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Undergraduate Nursing Students’ and Lecturers’ Attitudes towards Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: A Quasi Experimental Study

Eman A. Fadel , Amal Ahmed Elbilgahy, Ibrahim Abdulatef Ibrahim, Hanan Awad M Elmashad
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2019, 7(1), 24-30. DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-7-1-4
Received October 15, 2018; Revised November 20, 2018; Accepted December 10, 2018

Abstract

E-learning is the coming approach in Egyptian higher education. Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) is among the e-learning tool at Mansoura University. Aim: To investigate the effect of Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment on undergraduate nursing students' and lecturers' attitudes toward it. Methods: A quasi experimental research design (pre/ posttest) was utilized to conduct the present study at Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. A convenience sample of 286 nursing students and 30 nursing lecturers were recruited. Two tools for data collection were used; the first tool was undergraduate student' Moodle attitudes structured questionnaire and the second tool was nursing lecturers' Moodle attitudes structured questionnaire. Results: Undergraduate nursing students and lecturers had positive attitudes toward Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment after utilization than before with statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Students' and lecturers' attitudes toward Moodle become positive after utilizing Moodle in their courses. Recommendation: Raising students' and lecturers' awareness toward the importance of integrating e-learning with the traditional learning.

1. Introduction

Moodle is an acronym for Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment 1. Moodle is the most commonly used tool for creating e-learning academic courses. It is a software package designed specially to help lecturers to create e-learning courses 2, 3. Moodle is one service of the learning management systems (LMS); new e-learning system technologies and services that allow students to be active learners, actively participating in the on-line learning process which is accessed through a formal webpage that support a wide range of activities such as online discussion, quizzes solution, forums discussion, file upload, chat rooms entrance, assignments submission, resources and interactive videos vision which are generally sufficient for setting up e-learning courses by such new technology 4, 5. Moodle basic organizational unit is the course, a course is organized into sections that may correspond to topics by weeks, appearing in the middle column of the page. It is possible to include different resources and activities in all sections to be assigned as home or class work and be further developed by the students 6.

Recently, there is an improvement in higher education regarding the online learning, by emphasizing on the growth of information technology and use of e-learning 7. Moodle has become the most preferred teaching tool all over the world that foster the need for educational technology with its numerous benefits for lecturers and students in their learning experience in a mix with traditional classroom learning experience 8.

Encouragement of the students' engagement in online discussion and activities via Moodle can frame and define their learning attitudes 9. Moodle as a free open tool of LMS is purchased and maintained by the educational universities and institutions to provide students with a space for online learning. An LMS is usually a password-protected system which enables the educational institution to open multiple course environments for online learning interaction between lecturers and students. Each lecturer who decides to open a Moodle page for a course shall send a message for the Central E-Leaning Unit to create a page for the selected course and create a username and a password for the lecturers and their students 10, 11.

E-learning platforms have transformed the ways in which lecturers can teach and students can learn. The role of the lecturer is guiding students through their learning experience. Within this framework, University lecturers had to modify their teaching methods and tools to let students' be active in learning collaboration with their colleagues and lecturers 12.

1.1. Significance of the Study

For many developing countries as Egypt, Moodle as an e-learning tool is considered to be a solution to the increased demand for higher education; increased numbers of students at classrooms and the limited time for all students and lecturers interaction 13, 14. Moodle is also expected to improve the quality of learning experiences, students' computer literacy and skills needed in the current work market 15, 16, 17. There is a significant implication for the delivery of education in the 21st century to have an a synchronous student-centered learning environment where each student receives a personalized education at any time on line, in addition to synchronous learning in which all learners and their lecturer being at the same time on their learning environment. So, this study will be done in attempt to collaborate the Moodle as an e-learning tool with the traditional method.

1.2. Aim of the Study

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of using Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment on undergraduate nursing students' and lecturers' attitudes toward it.

1.3. Study Hypothesis

Hypothesis I. Undergraduate nursing students have a more positive attitude toward Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment after utilizing than before.

Hypothesis II. Undergraduate nursing lecturers have a more positive attitude toward Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment after utilizing than before.

1.4. Subjects and Method

Study Design: A quasi experimental research design (Pre / Posttest) was utilized.

Study Setting: The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University during the first semester of academic year 2017- 2018.

Subjects: The study included a convenience sample composed of two groups. First group compromised 286 of nursing students enrolled in four credit policy courses during the first semester of academic year 2017-2018. Second group included 30 nursing lecturers who open an electronic page on Moodle for their courses and agreed to participate in the study..

1.5. Tools

Tool (1): Undergraduate nursing students' Moodle attitudes Structured Questionnaire

This tool was developed by the researchers after reviewing the related literatures 8, 18. The alpha reliability was (0.85). The questionnaire had two parts as follows: Part I: It included students' general characteristics such as age, gender, academic level, availability of internet access and the previous learning experience with MOODLE. Part II: It consisted of 18 questions to assess the undergraduate students' attitudes toward MOODLE on a 3-point Likert scale ranging from negative, indifference and positive. These were scored from one to three, respectively. The total score for each subject ranged from 18 – 54. Where scoring from 18-> 30 indicates negative attitude, the scoring from 30-> 42 indicates indifferent and the scoring ≥ 42 indicates positive attitudes.

Tool (2): Nursing lecturers' Moodle attitudes Structured Questionnaire

It was adapted from 1. It constituted of 9 questions to assess lecturers' attitudes toward Moodle; a Likert scale with three options was utilized ranging from negative, indifference and positive. These were scored from one to three, respectively. The total score for each subject ranged from 9 – 27. Where scoring from 9-> 15 indicates negative attitude, the scoring from 15-> 21 indicates indifferent and the scoring ≥ 21 indicates positive attitudes. Lecturers' general characteristics as age, previous teaching experience with MOODLE and years of teaching experience was also included.

2. Methods

After review of literature related to the aim of this study; tools of data collection were reviewed by five panels of experts to test face and content validity of these tools. Tools were tested for content reliability by using Cronbach alpha test which was (0.85) for undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward Moodle structured questionnaire and was (0.90) for nursing lecturers' attitudes toward Moodle structured questionnaire

2.1. Ethical Considerations

An approval letter was obtained from Research Ethics Committee of Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. An informed written consent was obtained from nursing lecturers and students after explaining of the aims of the study. All participants' lecturers and students were assured that their participation in the study is voluntary and the collected data will be treated confidentially and will be only used for the purpose of the study. Also all participants' lecturers and students were informed that they have the right to be withdrawal at any time from the study without giving any reason.

2.2. Pilot Study

It was implemented prior to data collection on 28 nursing students and 3 nursing lecturers (10%) of the participants to ensure the clarity, feasibility and applicability of the tools. Based on the findings of the pilot study, necessary modifications were done such as making action verb and summering the long sentences.

2.3. Field Work

At the start of the first semester 2017- 2018, the researchers been assigned to four credit policy nursing undergraduate courses and within the first lecture for all researchers, the researchers introduced themselves to the undergraduate nursing students and explained the aim of the study, then the students were invited for voluntary involvement in the study.

Before the start of the first lecture for each researcher, a Student Structured Interviewing Questionnaire and Students' Moodle attitudes Questionnaire were distributed to assess students' socio-demographic data and students' knowledge and attitudes regarding Moodle (pretest) for duration of 10 minutes.

Each researcher provide orientation introduction about Moodle including; definition, how to access to Moodle, how to get the user and password for entering the course page via Moodle, how to download and upload files and videos, lectures' PowerPoint and resources, how to enter a forum of scientific discussion and chats room with the course' lecturer and colleagues and how to send a question or a message for the course' lecturer or colleagues.

Each researcher started the traditional lecture; and all participants' students were asked to enter and solve the quizzes related to the lecture via Moodle after viewing the interactive video which contains the registered lecture that had been registered by the researcher at the central e-learning unit and uploaded at the Moodle course page.

The researchers had the benefits of their Moodle course page by making scientific chatting and forum related to the lectures or any activities related to course by letting the students enter at a settled time and answer the students' questions. Also the researchers used the Moodle course page permit the students to submit their scientific assignments electronic via Moodle, make announcement about students' distributions on clinical areas, oral and written exam committees and make appreciation certifications for distinguished students.

Each researcher continuing their assigned lectures for their courses by the traditional way and at the same time encourage the participants students to enter the course Moodle page to see the interactive videos, solve the quizzes, download the lectures' PowerPoint, enter the chatting room and have the benefits of entering the exam depository which contains a sample of the previous exams which is provided also through the learning management system. At the last lecture of every course, each researcher distribute the student' Moodle attitudes questionnaire to assess their attitudes to Moodle (Posttest).

On the other hand, at the start of the academic year, the researchers distribute Lecturers' Moodle Attitudes Questionnaire to the lecturers who want to open an electronic page on Moodle for uploading their course content to their students and who accept to participate in the study to assess lecturers' knowledge and attitudes regarding Moodle (pretest).

The researchers conducted a workshop for nursing lecturer about Moodle illustrating; definition, how to access to Moodle, how to request from the central e-learning unit to open a page for a course via Moodle, how to get the username and password for entering the course page via Moodle. Also the researchers focused on how to register an interactive video for registration of lectures and let the students be interactive with solving interactive quizzes, how to prepare electronic quizzes and download the quizzes grades immediately after students' answers and how to upload resources and activities to students. Furthermore, the researchers demonstrated how to set assignments to students and how to set scores to download assignment with grades immediately after each student submission of his assignment, how to make chatting rooms, scientific forum and how to distribute the activities and resources at the course Moodle page.

At the end of the first semester of academic year 2017-2018, Lecturers' Moodle attitudes Questionnaire was distributed to assess lecturers' knowledge and attitudes toward Moodle (posttest).

2.4. Statistical Analysis

The collected data were coded, computed and analyzed statistically utilizing SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). All data were categorical data and were expressed in number and percentage. The differences between two groups or more were determined using chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

3. Results

Table 1 exhibits that the mean age of the undergraduate nursing students was (20.06 ± 0.91), more than half of them were female (86.0%),66.4% of them lived in rural area, and the high percentage of their academic level was for second and third level (45.8 %, 39.9%) respectively.

Figure 1 showed that 56.3 % of the studied students had previous learning experience about MOODLE, while 43.7 of the studied students did not have previous learning experience about MOODLE.

Table 2 shows that the mean age of the nursing lecturers was (39.2± 2.14), most of them (93.3%) were female, and more than half of them (56.7 %) experienced more than 15 years.

Table 3 illustrates that undergraduate nursing student's attitude toward Moodle improved post utilization in of Moodle at all items of attitude with highly statistical significance (P value ≤ 0.001).

Table 4 illustrates that there were statistically significant differences regarding nursing lecturers' attitude toward Moodle after utilization than before.

Table 5 describes that more than three-quarters of the studied nursing lecturers (76.7%) agreed that Moodle can help them to post classroom blogs on line. Also, more than two- thirds of them (70%) agreed that Moodle can help them to upload videos, audios and links to a lesson for students also create, conduct and guide quizzes and prompt students with survey questions.

4. Discussion

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment strategy on undergraduate nursing students' and lecturers' attitudes toward it. The hypothesizes were achieved through the present study findings which revealed that, nursing students and lecturers who utilize Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment had positive attitudes toward Moodle after utilization with statistical significant differences post utilization than before.

Regarding the first hypothesis about students’ attitudes toward Moodle, the present study revealed that, around three-quarters of the undergraduate students' had positive attitudes toward Moodle that it enable them to gain more persistent learning compared to traditional classroom environment and also allow them to use videos that attract more students attention with highly statistical significant difference post utilization than before. This study finding is in accordance with a descriptive survey conducted by 8 on 120 volunteer lecturers from Near East University to determine the efficiency of implementing Moodle in Remote Flipped learning environments. They reported that the respondents had positive attitudes toward effectiveness of Moodle to provide persistent learning in posttest than before. Furthermore, they also founded that using video in Moodle attracts more students attention with a mean =4.60.

Furthermore, the present study revealed that, more than two-fifths of undergraduate nursing students had positive attitude that Moodle increase the effectiveness of collaborative learning with highly statistical significant difference. This study finding is in the same line with a descriptive online survey conducted by 19 which conducted at the University of Baltimore to describe students' attitudes toward online and collaborative learning experiences. They founded that more than two-fifths of students had a positive attitude toward the effectiveness of Moodle in helping them to work on in a collaborative manner.

The present study revealed that more than two-fifths of the undergraduate nursing students had a positive attitude toward Moodle ability to increase their interest of the course. This study finding is in the same line with 20 who conducted a study at faculty of nursing, Tanta University, Egypt, about attitude of students regarding blended learning implementation of community health nursing course and revealed that, their students had a positive attitude toward blended e-learning which increase the students' interest of the course. Other supported study to the present study finding was conducted by 21 who revealed that students prefer blended learning which is more interested than traditional learning.

On the other hand, another contradicted study conducted by 18 to assess the students' attitudes regarding implementation of e-learning in Egyptian universities. They reported that students prefer traditional learning than the e-learning. This contradiction may be attributed to the learning style of the students.

The present study revealed that more than half of the undergraduate nursing students had negative attitudes toward chat via Moodle even after using Moodle. This study finding may be attributed to lack of students' internet access. This study finding is in contradiction with a descriptive survey conducted by 22 to describe university nursing students' attitudes toward Learning Management Systems (LMS) in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model. Their nursing students had positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of chat in LMS. This contradiction could be attributed to that students in the present study used to express questions or concerns by face to face discussion more than the chatting especially with their academic lecturer to clarify or exquisite of information.

Regarding the second hypothesis, it was achieved as the present study finding showed that the lecturers had positive attitudes toward Moodle after utilizing it. The present study finding revealed that, more than three-quarters of nursing lecturers had positive attitudes toward Moodle usability for post classroom blogs. Also, more than two-thirds of them had positive attitudes toward Moodle usability for uploading videos, audio and link to a lesson, creating, conducting and guiding quizzes and prompting students with survey questions. These study findings were in an agreement with 1 who conducted a descriptive study to assess usability, benefits of Moodle and educators' attitudes towards it. They reported in his study that, lecturers had positive attitudes toward Moodle usability in uploading video, audio and linking to a lesson with mean score Mean ±SD 3.43 ± 0.49, they also had positive attitudes toward Moodle usability to create, conduct and guide quizzes and help students with survey questions (Mean ± SD 3.34 ± 0.47& 3.24 ±0.42) respectively).

5. Conclusion

Integrating Moodle as an e-learning tool with traditional learning had a positive effect on the undergraduate nursing students' and lecturers' attitudes toward Moodle especially after utilization it in courses.

6. Recommendations

Based on the present study findings, the following recommendations are made:

1. Raising students' and lecturer's awareness toward the usability of integrating e-learning with the traditional learning.

2. Appling further research concerning:

• Factors affecting the application and usability of Moodle at University level.

• Effect of Moodle integration at University on the students' academic performance.

References

[1]  Adesope, R., & Ahiakwo, R. Attitude of Educators towards Using Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) FOR TEACHING. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection; 4 (3): 46-52. (2016).
In article      
 
[2]  ŠUmak, B., HeričKo, M., & PušNik, M. A meta-analysis of e-learning technology acceptance: The role of user types and e-learning technology types. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2067-2077. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Desnica, E., Letic, D., & Navalusic, S. Concept of distance learning model in graphic communication teaching at university level education. TECHNICS TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATION MANAGEMENT-TTEM, 5(2), 378-388. (2010).
In article      
 
[4]  Aydin, C., & Tirkes, G. Open source learning management systems in distance learning. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2) (2010).
In article      
 
[5]  Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 34. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Isljamovic, S., Petrovic, N., & Jeremic, V. Technology enhanced learning as a key component of increased environmental awareness amongst students from the University of Belgrade. TECHNICS TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATION MANAGEMENT-TTEM, 6(4), 1175-1181. (2011).
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[7]  Alkhanak, S., & Azmi, I. Information technology usage and attitudes towards online resources-Students perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7), 2582-2589. (2011).
In article      
 
[8]  Caliskan, S., & Bicen, H. Determining the attitudes of lecturer candidates on the effectiveness of MOODLE used in flipped education. Procedia Computer Science, 102, 654-658. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Deng, L., & Tavares, N. From Moodle to Facebook: Exploring students' motivation and experiences in online communities. Computers & Education, 68, 167-176. (2013).
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Carvalho, A., Areal, N., & Silva, J. Students' attitudes of Blackboard and Moodle in a Portuguese university. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 824-841. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Kudumovic, M., Kudumovic, D., Mesanovic, N., & Huremovic, E. Modern Information Comunication Technologies and educational technologies applied to education of medicine. HealthMED, 4(1), 158-162. (2010).
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[12]  Dawson, S., Heathcote, L., & Poole, G. Harnessing ICT potential: The adoption and analysis of ICT systems for enhancing the student learning experience. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(2), 116-128. (2010).
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Ahmad, N., & Al-Khanjari, Z. Effect of Moodle on learning: An Oman attitude. International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC), 1(4), 746-752. (2011).
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[14]  Ikpe, I., E-learning platforms and humanities education: an African case study. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 5(1), 83-101. (2011).
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[15]  Addah, J., Proficiency in Information Communication Technology and its Use: A Survey among Clinical Students in a Ghanaian Medical School. Studies, 45(24). (2012).
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[16]  Akhu-Zaheya, L., Khater, W., Nasar, M., & Khraisat, O. Baccalaureate nursing students’ anxiety related computer literacy: a sample from Jordan. Journal of Research in Nursing, 18(1), 36-48. (2013).
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Bediang, G., Stoll, B., Geissbuhler, A., Klohn, A., Stuckelberger, A., Nko’o, S., & Chastonay, P. Computer literacy and E-learning attitude in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. BMC medical education, 13(1), 57. (2013).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  El-Gamal, S., & Aziz, A. The attitude of students regarding E-learning implementation in Egyptian Universities: The case of Arab Academy for Science and Technology. In The Third International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and Online Learning. 2, (5) p. 3 (2011).
In article      
 
[19]  Gilingham, M., & Molinari C. Online courses: Students Preferences Survey. Internet learning; (1), 1. 36-44. (2012).
In article      
 
[20]  El-Zeftawy, A., & Hassan, A. Attitude of students regarding blended learning implementation of community health nursing course at faculty of nursing, Tanta University, Egypt. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(3), 83. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Brook, I., & Beauchamp, G. A study of final Year Education Studies Undergraduate Students' Attitudes of Blended Learning within a Higher Education course. (2015).
In article      
 
[22]  Chipps, J., Kerr, J., Brysiewicz, P., & Walters, F. A survey of University students’ attitudes of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 33(2), 71-77. (2015).
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Eman A. Fadel, Amal Ahmed Elbilgahy, Ibrahim Abdulatef Ibrahim and Hanan Awad M Elmashad

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Eman A. Fadel, Amal Ahmed Elbilgahy, Ibrahim Abdulatef Ibrahim, Hanan Awad M Elmashad. Undergraduate Nursing Students’ and Lecturers’ Attitudes towards Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: A Quasi Experimental Study. American Journal of Nursing Research. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp 24-30. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajnr/7/1/4
MLA Style
Fadel, Eman A., et al. "Undergraduate Nursing Students’ and Lecturers’ Attitudes towards Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: A Quasi Experimental Study." American Journal of Nursing Research 7.1 (2019): 24-30.
APA Style
Fadel, E. A. , Elbilgahy, A. A. , Ibrahim, I. A. , & Elmashad, H. A. M. (2019). Undergraduate Nursing Students’ and Lecturers’ Attitudes towards Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: A Quasi Experimental Study. American Journal of Nursing Research, 7(1), 24-30.
Chicago Style
Fadel, Eman A., Amal Ahmed Elbilgahy, Ibrahim Abdulatef Ibrahim, and Hanan Awad M Elmashad. "Undergraduate Nursing Students’ and Lecturers’ Attitudes towards Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: A Quasi Experimental Study." American Journal of Nursing Research 7, no. 1 (2019): 24-30.
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  • Table 3. Attitudes of undergraduate nursing students toward Moodle before and after utilization (n = 286)
[1]  Adesope, R., & Ahiakwo, R. Attitude of Educators towards Using Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) FOR TEACHING. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection; 4 (3): 46-52. (2016).
In article      
 
[2]  ŠUmak, B., HeričKo, M., & PušNik, M. A meta-analysis of e-learning technology acceptance: The role of user types and e-learning technology types. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2067-2077. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Desnica, E., Letic, D., & Navalusic, S. Concept of distance learning model in graphic communication teaching at university level education. TECHNICS TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATION MANAGEMENT-TTEM, 5(2), 378-388. (2010).
In article      
 
[4]  Aydin, C., & Tirkes, G. Open source learning management systems in distance learning. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2) (2010).
In article      
 
[5]  Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 34. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Isljamovic, S., Petrovic, N., & Jeremic, V. Technology enhanced learning as a key component of increased environmental awareness amongst students from the University of Belgrade. TECHNICS TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATION MANAGEMENT-TTEM, 6(4), 1175-1181. (2011).
In article      
 
[7]  Alkhanak, S., & Azmi, I. Information technology usage and attitudes towards online resources-Students perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7), 2582-2589. (2011).
In article      
 
[8]  Caliskan, S., & Bicen, H. Determining the attitudes of lecturer candidates on the effectiveness of MOODLE used in flipped education. Procedia Computer Science, 102, 654-658. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Deng, L., & Tavares, N. From Moodle to Facebook: Exploring students' motivation and experiences in online communities. Computers & Education, 68, 167-176. (2013).
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Carvalho, A., Areal, N., & Silva, J. Students' attitudes of Blackboard and Moodle in a Portuguese university. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 824-841. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Kudumovic, M., Kudumovic, D., Mesanovic, N., & Huremovic, E. Modern Information Comunication Technologies and educational technologies applied to education of medicine. HealthMED, 4(1), 158-162. (2010).
In article      
 
[12]  Dawson, S., Heathcote, L., & Poole, G. Harnessing ICT potential: The adoption and analysis of ICT systems for enhancing the student learning experience. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(2), 116-128. (2010).
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Ahmad, N., & Al-Khanjari, Z. Effect of Moodle on learning: An Oman attitude. International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC), 1(4), 746-752. (2011).
In article      
 
[14]  Ikpe, I., E-learning platforms and humanities education: an African case study. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 5(1), 83-101. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Addah, J., Proficiency in Information Communication Technology and its Use: A Survey among Clinical Students in a Ghanaian Medical School. Studies, 45(24). (2012).
In article      
 
[16]  Akhu-Zaheya, L., Khater, W., Nasar, M., & Khraisat, O. Baccalaureate nursing students’ anxiety related computer literacy: a sample from Jordan. Journal of Research in Nursing, 18(1), 36-48. (2013).
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Bediang, G., Stoll, B., Geissbuhler, A., Klohn, A., Stuckelberger, A., Nko’o, S., & Chastonay, P. Computer literacy and E-learning attitude in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. BMC medical education, 13(1), 57. (2013).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  El-Gamal, S., & Aziz, A. The attitude of students regarding E-learning implementation in Egyptian Universities: The case of Arab Academy for Science and Technology. In The Third International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and Online Learning. 2, (5) p. 3 (2011).
In article      
 
[19]  Gilingham, M., & Molinari C. Online courses: Students Preferences Survey. Internet learning; (1), 1. 36-44. (2012).
In article      
 
[20]  El-Zeftawy, A., & Hassan, A. Attitude of students regarding blended learning implementation of community health nursing course at faculty of nursing, Tanta University, Egypt. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(3), 83. (2016).
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Brook, I., & Beauchamp, G. A study of final Year Education Studies Undergraduate Students' Attitudes of Blended Learning within a Higher Education course. (2015).
In article      
 
[22]  Chipps, J., Kerr, J., Brysiewicz, P., & Walters, F. A survey of University students’ attitudes of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 33(2), 71-77. (2015).
In article