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Research Article
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Lipid Profile of Obese Albino Rat after Treatment with Diets from Developed Recipes Utilizing Local Dietary Fibre Foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria

Ann Ifeoma Asouzu , Anne Chinyere Igbo
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2019, 7(4), 120-129. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-7-4-2
Received August 10, 2019; Revised September 15, 2019; Accepted November 11, 2019

Abstract

The study investigated the lipid profile of obese adult albino wista rat after treatment with diets from developed recipes utilizing local dietary fibre foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted research and development design carried-out in seven phases via determining the fiber content of the developed local foodstuffs using the AOAC standard, developing 9 recipes like casiavitas, herb rice, breadfruit and corn kernel, jack bean risotta, cowpea and maize twist, amarantus delicacy, nestroe, local fruit mix and whole wheat bread, purchasing of fifty (50) female adult albino wista rats from Veterinary Department of University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN), Random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 90 subjects (20 Nutritionists, 40 Home Economists, 10 Agriculturists, 6 Food Analyst, 14 Dieticians, and 4 Veterinary Doctors) in Enugu State. Conditioning the rat with normal rat chow for one week, inducement of obesity on the rats with condensed milk and sugar, division of the rats into 10 groups (one as control and nine as experimental) of 5 rats each based on body weight, and lastly taking Body Mass Index Measurements and Lipid Profile Recordings (BMILPR) of the rats before, during and after treatment with the diets. Data obtained was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that all the developed local fibre dishes which contributed significantly to weight loss and reduction in cholesterol and other lipid profiles of adult albino wista rats can be inferred in man. However, local fruit mix has the highest HDL and TGL reduction (from 40.97 after obesity inducement to 32.29 after treatment) and (from 97.83 to 25.81) respectively. The study recommends that local dietary fibre rich dishes should be used for women with obesity and lipid profile challenges.

1. Introduction

Eating habit, physical inactivity, increased sedentary nature of daily living habits and type of food (energy) intake when in excess of body demand can pre-dispose one to health risks like obesity. Obesity is a disease condition and a nutritional disorder characterized by high or excessive body fat and overweight in relation to lean body tissues and this is prevalent among women 1, 2, 3. 21% of adult urban dwellers in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria are obese; out of this 38% are male while 62% were female. Incidentally, many people (especially women) affected by obesity are usually ignorant of dietary therapy from local dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble) rich foods stuffs 4.

Copying or adopting westernized life styles heightens the patronage of inorganic and less nutritional fast food joints and restaurants for junk foods where inorganic and high nutritional foods. Furthermore, Mudambi and Rajagopal 6 emphasized that soluble dietary fibre has the ability to improve digestion, stabilize blood glucose levels, increase uptake of minerals and other nutrients in food, and reduce calories levels makes it apt for weight loss. Similarly, insoluble dietary fibres facilitate digestion which in one way or the other helps in preventing overeating and reduces obesity. This underscores the proficiency of dietary fibre rich foods as therapy to remediate nutritional induced diseases like obesity.

Asouzu 7 stated that some of the obesity-induced foods can increase lipid profile (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides (TGL) and VLDL) in the body. High lipids levels are likely to escalate issues of blocked arteries, colon cancer, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, hypertension, stroke, and high mortality rate. Obesity can be treated with adequate and appropriate diets, hence the development of recipe from these six groups of fibre rich foodstuff like: whole grains, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables recipes (a recipe is a set of instruction or blueprint used for preparing and producing a certain food, dish, or drink 8.

Mickesson 8 stressed that the appropriateness and adequacy of diets entail food that is not excessive or deficient in any nutrient category that will maintain health without contributing to weight loss or gain. Hence, fibre rich foods (like whole grains, cereals legumes, roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables) should constitute the daily intake of dietary choices which are consumed to yield nutritional and health benefits like obesity which accentuate or trigger non-communicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, increased morbidity and mortality rates among adults 9.

Alfridi, Sidique, Safdar and Khan 10 found five major approaches namely dietary using low-calorie foods, exercise, behaviour modifications, and pharmacy therapies can be used for treatment and control of obesity in Northern Nigeria. However, this study is structured along using the abundance of local dietary fibre rich foodstuffs in Enugu State like: vegetables: bitter leaf, amarantus, camwood leaves, fluted pumpkin, garden eggs, jute (‘kere’ and ‘Arira’) etc., cereal grain: corn, sorghum, rice, barley and acha among others, fruits: rubber plants, bush apple, bush mango, pumpkin, pawpaw, mango, soursop, pineapple, guava, garden egg, and watermelon etc., legumes: cowpea, groundnuts, pigeon pea, jack bean and breadfruit etc. and root and tubers: yam, sweet potatoes, carrot ginger cassava and aerial yam to test the reduction of lipid profile in obese adult albino wista rats. Despite, the abundance of these fibre rich foods obesity challenges still subsists in Enugu State 4.

Consequently, the use of rats was premised on the assertion of Arrington 11 that the body chemistry of 28 days albino wista rat is the same with that of an adult man. This further means that the diets developed from local dietary fibre foodstuff apart from being edible by man and the rats, they also must contain the appropriate daily nutrient requirements of carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, minerals, moisture, fat and oil, crude fibre, and ash that enhance life. Similarly, the organoleptic characteristics (via flavour, taste, colour, consistency/texture, temperature and general acceptability) of the diets developed from local dietary fibre foodstuff was also considered, since it depicts or describes attributes like flavour (good aroma, inviting, enhanced, locally-flavoured, spicy, unidentified, and well-balanced), taste (sharp, peppery, tasty, and well-spiced), colour (attractive, well-garnished, inviting, interesting, and exciting), consistency/texture (bright, moist, watery, wet, blended, smooth, soft, creamy, light, thick, and heavy), temperature (ice-cold, lukewarm, hot and very hot), and general acceptability (palatability, generally accepted, delicious and exciting) respectively of the diets developed from local dietary fibre foodstuff 7.

Therefore, the current interest in dietary fibre in terms of research and clinical application is in large measure attributable to the original observation and hypothesis evolved by Burkin and Trowell 12, that dietary fibre could be used in the management of certain disease like diverticulitis, cancer, and diabetes. Dietary fibre can modulate the lipid metabolism in several ways. It can change the digestibility and absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol, which can interfere with micelles and bile salt absorption. It can also interfere with the diffusion of lipids thereby limiting the transport of cholesterol that predisposes an individual to obesity 13. This is the main crux of this study.

2. Statement of Problem

Urbanization with its associated busy life engagement or commitment leaves individuals and families with little or no time for preparation of nutritious and home cooked foods, and physical activity due to the increased sedentary nature of daily living and improper eating habits that constitute serious threats to the body function, job productivity and prevalence of nutritionally-induced condition like obesity.

Today, many families in an attempt to adopt or copy westernized lifestyles have resorted to patronizing inorganic fast food joints and restaurants that produces and markets less nutritious junk foods, tinned foods, processed imported foods, imported frozen foods, polished rice, highly saturated fatty animal products which can increase lipid profile (via: cholesterol content, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides (TGL) and VLDL) in the body thereby triggering overweight and obesity as an increasingly second leading cause of preventable death in Nigerian.

Furthermore, Enugu State has an abundance of fibre rich foodstuffs. Despite this, women in Enugu Metropolis consume an extremely high amount of animal products rich in protein and saturated fat but lacks in fibre that can reduce obesity. Previous studies considered medical therapy for the treatment of obesity but none have been done using local dietary fibre rich foodstuffs as therapy for reducing the lipid profile (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides (TGL) and VLDL) in the body) and obesity among women in Enugu State. It is based on the foregoing that this study investigated lipid profile of obese albino rat after treatment with diets from developed recipes utilizing local dietary fibre foodstuffs in Enugu State Nigeria, with a view at developing recipes for local dietary fibre foodstuff to be fed to albino rats with its results inferred on human beings.

Specifically, the purposes of the study were to:

1. Determine the nutrient composition of diets from developed recipes using local fibre foodstuff in Enugu State.

2. Investigate the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in cholesterol of obese albino rat in Enugu State.

3. Investigate the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in LDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State.

4. Investigate the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in HDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State.

5. Investigate the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in Triglycerides (TGL) of an obese albino rat in Enugu State.

6. Investigate the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in VLDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State.

The following research questions guided the study:

1. What is the composition of diets from developed recipes using local fibre foodstuff in Enugu State?

2. What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in cholesterol of obese albino rat in Enugu State?

3. What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in LDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

4. What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in HDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

5. What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in Triglycerides (TGL) of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

6. What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in VLDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

3. Scope of the Study

This study was centred on developing recipes using local dietary fibre foodstuff for the reduction of the lipid profile of obese albino rat in Enugu State. Furthermore, lipid profile was dimensioned into cholesterol content, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides (TGL) and VLDL.

4. Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be beneficial to: nutritionists and dieticians, Home Economics students, curriculum planners, homemakers, citizens/populace, medical doctors, and the society in the following ways:

The study would help nutritionists and dieticians educate students on the development of recipes and planning of nutritional therapy for disease conditions.

Home Economics students would come to the realization that inorganic local fibre foodstuff is a major therapy for various types of nutritional diseases.

Curriculum planners would use the information from the study to review the Home Economics education curriculum both at the secondary and tertiary levels.

Homemakers will come to the realization that the blends of local fibre rich foodstuffs will assist them in checking obesity and other nutritionally-induced diseases.

The citizens/populace would benefit through increased involvement in agricultural practices that will, in turn, improve the availability, accessibility, and utilization of fibre rich crops.

Medical doctors would come to use the finding of this study to recommend local diets as therapy for their patients with obesity and other health conditions.

The society would benefit as the health, stability, and productivity of well-nourished citizens is enough impetus for the development of Enugu State in this 21st century.

5. Methodology

Area of Study: This study was carried out in Enugu State, Nigeria. Enugu is the former capital of East-central states. Enugu State has a population of 5.6 million predominantly rural and agrarian community 14 engages mostly in civil service, lecturing/teaching, banking, trading, quarrying, and the informal sectors. The predominant farming activities by indigenes of Enugu State led to the availability and affordability of several foodstuffs rich in fibre such as vegetables: bitter leaf, amarantus, camwood leaves, fluted pumpkin, garden eggs, juice and so on, cereal grain: corn, sorghum, rice, barley and acha, fruits: rubber plants, bush apple, bush mango, pumpkin, pawpaw, mango, soursop, pineapple, guava, garden egg, and watermelon, legumes: cowpea, coconuts, pigeon pea, jack bean and breadfruit and root and tubers: yam, sweet potatoes, carrot ginger cassava and aerial yam.

Design of the Study: The study adopted the research and development (R&D) design. Specifically, the Research and Development (R&D) according to Asouzu 13 is a type of research concerned with discovering and developing of new educational products (diets from developed recipes) which has been subjected to trial-testing based on special steps, production procedures that culminates in the testing of the product (diets from developed recipes) in the setting (among the adult albino rats) before the product (diets from developed recipes) is successfully put into operational use (treating obesity).

Population for the Study: The population of the study consisted of the entire 50 adults (i.e. 28 days) albino wista rats.

Sample: Purposive sampling technique was employed in the selection of 50 female adult albino wista rats. This constituted a sample of 50 rats used for the experiment.

Data Collection Technique:

Three undergraduates/volunteers were recruited from Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, and Home Economics Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka. They were selected based on their knowledge in the area of study. The research assistants helped in administering and retrieving the questionnaire carried out in five phases.

Phase I: Development of Recipes

The following procedures were being adopted in phase I of the study based on data collected.

i. Measurement of needed quantity of different local dietary fibre rich foodstuffs from vegetables, legumes, fruit cereal grains, seeds and nuts, and roots and tubers in order to determine their fibre content.

ii. Measuring of the other ingredients needed for each recipe, that is condiments and accompaniments to ensure that the developed recipes are adequate

iii. Preparation of the different recipes into these diets (like casiavitas, herb rice, breadfruit and corn kernel, jack bean risotta, cowpea and maize twist, amarantus delicacy, nestroe, and whole wheat bread) using appropriate procedures.

Phase II: Determination of the Nutrient Composition of the Diets from Developed Recipes

This phase witnessed the determination of the nutrient composition of the 9 diets (via: casiavitas, herb rice, bread fruit and corn kernel, jack bean risotta, cowpea and maize twist, amarantus delicacy, nestroe, and wholewheat bread recipes) from the developed recipes of local dietary fibre rich foodstuffs from vegetables, legumes, fruit cereal grains, seeds and nuts and roots and tubers.

Furthermore, five (5) food laboratory analysts with the researcher determined the nutrient composition of the diets from developed recipes in the laboratory. The prepared diets from the developed recipes were supplied to the food analysts for chemical analysis using Association of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) standards and values of analysis recorded as data collected.

Phase III: Animal Experiment

Preliminary Visit and Informed Consent

Animals: The principles of animal laboratory care under the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health and the Veterinary Medicine Department, University of Nigeria Nsukka of Animal care committee was followed strictly. The researcher visited and explained the purpose and significance of the study as well as solicits their support, co-operation, and consent in the use of the rats.

Animal Housing

Fifty female adult albino wista rats were purchased from the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The animals were divided into 10 groups of 5 rats each on the basis of body weight. The rats were housed in groups in cages equipped to separate urine and faeces at Home Science Nutrition and Dietetics Animal house.

Animal feeding

All the rats were fed on standard rat chow for 7 days to acclimatize them. The feeding was made to provide daily recommended intake of fibre to the rats. The entire 50 rats were then induced to develop obesity. This lasted for 7 days.

Process of inducing obesity in rats

Palatable diets consisting of 33% chow, 33% condensed milk and 7% sucrose and water were prepared. This provided 65% of energy as carbohydrate, 19% as protein and 16% as fat. This diet was designed to promote weight gain without employing major changes in macronutrient composition with normal rat chow.

Rats were allowed free access to water throughout the study and were maintained on a 12:12h light: dark phase schedule. At the end of the 1 – week period, the palatable diet-treated rats have developed significant obesity.

Phase IV: Feeding of Obese Rats with Diets from Developed Recipes

Soluble, insoluble and mixed local fibre rich diets from developed recipes were prepared by drying the raw foodstuffs in ovens at the laboratory unit of the Energy centres in UNN. These dried foodstuffs were ground into powdered form and bottled according to the different recipes. These were given to the 9 groups of rats while 1 group remain on normal rat chow as control for 14 days. Food intake were measured daily throughout the treatment period. The feed was administered orally with their feeding containers ad libitum for 2 weeks. Group 1 was fed normal chow. Group 2 was fed insoluble diet (Casiavitas) Group 3 was fed soluble diet (Herb rice) Group 4 was fed soluble diet (Bread food and corn kernel) Group 5 was fed insoluble diet (Jack bean risotta) Group 6 was fed mixed (cowpea and maize twist) Group 7 was fed mixed diet (Amarantus Delicacy) Group 8 was fed mixed diet (Nestroe) Group 9 was fed soluble (Local fruit mix) Group 10 was fed (Wholewheat bread). The weights of animals were recorded each day of analysis. Daily food intake was also recorded to calculate nutrient intake.

Phase V: Blood Sample Collection

The blood was collected from ophthalmic venous plexus located in the orbital sinus of the rat using a heparinized-capillary tube. Blood was also collected on day 0, 7, 12, 17 and 22 for hematological determinations. These days were chosen based on the recommendations of Arrington (1972); Five days interval is adequate to notice a significant difference in lipid profile. 

Biochemical Indices

The following biochemical indices were carried out. The BMI (Body mass index), LDL (Low-density lipoprotein), HDL (High-density lipoprotein), lipid profile and Cholesterol.

Data Analysis Technique: Data collected was analyzed using line graph, mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions with a criterion mean cut off of 3.00 for decisioning.

6. Results

Research Question 1: What is the composition of diets from developed recipes using local fibre foodstuff in Enugu State? Answer to this question was presented in Table 1 and Table 2.

The moisture content of the dishes ranged from 89.62±0.54 to 19.28±0.09. Local fruit mix (dish 8) had the highest moisture 89.62±0.54 while whole wheat bread (dish 9) had the least moisture (19.28±0.09). These differences were statistically significant (<0.05).

The protein content ranged from 18.70±0.72 to 1.75±0.02. Jack bean risotto had the highest value (18.70±0.72) while local fruit mix had the least value (1.75±0.02). The differences were significant (P ≤ 0.05). The fat content of the dishes was moderately low bread fruit and corn kernel dish had the highest bread value (7.81±0.08) followed by whole wheat nut bread (7.12±0.02) herb rice had the least fat content (1.52±0.10). Most of these differences were statistically significantly (P≤ 0.05).

The ash content of the products ranged from 3.74±0.02 to 0.54±0.39 whole wheat nut bread had the highest value followed by bread fruit and corn kernel then local fruit mix had the least value of ash (0.54±0.39). There were still significant differences in ash content from one dish to another. The crude fibre content of the dishes ranged from 0.35±0.81 to 0.05±1.3.

The carbohydrate content of the diets from the developed recipes which is obtained by difference is ranged from 73.13±0.28 in breadfruit and corn kernel to -4.13±0.31 in jackbean risotto. This shows a significant difference in values between the highest and lowest value of carbohydrate in the diets.

Vitamin A content of the dishes ranged from 879.42±0.16 to 85.11±0.08 international unit. Cowpea and maize twist (dish 5) has the highest value 879.4±0.16 while herbrice and whole wheat nut bread had the least value of 85.11±0.08.

Vitamin C content of the dishes ranged from 2.61±0.45 to 0.41±0.23, local fruit mix had the highest value of 2.61±0.45 while whole wheat nut bread had the least value of 0.41±0.23 respectively.

Vitamin E content, local fruit mix, Amaranthus delicacy and cowpea and maize twist had the highest value 5.8±0.17 while herbrice had the least value of vitamin E 0.4±0.21. The rest of the dishes ranged between the highest and least value. There was then a significant difference in the values highest and least values (P≤ 0.05). Calcium content of the dishes ranged from 1.82±0.18 to 0.54±0.07. Nevertheless, all most all the dishes recorded 1.82±0.18 and 1.52±0.07 respectively show that there was no significant difference in their value (P≤0.05).

Jackbean risotto had the highest phosphorous content of 0.94±0.01 and casiavitex within the least value of 0.40±0.07. Considering the values recorded in phosphorus in all the dishes there no significant difference in the values (P≤0.05).

The iron content of the nine dishes is almost within the same range. The zinc content of the dishes ranged from 206.06±0.01 in amaranthus delicacy to 84.85±0.03 respectively to whole wheat nut bread and casiavitex.

Research Question 2: What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in cholesterol of obese albino rat in Enugu State?

Table 3 and Figure 1 shows that there was a difference (reduction) in the body cholesterol of the rats during and after the experiment. The greatest change in percentage mean cholesterol was found in group I(soluble), with 39.21%.

Figure 1 shows that during the experiment which is when the rats were induced with obesity, the cholesterol of all the groups increased but started decreasing when the rats were treated with the diets from developed recipes.

Research Question 3: What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in LDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

Table 4 shows the mean LDL of the rats before, during and after the experiment. It further shows that no group had percentage mean change in LDL more up to -30.0%. This shows that the rats do not reduce much in LDL based on the type of dishes they were treated with.

Figure 2 shows the mean of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of rats in the ten groups before, during and after the experiment. Furthermore, the graph shows a significant drop in LDL after being treated with diets from developed recipes. From the above graph, there was a sharp elevation during the experiment because that happened when the rats were induced with obesity before the treatment.

Research Question 4: What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in HDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

Table 5 shows that there was a change in the mean HDL of the rats before and after the experiment. This shows that the reduction in the body HDL was not much based on their initial HDL composition before the experiment. None of the groups had percentage mean change in body HDL up to -20.0%.

Figure 3 also shows that HDL of the rats in all groups increased during the experiment which is the period of obesity inducement in rats.

Research Question 5: What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in Triglycerides (TGL) of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

Table 6 shows that the mean TGL of the rats before and after the experiment differed significantly, especially in the soluble dishes. Groups I and J (fed with the soluble dish) had the greatest percentage change in body TGL, of -63.64% and -61.40% respectively.

Figure 4 shows that TGL of the rats in all groups especially groups C, D, and J increased drastically during the experiment due to the fact that obesity-induced rats have so much fat accumulation.

Research Question 6: What is the impact of diets from local dietary fibre foodstuff in the level of reduction in VLDL of an obese albino rat in Enugu State?

Table 7 shows the mean VLDL of the rats before, during and after the experiment. It further shows that no group had a mean change in VLDL up to 25% indicating the difference was not much.

Very low-density lipoprotein during the experiment is very high in a fluctuating manner in Figure 5. This is because this is the period of inducement of obesity in rats in all groups, but when treatment with developed recipes started, there was a decline in VLDL.

7. Discussion of Findings

Table 1 and Table 2 revealed that the result of the nutrient composition had thirteen (13) items: Moisture, Ash, Fat and Oil, Carbohydrate, Protein, Fibre, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, phosphorus, Calcium, Iron and Zinc, and these items were grouped in two major features according to their functions: Proximate and Vitamins and Minerals.

The moisture content of the samples was determined by hot air oven method of Pearson 14. Each sample was dried at 100°C and the dry weight was subtracted from the sample’s initial weight. Fat was determined using the soxholet extraction method as described by AOAC 15. Similarly, crude protein content was determined using the micro-kjedahl method of AOAC 15. This involved digestion in hot sulphuric acid solution, distillation and titration. The acid hydrolysis method of AOAC 15 was used for crude fibre determination.

Ashing was also done in a hot air oven at 100°C as described by AOAC 15. The dish plus the sample was placed in a cool muffle furnace and the temperature of the furnace was maintained until its content (residue) appeared greyish white. This was cooled and weighted. The percentage total ash content of the sample was then calculated. Carbohydrate was determined by difference that is 100 – (a, b, c, d, e). Where a = % moisture; b = % fat; c = % protein; d = % fibre; e = % ash. While the vitamin and mineral content were determined by Pearson method (1976) using spectrophotometer. For b-carotene, vitamin C, iron, phosphorus, and calcium, absorbance were measured at 328nm, 420nm, 500nm, 470nm, and 425nm respectively. This finding is consistent with the views of Micksson 8 that the right proportion of micronutrient (such as vitamins and minerals) and macro nutrients (such as carbohydrate, protein, and fat) provides a variety of nutrients. Hence, the knowledge of the nutrient composition of diets plays significant roles in the development of the numerous blends or recipes subsequently consumed to effectively contributes to good health and immunity against deficiencies like obesity 7.

The result in Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7 revealed that the nine (9) different diets used for the treated or obesity-induced female adult albino wista rats had major dietary fibre content: soluble, insoluble, or mixed fibre diets. The study found that rats fed with soluble fibre content diets showed the most reduction in lipid profile like cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TGL, and VLDL, this was followed or seconded by mixed soluble fibre diets and then insoluble fibre diets which had the lowest in reduction in lipid profile like cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TGL, and VLDL.

This study is consistent with Arrington 11 who emphasized that the body chemistry of 28 days albino wista rat is the same with that of an adult man. Arrington 11 went on to say biological assay is a method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate invivo or in vitro tissues or cell model under controlled conditions and that biological assay is a type of scientific experiment which measures the effects of a substance on a living organism. Since the body chemistry of 28 days albino wistarat is same with that of an adult man, it could be inferred that

8. Conclusion

The study concluded that proximate composition (via carbohydrate, protein, fat, and oil, ash, moisture, vitamins and minerals) of the developed recipes for local dietary fibre foodstuff which was used for effectively reducing obesity in the female albino wista rats can be effectively applied to for adult women with obesity challenges in Enugu State.

Furthermore, the casiavitas, herb rice, bread fruit and corn kernel, jack bean risotta, cowpea and maize twist, amarantus delicacy, nestroe, and whole wheat bread recipes proved or showed to be nutrient dense. Their use improved the experimentation on the acceptability of fibre rich foodstuff for a reduction in lipid profile (via cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TGL and VLDL) of obesity induced albino wista rats. Therefore, the use of local dietary fibre foodstuff is therefore recommended for obese women.

9. Recommendations

Based on the finding of the study, the following recommendations were made:

1. Nutritionists and Home Economics should embark on a detailed compilation and publication of developed recipes of local dietary or nutritional dishesfor use by students, institutions (educational, health etc.), and the public.

2. Nutritionists and Home Economists should advocate for the use of local dietary foodsas therapy for nutritional diseases and other health challenges.

3. Nutritionists and Home Economists will be encouraged to embark on a sensitization campaign capable of creating awareness, educating students and assisting them plan nutritional therapy in their homes or schools.

4. Local dietary fibre rich dishes should be used for women with obesity challenges.

5. Local dietary fibre rich dishes should be used for women with lipid profile challenges.

6. The residents are encouraged to embark on the agricultural practices and marketing activities that will increase the availability, accessibility, and utilization of fibre rich crops.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Ann Ifeoma Asouzu and Anne Chinyere Igbo

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Ann Ifeoma Asouzu, Anne Chinyere Igbo. Lipid Profile of Obese Albino Rat after Treatment with Diets from Developed Recipes Utilizing Local Dietary Fibre Foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp 120-129. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/7/4/2
MLA Style
Asouzu, Ann Ifeoma, and Anne Chinyere Igbo. "Lipid Profile of Obese Albino Rat after Treatment with Diets from Developed Recipes Utilizing Local Dietary Fibre Foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7.4 (2019): 120-129.
APA Style
Asouzu, A. I. , & Igbo, A. C. (2019). Lipid Profile of Obese Albino Rat after Treatment with Diets from Developed Recipes Utilizing Local Dietary Fibre Foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(4), 120-129.
Chicago Style
Asouzu, Ann Ifeoma, and Anne Chinyere Igbo. "Lipid Profile of Obese Albino Rat after Treatment with Diets from Developed Recipes Utilizing Local Dietary Fibre Foodstuffs in Enugu State, Nigeria." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7, no. 4 (2019): 120-129.
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  • Table 3. Mean and Standard Deviation for Cholesterol of the Rats before, during and after the Experiment
  • Table 4. Mean and standard deviation for Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) of the Rats before, during and after the Experiment
  • Table 5. Mean and Standard Deviation for High-Density Lipoprotein of the Rats before, during and after the Experiment
  • Table 6. Mean and standard deviation for Triglycerides (TGL) of the Rats before, during and after the Experiment
  • Table 7. Mean and Standard Deviation for Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) of the Rats before, during and after the Experiment
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