used to account a context encompassing variables and qualities attributed to the problem which include the respondents’ sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, and academic rank. This paved for the determinant of the variable related to the respondents’ awareness on the impact of CPD program to their noblest tasks as professional teachers. On the other hand, the Reductive Method was used to elicit potential variables of the identified context for enrichment and further analysis.

This study was conducted at Quirino State University-Main Campus, Diffun, Quirino, Philippines. A total of 40 LPTs served as the respondents of the study: Age: 22 from the age group 21-30, 12 from 31-40, and 6 from 41 and above; Sex: 11 males, and 29 females; Educational Attainment: 11 Bachelor’s degree holders, 25 MA degree holders, and 4 PhD holders; and Academic Rank: 33 Instructors, 4 Assistant Professors, and 3 Associate Professors.

A validated 15-item questionnaire (alpha value=.973) was employed to determine the respondents’ awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to their profession and their stand on the implementation of the Philippine CPD law. The gathered data were treated using frequency counts, percentage, mean, t-test, ANOVA, and LSD test.

3. Results and Discussion

General results (Table 1) show that the respondents observed much awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to the teaching profession. However, results further show that there is an incomparable awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD to the teaching profession with the single LPTs of being more aware than their married counterparts. It can be construed that the single LPTs are more into the cognizable impact of undergoing a CPD program as indicated by the incomparable results in indicators 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 15.

Results (Table 2) show that the respondents observe much awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to the teaching profession. This implies that both male and female LPTs hold a very good state of awareness on the impact of CPD to their profession.

Results (Table 3) show that there is a comparable awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to the teaching profession. This implies that the professional teacher-respondents across ages hold a very good state of awareness on the impact of CPD to their profession.

Results (Table 4) show that there is a comparable awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to the teaching profession except for indicator 9 that yielded incomparable result: the PhD’s had the lowest affordances as they are already seasoned and had gained expertise in their profession. This implies that the professional teacher-respondents across their educational attainment hold a good to very good state of awareness on the impact of CPD to their profession.

Results (Table 5) show that there is a comparable awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD program to the teaching profession. This implies that the professional teacher-respondents across academic ranks hold a very good state of awareness on the impact of CPD to their profession.

Results (Table 6) show that majority of the respondents are not in-favor of the Philippine CPD Law. In an interview, the respondents zeroed-in that they do not need a CPD law to direct them in seeking for professional growth as they hold a strong professional responsibility and obligation. In fact, even some of the respondents who are in-favor of it are hesitant on its implementation.

“...’tis my moral and professional responsibility to arm myself with the current knowledge. The purpose of this law (I believe) is in good faith; however, the way it is erroneously implemented and purely politicized and commercialized by a few…”

“…CPD? I have been observing this since I entered teaching three decades ago. I know for a fact that I need updates to cope-up with the changing times but prescribing a certain number of trainings (corresponding to units-45 units) over a period is too much…”

“…CPD (as well as CPE) is an international good practice; however, its IPP must be based on international benchmarks. The problem here is the monetary involved for the attainment of such CPD units. While it is true that we (professionals) need updates on the professional topography where we belong, one cannot deny the fact that the government is tasked and obliged to provide training services to its people particularly LPT’s. Look at the US and some European countries: they provide the necessary training and it is obligatory that their teachers will attend such specialized in-service training-workshop. Usually, it is run in weeks and the most are months. Speakers are well trained professionals who are usually internationally acclaimed academicians and educationists…”

“…45 units is something (actually, it is too much). The problem is: much of the training are provided in an expensive registration and usually offered only in the major cities of the country by the tiger commercial-private organizations. The INSET provided by the university are not even counted as it is not accredited by the governing board. Would it not be better if the government provide training (as we are serving its people) to our reach or the governing board will provide or assign training in the area…”

“…Unlike other countries, please take note that the salary for teachers in the Philippines is not competitive. Remember that we are only given a limited (if not, totally nothing) amount for such development program...”

The prevalence of good to very good states of awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD programs and activities to the teaching profession among LPT-respondents indicates that they are self-directed and autonomous and lifelong learner-professionals. Moreover, LPTs who are self-directed professionals are governed by a stronghold of internal motivation to sustain their thirst for learning 3, 8, 17, 20. This implies that professionalism is greatly seeded in their mental schema and this drives them to come across learning and pursue advanced studies and trainings in a borderless educational standpoint. These concordances are manifestations of self-efficacy and internal motivations that lead them to become lifelong and autonomous learners.

Bandura explicated that every individual believes that he can make a difference by employing skills and abilities in attaining desired goals in life through creativity and self-efficacy 10. Professional teachers being creative and self-efficient individuals, are self-organized, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating 19, 21. Developed through experiences and reciprocal interactions and causations from one’s internal motivation – one makes life choices in an ecological niche in wider purposes and values 17, 22, 23.

Despite these concordances, majority of the respondents are not in-favor on how the CPD law is implemented in the Philippines. It can be construed that leveraging the practice of teaching profession is an international good practice; however, the way it is implemented is something to be appealed for a repeal if it will serve its optimum purpose.

The crux is: LPTs are self-directed and lifelong and autonomous learner-professionals who are in a continuous stride of professional excellence by attending specialized trainings, seminars, workshops, conferences, research fora, advanced studies, among others. Thus, they do not need any law for that effect that will direct them in undergoing CPDs and CPEs for their optimum development in their noblest task as professional teachers 3, 9, 13, 14, 21. Hence, the focus of any CPD program should center on the idea that it will encourage them to be motivated seekers of advanced knowledge and education that will give them a leverage to their profession 1, 3, 17, 19, 20.

4. Implications to Theory and Practice

1. Licensed Professional Teachers at QSU-Main Campus hold a good to very good awareness on the impact of undergoing CPD programs and activities. This implies that they recognize the empirical value of CPD program to their profession;

2. Licensed Professional Teachers at QSU-Main Campus as reflective professionals are self-directed and autonomous and lifelong learners who are in continuous stride of arming themselves with current knowledge in the teaching profession and need not to be directed by such laws or any legislation to go on for any CPD program;

3. Majority of the LPTs at QSU-Main Campus are not in-favor of the Philippine CPD law particularly on its IRR. This concordance posts an immediate and further analysis from a wider range of LPT-respondents in the country. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis on the various provisions of the law may be considered for appeal and repeal if this law will serve its optimum purpose vis-à-vis international benchmarks where CPD is well implemented and thoroughly studied.

References

[1]  Rose, J. & Reynolds, D. (2007). Teachers’ continuing professional development: a new approach. Conference Paper presented at the 20th Annual International Congress for Effectiveness and Improvement
In article      
 
[2]  Yates, S.M. (2007). Teachers’ perceptions of their professional learning activities. International Education Journal, 8(2), 213-221.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  De Vries, S., van de Grift, W.J.C.M., & Jansen, E.P.W.A. (2013). Teachers’ beliefs and continuing professional development. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 213-231.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Section 5, RA No. 8981. PRC Modernization Act of 2000.
In article      
 
[5]  Resolution No. 2013-774. Revised Guidelines on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program for all Registered and Licensed Professionals. Professional Regulation Commission.
In article      
 
[6]  Resolution No. 2016-990. Amendments to the Revised Guidelines on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program for all Registered and Licensed Professionals. Professional Regulation Commission.
In article      
 
[7]  Knowles, M. S. (1973; 1990). The Adult Learner. A neglected species (4e), Houston: Gulf Publishing. 2e. 292 + viii pages. Surveys learning theory, andragogy and human resource development (HRD).
In article      
 
[8]  Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology.
In article      
 
[9]  Peeters, J., de Backer, F., Reina, V.R., Kindekens, A., Buffel, T., & Lombaerts, K. (2014). The role of teachers’ self-regulatory capacities in the implementation of self-regulated learning practices. Procedia-Social and behavioral Sciences, 116, 1963-1970.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Badura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. in V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
In article      
 
[11]  Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, D.H. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. MahWah: LawrenceEarlbaum.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Omrod, J.E. (2004). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
In article      
 
[14]  Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Teacher College Record, 106(9), 1825-1853.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Lyle, S. (2003). An investigation into the impact of a continuing professional development programme designed to support the development of teaches as researchers in South Wales. Journal of In-Service Education, 29 (2), 195-313.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  McAteer, M., Foster, R., Groves, J., Hallet, F., Jones, M., & Rutter, T. (2005). Continuing professional development: Exploring the impact on teachers’ professional practice and pupil learning. Paper presented at BERA Annual Conference, University of Glamorgan, 14 – 17 September 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Schommer, M. (2005). The role of adults’ beliefs about knowledge in school, work and everyday life, in Smith, M.C. & Pourchot, T. (Eds). Adult Learning and Development, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ and London, 127-143.
In article      
 
[18]  Cheetham, G. & Chivers, G. (2001). How professionals learn in practice: an investigation of informal learning amongst people working in professions. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(5), 248-92.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Knight, P. (2002). A systemic approach to professional development: Learning as practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 229-241.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Weindling, A.M. (2001). Education and training: continuing professional development. Cur Paediat, 11, 369-374.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Randi, J., Corno, L., & Johnson, E. (2011). Transitioning from college classroom to teaching career: self-regulation in prospective teachers. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 126, 89-98.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Sadler-Smith, E., Allison, C.W., & Hayes, L. (2000). Learning preferences and cognitive style: some implications for continuing professional development. Journal of Management Learning, 31, 239-256.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Cervero, R.M. (2001). Continuing professional education in transition 1981-2000. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20, 16-30.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Romiro G. Bautista, Violeta G. Benigno, Jamina G. Camayang, Jordan C. Ursua Jr., Cynthia G. Agaloos, Fluther N.G. Ligado and Kris N. Buminaang

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Romiro G. Bautista, Violeta G. Benigno, Jamina G. Camayang, Jordan C. Ursua Jr., Cynthia G. Agaloos, Fluther N.G. Ligado, Kris N. Buminaang. Continuing Professional Development Program as Evidenced by the Lenses of QSU Licensed Professional Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 5, No. 11, 2017, pp 1172-1176. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/5/11/10
MLA Style
Bautista, Romiro G., et al. "Continuing Professional Development Program as Evidenced by the Lenses of QSU Licensed Professional Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 5.11 (2017): 1172-1176.
APA Style
Bautista, R. G. , Benigno, V. G. , Camayang, J. G. , Jr., J. C. U. , Agaloos, C. G. , Ligado, F. N. , & Buminaang, K. N. (2017). Continuing Professional Development Program as Evidenced by the Lenses of QSU Licensed Professional Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(11), 1172-1176.
Chicago Style
Bautista, Romiro G., Violeta G. Benigno, Jamina G. Camayang, Jordan C. Ursua Jr., Cynthia G. Agaloos, Fluther N.G. Ligado, and Kris N. Buminaang. "Continuing Professional Development Program as Evidenced by the Lenses of QSU Licensed Professional Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 11 (2017): 1172-1176.
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  • Table 1. Awareness on the Impact of Undergoing CPD Program to the Teaching Profession when grouped by Civil Status1
  • Table 2. Awareness on the Impact of Undergoing CPD Program to the Teaching Profession when grouped by Sex1
  • Table 3. Awareness on the Impact of Undergoing CPD Program to the Teaching Profession when grouped by Age1
  • Table 4. Awareness on the Impact of Undergoing CPD Program to the Teaching Profession when grouped by Educational Attainment1
  • Table 5. Awareness on the Impact of Undergoing CPD Program to the Teaching Profession when grouped by Academic Rank1
[1]  Rose, J. & Reynolds, D. (2007). Teachers’ continuing professional development: a new approach. Conference Paper presented at the 20th Annual International Congress for Effectiveness and Improvement
In article      
 
[2]  Yates, S.M. (2007). Teachers’ perceptions of their professional learning activities. International Education Journal, 8(2), 213-221.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  De Vries, S., van de Grift, W.J.C.M., & Jansen, E.P.W.A. (2013). Teachers’ beliefs and continuing professional development. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 213-231.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Section 5, RA No. 8981. PRC Modernization Act of 2000.
In article      
 
[5]  Resolution No. 2013-774. Revised Guidelines on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program for all Registered and Licensed Professionals. Professional Regulation Commission.
In article      
 
[6]  Resolution No. 2016-990. Amendments to the Revised Guidelines on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program for all Registered and Licensed Professionals. Professional Regulation Commission.
In article      
 
[7]  Knowles, M. S. (1973; 1990). The Adult Learner. A neglected species (4e), Houston: Gulf Publishing. 2e. 292 + viii pages. Surveys learning theory, andragogy and human resource development (HRD).
In article      
 
[8]  Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology.
In article      
 
[9]  Peeters, J., de Backer, F., Reina, V.R., Kindekens, A., Buffel, T., & Lombaerts, K. (2014). The role of teachers’ self-regulatory capacities in the implementation of self-regulated learning practices. Procedia-Social and behavioral Sciences, 116, 1963-1970.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Badura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. in V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
In article      
 
[11]  Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, D.H. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. MahWah: LawrenceEarlbaum.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Omrod, J.E. (2004). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
In article      
 
[14]  Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Teacher College Record, 106(9), 1825-1853.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Lyle, S. (2003). An investigation into the impact of a continuing professional development programme designed to support the development of teaches as researchers in South Wales. Journal of In-Service Education, 29 (2), 195-313.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  McAteer, M., Foster, R., Groves, J., Hallet, F., Jones, M., & Rutter, T. (2005). Continuing professional development: Exploring the impact on teachers’ professional practice and pupil learning. Paper presented at BERA Annual Conference, University of Glamorgan, 14 – 17 September 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Schommer, M. (2005). The role of adults’ beliefs about knowledge in school, work and everyday life, in Smith, M.C. & Pourchot, T. (Eds). Adult Learning and Development, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ and London, 127-143.
In article      
 
[18]  Cheetham, G. & Chivers, G. (2001). How professionals learn in practice: an investigation of informal learning amongst people working in professions. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(5), 248-92.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Knight, P. (2002). A systemic approach to professional development: Learning as practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 229-241.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Weindling, A.M. (2001). Education and training: continuing professional development. Cur Paediat, 11, 369-374.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Randi, J., Corno, L., & Johnson, E. (2011). Transitioning from college classroom to teaching career: self-regulation in prospective teachers. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 126, 89-98.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Sadler-Smith, E., Allison, C.W., & Hayes, L. (2000). Learning preferences and cognitive style: some implications for continuing professional development. Journal of Management Learning, 31, 239-256.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Cervero, R.M. (2001). Continuing professional education in transition 1981-2000. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20, 16-30.
In article      View Article