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Biological Activities of Beng-tigré (Vigna radiata): Nutritional Aspects and Therapeutic Functions

Jeanne d’Arc Wendmintiri Kabré, Fatoumata Hama-Ba, Aïcha Yamkaye Sawadogo, Hama Cissé, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021, 9(4), 113-124. DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-9-4-2
Received August 04, 2021; Revised September 08, 2021; Accepted September 16, 2021

Abstract

Beng-tigré is a variety of Vigna radiata, a legume of the Fabaceae’s family newly introduced in Burkina Faso for its resilience to the effects of climate change, its high nutritional value and its potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases in the population. The objective of this study was to raise awareness of the nutritional and therapeutic qualities of Beng-tigré seeds among the Burkinabe population. A legume that matures between 55 and 70 days, Beng-tigré has a high nutritional value influenced by processing methods such as germination, fermentation and cooking time. Well consumed in Asia for its high protein (23.50g), fibre (16.80g), and carbohydrate (62.75g) content, as well as its high vitamin and mineral content, Beng-tigré is used as a supplement in the preparation of weaning foods and contributes to the fight against malnutrition in infants and young children. Rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and peptides, Beng-tigré is a functional food that can contribute to the prevention and management of certain degenerative diseases. Several in vitro studies and studies on laboratory animals have shown the anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effect of Beng-tigré. It also acts as a prebiotic to maintain the homeostasis and functions of the intestinal microbiota. A functional food with multiple virtues, Beng-tigré can be of great use in preventive medicine in developing countries where chronic non-communicable diseases are rampant. Further studies are needed at the local level to better understand the synergistic effects of the multiple components of Beng-tigré and to ensure therapeutic convenience for the population.

1. Introduction

The plants that are of most interest in solving the problem of food and therapeutic deficiency in the world, particularly in Africa, belong to the order of legumes 1. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), pulses and cereals are important sources of macronutrients and micronutrients 2. Pulses are usually used in the formulation of functional foods with health benefits for the consumers 3. Their seeds are characterized by high energy and nutrient density. Among these legumes, Vigna radiata, which originates from Asia, is grown mainly in Thailand, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, but is less known in Africa 4.

These legumes are used in the production of many dishes. For example, it can be eaten cooked, alone, or with other cereals, sprouted or fermented 5. Considered the main producer of Vigna radiata, Asia has about six million hectares for its exploitation; with a production of about three million tons per year, which is processed and consumed as porridge, sprouts, or high value-added noodles 6. A tropical plant of the Fabaceae’s family, Vigna radiata is widely consumed in households in Pakistan, often with cereals to optimize the nutritional quality of meals 7. It is now widely grown in South America, Australia and the United States 8, 9. In Africa, it is mainly cultivated in three regions, namely West, Central and Southern Africa 10. Because of its nutrients content, Vigna radiata can be used as a weaning food 11, 12, 13. Its starch would be more digestible than that of other legumes and better tolerated by children because it induces less flatulence 14, 15. 16 showed that Vigna radiata contains less anti-nutritional substances than snow peas, soybeans and cereals. Rich in bioactive compounds, various therapeutic virtues have been attributed to Vigna radiata by several authors 17, 18, 19. Called haricot mungo in French, Mung bean in English, or Beng-tigré in Mooré language, although cultivated in many African countries, it remains very poorly known and is slow to be integrated into the dietary habits of African populations. In some countries such as Kenya, it is mainly cultivated for commercialization 20.

Recently introduced in Burkina Faso, only one variety of Beng-tigré is cultivated in the country with 49 accessions available. The efforts of the national champion for nutrition in Burkina Faso to introduce Beng-tigré into household food habits requires the support of the scientific world, in this case to explain its virtues and benefits. Several efforts are being made to create variety of Beng-tigré-derived dishes available to consumers through the Burkimbi-bara association. Couscous, pasta, lumps, biscuits, chips, bread, plain juice or with ginger (Zingiber officinale) or bissap (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and liquor are the different type of by-product that could be produced. The quality of its nutritional composition inspires the promoter of this crop. Larlé Naaba Tigré, known as national champion for nutrition in Burkina Faso, has decided its popularization in order to fight hunger and multi-deficiency malnutrition in the country.

This culture is encountering difficulties in introducing itself into the eating habits of Burkinabe. Thus, the Burkinbi-bara association in Burkina Faso works for the integration of this legume in school, university and hospital canteens. Beng-tigré is an orphan crop in Burkina Faso according to the research structure Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles 21. Therefore, there is no available scientific data on it that could support its valorisation.

This study aims to assess the state of scientific knowledge on the nutritional and functional properties of Beng-tigré.

2. Biology and Ecology of Beng-tigré

A tropical plant native to Asia 22, 23, Beng-tigré is a legume closely related to Ciebe and Adzuki according to genus 24. The phylogenetic classification of Vigna radiata is as follows: Kingdom: Plantae; Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular plants); Superdivision: Spermaphyta (Seed plants); Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants); Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons); Subclass: Rosidae; Order: Fabales; Family: Fabaceae (Pea family) and Genus: Vigna radiata (L.) (Mung bean) 24, 25.

2.1. Description of Beng-tigré Plant

Erect to semi-erect, Beng-tigré is a slightly pubescent, epigeous germinating plant of up to 1.3 m high with a pivoting root system and a branched stem that curls up at the end. The leaves of Beng-tigré are dark green, alternating with three to five leaflets and bisexual flowers according to Figure 1 26. Seeds measure between 2.5 - 4 mm long and 2.5 - 3 mm wide.

The Asian food encyclopaedia listed approximately 2000 varieties of Beng-tigré 27. Depending on the colour of the seeds, there are two types of cultivars. Those with a golden-yellow grain, often grown for fodder or as a green manure, it has a low yield; and other with a green grain, lively, more prolific, ripening more uniformly, whose pods are less prone to shelling 26. In Burkina Faso, only one variety of Beng-tigré is cultivated and 49 accessions are available 21.

2.2. Plant Ecology and Growth

Beng-tigré grows on many types of soils, with a preference for well-drained silty soils or sandy loam. A warm-season plant, Beng-tigré grows mainly at average temperatures between 20-40°C, with an optimal temperature of 28-30°C 26. Beng-tigré is a drought-resistant legume, and is more resistant to the effects of climate change through relatively short seasons; it matures between 55 and 70 days 28. In most cases, Beng-tigré can be sown twice during the crop cycle and once in the off-season 26. It grows faster compared to other summer legumes, such as Vigna unguiculata 23, 29.

2.3. Beng-tigré Harvest and Yield

Beng-tigré is usually harvested when the pods begin to darken. Harvesting is usually handily done, about 2 to 5 time a week. The average yield of Beng-tigré is around 300-700 kg/ha. Under irrigation, a yield of 1.25 t/ha has been recorded in Kenya. Under optimal conditions during trials, yields above 3 t/ha were obtained 26.

3. Nutritional Properties of Beng-tigré

3.1. Nutritional Content of Beng-tigré

Beng-tigré is commonly used in food in association with cereals to increase the amino acid, vitamin and mineral content of diets 30, 31. Because of its content in protein, dietary fibre, minerals and essential amino acids as well as its hypoallergenic properties, it is used as a supplement in the preparation of weaning foods 11, 12, 13. It’s an iron source for several households in Pakistan 7. Figure 3 below gives an average of the macronutrient composition of the fresh material of the whole seeds of Beng-tigré per 100g according to 11, 32, and 33, data sheet.

3.2. Impact of the Technological Processes on the Macronutrients Content of Beng-tigré

Several processing methods can be applied to Beng-tigré, namely cooking, germination and fermentation in order to vary culinary recipes. These different processes have an impact on the macronutrient content of Beng-tigré according to several authors 5, 32, 34. According to Figure 4, Beng-tigré sprouts are low in fibre, protein, carbohydrates and lipid. The fermentation process increases the content in lipids and proteins (Figure 4).

Non-thermal processes as germination and fermentation significantly influence the contents in many nutrients. Cooking process also affects the nutrient content of Beng-tigré seeds. According to 31, the temperature and cooking time significantly influence the nutrient content of Beng-tigré seeds. For temperatures above 90°C with a cooking time of more than 30 minutes, there is a significant reduction in carbohydrates and proteins content. While for temperatures below 90°C, only the cooking time influences the nutrient content of Beng-tigré seeds. At this temperature (90°C), the cooking time must be less than 60 minutes to preserve the nutritional composition of the seeds 4. Figure 5 shows the influence of temperature and cooking time on the nutrients contained in Beng-tigré seed.

4. Micronutrient Composition of Beng-tigré

Several authors have reported that Beng-tigré is very rich in nutrients and could contribute to reducing micronutrient malnutrition suffered by more than half of the world's population, particularly women and adolescents of reproductive age 11, 35, 36. Improved varieties of Beng-tigré are reported to have a higher level of iron (60mg/kg) than traditional varieties (30 up to 35mg/kg). 36, 37, 38 also reported an iron content ranged from 35 to 87 mg/Kg of fresh material. According to the same source, the consumption of 100g of Beng-tigré in the daily ration provides about 46 to 109% and 19 to 48% of the recommended daily iron intake for men and women respectively. 39, 40 and 41 reported that agronomic, soil and weather factors have an impact on the iron content of Beng-tigré seeds. Studies conducted in Egypt and India reported widely disparate levels of Calcium (840 to 5170 mg/kg), Potassium (36 to 14100 mg/kg), Sodium (120 to 134mg/Kg) and Phosphorus (3910 to 5170 mg/kg) 11, 36. This significant difference in the mineral content could be explained by the variety grown, the soil composition, and other growing conditions such as the use of fertilizers and mineral content of waters. Phytic acid considered as an anti-nutrient compound that can influence mineral bioavailability has a low level in Beng-tigré (2.7 up to3.9g/kg) compared to other legumes such as beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (11 up to17 g/kg), chickpea (4.9 up to 6.1 g/kg), and soybean (10 up to 14.7 g/kg) 36, 42, 43, 44. Mineral contents can also be influenced by seed processing processes such as germination and cooking. Table 1 presents the nutritional content in micronutrients per 100g of Beng-tigré according to the technologies used 25.

With a high level of vegetable proteins, Beng-tigré contains, even after cooking or germination, all the essential amino acids according to Table 1 below, making it a reference legume. According to the same Table 1, Beng-tigré contains many more polyunsaturated fatty acids than saturated, whether the seed is germinated, cooked or raw 25. These polyunsaturated fatty acids give an added value to Beng-tigré in view of their importance in the diet. Several minerals are also present in the seed of Beng-tigré and remain more after cooking than germination, except for sodium. Many vitamins are contained in the seed of Beng-tigré and some are revealed even more with germination. Indeed, alpha carotene and beta crypto xanthine are only present in the germinated seed. Ascorbic acid and vitamin K are more abundant in germinated seed than in raw and cooked seed (about four and ten times, respectively) 25. Also, the content of bioactive compounds such as isoflavones and flavanols contained in Beng-tigré increases only with germination as recorded in Table 1. According to several authors, Beng-tigré, because of its low carbohydrate composition, is a food with a low glycaemic index, even after cooking or germination 17, 25, 45.

5. Food Products Derived from Beng-tigré

Beng-tigré seeds are used in the production of a variety of dishes in Burkina Faso and other parts of the world. In Asia, mature Beng-tigré seeds are used in the production of soup, toast, porridge, snacks, noodles and even ice cream 29, 46. The formulation and production of novel foods and beverages also use flour obtained from seeds. This is the case in Burkina Faso, where Beng-tigré is used in the production of couscous, pasta, lumpy food, biscuits, chips, bread, liquor and plain juice or in combination with ginger (Zingiber officinale) or bissap (Hibiscus sabdariffa). It is also eaten alone or mixed with cereals such as corn or rice and transformed into local dishes such as gonré and doughnuts. The various foods derived from Beng-tigré are made from the whole seed of Beng-tigré in association with either cereals (wheat, rice, millet), or other legumes (cowpea, sesame), or non-timber forest products (monkey bread, néré pulp).

Figure 6 shows pictures of these Beng-tigré based products. Several studies have shown that Beng-tigré has very interesting organoleptic and nutritional qualities and it is often used in the fortification of infant foods 23, 47.

6. Therapeutic Functions of Beng-tigré

6.1. Bioactive Compounds of Beng-tigré and Their Therapeutic Interests

Bioactive compounds are molecules that have ability to act on the functions of body both directly and indirectly. Of animal or plant origin, they are classified into three groups depending on their structures: polyphenols, polysaccharides and peptides.


6.1.1. Polyphenols

Cotyledons and teguments of Beng-tigré have a high level of phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins content 48, 49. 50, 51 found that germination and fermentation improve significantly the content of bioactive molecules in the products. The content of phenolic acid, vitexin and isovitexin can be increased by seed germination 52, 53. According to the literature, polyphenols have antibacterial, anti-tumour, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antioxidant properties 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63. For example, vitexin, isovitexin and other polyphenols (isovitexin-6”-O-α-l-glucoside and dulcinoside) present in Beng-tigré are readily found in organs such as the liver, spleen, heart, kidneys, brain and lungs to induce host benefits 64.


6.1.2. Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides have an important role in the physiological activities of human body 65. 66 studied the structural properties of an acidic arabino-galactan (AGP-2), isolated from Beng-tigré, and its role in macrophage activation. AGP-2 was found to be one of the most interesting immunomodulators 66. It is also established that alkali-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Beng-tigré have the ability to activate macrophages 66, 67.


6.1.3. Peptides

Polymers of amino acids, linked together by peptide bonds, peptides in the body have an enzymatic, energetic and structural role. Beng-tigré contains proteins which, after digestion, release amino acids with very important biological activities) 68, 69. According to the same authors, these peptides are responsible for the inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I (ACE), an inhibition that helps regulate blood pressure in consumers. 18 also reported that the Beng-tigré protein hydrolysate exerts a strong inhibitory activity on ACE.

6.2. Beng-tigré as a Prebiotic for Health

Prebiotics are non-digestible compounds that, by selectively stimulating the growth of intestinal microbiotas, have a beneficial effect on host health according to 70. Whole grains and legumes are vectors for prebiotic compounds. They help maintain homeostasis and functions of intestinal microbiota and are often used as nutraceuticals 71, 72. However, several studies have shown that the Beng-tigré is rich in dietary fibres, polysaccharides, peptides and polyphenols 25, 48, 73. This is what has sparked the interest of researchers on this legume for its use as a prebiotic.

6.3. Antioxidant Activity of Beng-tigré

Seeds, germs and teguments of Beng-tigré have a high level of molecules endowed with antioxidant activity. These properties have been reported in several studies: 74, 75. These same authors reported that the germination of Beng-tigré seeds allows an increase in the content of bioactive molecules, hence the increase in antioxidant activity. Compared to natural seeds, germinated seeds of Beng-tigré has a very high antioxidant potential 76. Table 2 presents the antioxidant potential of Beng-tigré as reported by different authors.

7. Role of Beng-tigré in the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases

Formerly used in traditional medicine by Asians, Beng-tigré is nowadays a world-renowned legume due to its nutritional content and therapeutic properties. 84 reported that regular consumption of Beng-tigré has beneficial effects on the health of consumer. Several effects have been reported, these are anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-cholesterolemia and antihypertensive 17, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89. It could therefore play an important role in preventing certain diseases.

7.1. Anti-diabetic Activities

While long-term consumption of foods with a high glycaemic index may be a trigger for the onset of diabetes, its control requires the consumption of foods with a low glycaemic index. According to 90, diets with a low glycaemic index of up to 10% increase insulin sensitivity in the body by up to 30%. Beng-tigré, being a food with a low glycaemic index, would be a potential antidiabetic candidate 17, 45. Indeed, studies have shown that the consumption of Beng-tigré based meals induces a low glycaemic response compared to some cereals such as rice and corn 78, 91, 92, 93. Table 3 presents the results of in vitro biochemical assays of Beng-tigré and its active compounds in the control of hyperglycaemia.

7.2. Anti-hyperlipidemia and Anti-hypertension Activity

Commonly encountered metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), hyperlipidaemia and obesity are linked to an increase in Total Cholesterol (TC), blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) in the blood, along with a considerable decrease in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) levels 85, 99. Regular consumption of Beng-tigré has beneficial effects on health. It leads to a decrease in LDL, TG, TC and an increase in HDL in the consumer 84. The protein hydrolysates of Beng-tigré allow a significant reduction in blood pressure 18. According to 86, 100 and 69, these Beng-tigré protein hydrolysates significantly inhibit ACE for blood pressure regulation.

Experimental studies have reported that the lipid metabolism of Beng-tigré has a modulating role. According to 101, 102, cholesterol reduction can be induced by the phytosterol of Beng-tigré extracts. Symptoms of CVD and atherosclerosis could, however, be relieved by using hydroalcoholic extract of Beng-tigré seeds which helps to lower TG and LDL levels 101. Table 4 presents the lipid-lowering properties of Beng-tigré.

7.3. Anticancer and Hepato-protective Activities

Despite genetic susceptibility, smoking, chronic inflammation and immunosuppression, the choice of foods consumed over a lifetime can determine the likelihood of carcinogenesis at all phases of cancer process 107. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of Beng-tigré reduces the prevalence of colon, breast, and prostate cancers 108, 109. 88 reported inhibitory effects of Beng-tigré trypsin on the anticancer activities and proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Dietary fibre, phenolic compounds and micronutrients such as phytic acid, vitexin, isovitexin, protease inhibitors and saponins contained in Beng-tigré has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties 19, 110. A study has shown that aqueous extracts of fermented Beng-tigré can delay the formation of breast cancer and promote tumour reduction 111. The liver, a central inflammatory organ involved in metabolism, storage and excretion of metabolites, can be damaged by alcohol, viruses and autoimmune diseases 112, 113. Whole or germinated Beng-tigré has been shown to be an effective hepato-protective agent, capable of decreasing liver enzyme activity and liver histopathology in a dose-dependent manner 114. In addition, the aqueous extract of Beng-tigré, like certain beans and cereals such as rice, has shown a very interesting hepato-protective effect on acute hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen 115.

7.4. Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulating Activity

Various inflammatory diseases are currently treated by inhibiting the overproduction of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines in particular. For example, several studies have reported the anti-inflammatory effect of Beng-tigré against sepsis and ear oedema by inhibiting pro-inflammatory factors 87, 116, 117, 118 and many other authors have reported that vitexin and isovitexin extracted from Beng-tigré reduce macrophage activity by inhibiting pro-inflammatory gene expression without cytotoxicity and induce a decrease in inflammatory cytokines 89, 118, 119. Similarly, 120 or 121 reported that Beng-tigré has a very interesting immunomodulatory activity.

8. Conclusion

A plant resilient to the effects of climate change, Beng-tigré grows on many soil types in warm regions. A reference legume because of its nutrient composition, its seeds are used in the preparation of a variety of dishes in Burkina Faso and other regions of the world. In combination with other cereals or non-timber forest products, several dishes based on Beng-tigré seeds are consumed and contribute to the reduction of micronutrient malnutrition, which affects more than half of the world's population. Beng-tigré, given its composition of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, polysaccharides and polypeptides, is a functional food that can be very useful in preventive medicine. Rich in antioxidants, Beng-tigré has shown beneficial effects on health through in vitro and in vivo studies. Liver diseases (cirrhosis, steatosis, hepatitis) or metabolic diseases (type II diabetes, hypertension, cancer) or even immune diseases (multiple sclerosis, lupus, type I diabetes) are relieved by the consumption of Beng-tigré, according to several studies. Consumed extensively in Asian countries, Beng-tigré could serve as a staple food for some countries in Africa in the control of chronic degenerative diseases that are becoming increasingly worrisome. While several in vivo studies have been conducted on laboratory animals, it will be even more valuable to do randomised dietary follow-up with Beng-tiré on groups of people to study its metabolism through biochemical analysis. Also, more and more evidence has revealed reciprocal interactions between gut microbiota and functional food components and their consequences on human health. The effect of the microbiota involved in Beng-tigré in therapeutic interventions remains to be elucidated. In addition, several varieties of Beng-tigré are grown in India and Africa. Our current knowledge does not allow us to decide on the best varieties for the prevention of chronic diseases. It will therefore be necessary to conduct further studies on the most widely consumed varieties in order to draw conclusions. In addition, Beng-tigré is generally subjected to culinary treatments and parameters such as germination and soaking time of the seeds before processing or cooking could impact the composition of nutrients and bioactive molecules. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the impact of the processes at the local level by phytochemical screening of processed Beng-tigré seeds in order to deduce their biological activities. It would be interesting to also deepen the studies to better identify the synergistic effects of the multiple components of Beng-tigré and to ensure therapeutic convenience.

Acknowledgements

All authors contributed to write manuscript and reviewed it. Our thanks to His Excellency the Larlé Naaba Tigré, National Champion for Nutrition in Burkina Faso, for all his support to this study and to the Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology, University Joseph KI-ZERBO.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Jeanne d’Arc Wendmintiri Kabré, Fatoumata Hama-Ba, Aïcha Yamkaye Sawadogo, Hama Cissé, Yves Traoré and Aly Savadogo

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Jeanne d’Arc Wendmintiri Kabré, Fatoumata Hama-Ba, Aïcha Yamkaye Sawadogo, Hama Cissé, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo. Biological Activities of Beng-tigré (Vigna radiata): Nutritional Aspects and Therapeutic Functions. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2021, pp 113-124. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/9/4/2
MLA Style
Kabré, Jeanne d’Arc Wendmintiri, et al. "Biological Activities of Beng-tigré (Vigna radiata): Nutritional Aspects and Therapeutic Functions." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 9.4 (2021): 113-124.
APA Style
Kabré, J. D. W. , Hama-Ba, F. , Sawadogo, A. Y. , Cissé, H. , Traoré, Y. , & Savadogo, A. (2021). Biological Activities of Beng-tigré (Vigna radiata): Nutritional Aspects and Therapeutic Functions. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9(4), 113-124.
Chicago Style
Kabré, Jeanne d’Arc Wendmintiri, Fatoumata Hama-Ba, Aïcha Yamkaye Sawadogo, Hama Cissé, Yves Traoré, and Aly Savadogo. "Biological Activities of Beng-tigré (Vigna radiata): Nutritional Aspects and Therapeutic Functions." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 9, no. 4 (2021): 113-124.
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