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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Traditional Cereal-Based Porridges Sold in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Boureima Kagambèga, Hama Cissé, Sidbewendé Clarisse Compaoré, François Tapsoba, Souleymane Zongo, Adama Sawadogo, Cheikna Zongo, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2019, 7(3), 78-87. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-7-3-2
Received July 03, 2019; Revised August 05, 2019; Accepted August 15, 2019

Abstract

Cereals are major sources of energy and micronutrients for people in West Africa, especially in Burkina Faso because they are included in many dishes like traditional porridge. The purpose of this study is to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of various traditional cereal-based porridges. The physicochemical analysis focused on pH, viscosity, acidity measurements, dosing energetic nutrients and evaluate energy densities of porridges. Aerobic total mesophilic flora (ATMF), coliforms, yeasts and molds and Staphylococci have been counted. Physicochemical analysis of the porridges were: pH (4 to 9.55), viscosities (32 to 187.5mm/sec), acidities (0.04 to 0.23g/100g), dry matter (5.04 to 49.97%), Ashes (0.64 to 05.00%), fats (06.60 to 18.26%), proteins (07.22 to 10.22%), carbohydrates (30.61 to 80.52%), energy densities (17.82 to 114.73 Kcal/100g). Microbiological analysis of porridges showed high loads of 1.19x104 CFU/g, 5.5x102 CFU/g, 1.56x103 CFU/g and 6x101 CFU/g for ATMF, coliforms, yeasts and molds and Staphylococci, respectively. Eleven ingredients were used for the production of porridges. This study shows that the actors of this sector need to be trained on good hygiene practices.

1. Introduction

Traditional cereal-based porridge is an alternative for young children to benefit from complementary feeding in developing countries 1, 2. In Burkina Faso, cereals used in the production of porridge are pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) 3. These cereals are subject to traditional processes which result in low fermented porridges in energy densities and nutrients 2, 4, 5. Thus, the nutritional inadequacy of these porridges is linked to traditional processes that can negatively affect physicochemical parameters 6, 7. This can be a source of the various forms of malnutrition (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies) especially in weaning children for whom this unbalanced diet is a form of aggression 8, 9, 10, 11. We can also notice the combined cereals-based porridge within the production industry. This combination contributes to the modification of the final product physicochemical and organoleptic parameters 12, 13. This factor explains the presence of various porridges on the market in Ouagadougou based on the modifications of Bensaalga and Benkida such as Benkoonré. Studies have shown the importance of fermentation processes through the microbiota by improving and preserving the quality of these porridges 14, 15. However, in the microbiota, we can distinguish some pathogenic microorganisms mostly deriving from unitary stages representing some potential threats to consumer’s health 16. It is then necessary to identify these microorganisms of nutritional importance and pathogens through the control of quality and fermentation. The goal of this study is to evaluate the quality of these porridges through the analysis of some physicochemical and microbiological parameters in all their diversity.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Sampling of Porridges

Samples were taken from 120 producers. Thus, these samples were reduced to a scale of 30 in proportion to each type of porridges so that the results representative. Tus, the porridges from all cereals were taken into account. Samples were taken under reals conditions sale “in situ”. Some physicochemical parameters and microbiological analysis were carried out immediately after sampling in order to avoid modifications. The dry matter obtained for each sample was kept for the analysis of other physicochemical parameters such as proteins, lipids and sugars. Porridges were collected during October 2018.

2.2. Physicochemical Analysis
2.2.1. Temperature

Temperature was measured directly at the sampling site by pH-meter IP67-WATERPROOF coupled a thermometer. The value displayed on the screen was enregistred after to introduction of electrode into the porridge.


2.2.2. pH and Acidity

pH and acidity (Ac) were determined according to standard NF EN ISO 7305: 1973. About 5 g of porridges was introduced into a centrifuge tube supplemented with 30 ml of ethanol 95%. The whole is stirred for 1 h at 25°C with a rotary stirrer. The pH was determined by dipping the electrode of a pH meter in the sample and reading was done on the screen until a stable value was displayed. The sample is then centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 5minutes. In order to determine the acidity, 20 ml of the supernatant obtained after centrifugation was taken from a beaker and added with 6 drops of phenolphthalein. The titration was done with 0.05N NaOH while stirring until a persistent pink coloration was obtained for a few seconds. A blank is made with 20 ml of ethanol and six drops of phenolphthalein.


2.1.3. Viscosity

Consistency of the porridges was determined by using a branded Bostwick Consistometer CSC SCIENTIFIC 1-800-458-2558 which measures the flow velocity of the porridges at 45°C by measuring the distance travelled during 30 seconds (s) by the 100 ml of the porridge 16. The values are expressed in mm/s.


2.1.4. Moisture Content and Dry Matter

Water and dry matter (DM) content were determined according to French standard NF V 03-707: 2000. In a crucible of known weight (P0) a quantity of the porridge was introduced to obtain a final weight (P1). The whole is placed in an oven at 105°C for 24 to 48 h. After drying, the sample is removed and weighed progressively in order to obtain the constant weight (P2). The content is deduced from that of the dry matter.


2.1.5. Total Ash Content

Ashes are determined according to the French standard V03-760: 1981. In crucibles of known empty weight (Pv), 3g of sample of the dried porridge were introduced. The crucibles containing the samples are placed in the oven at 550°C overnight, cooled in a desiccator for 1 h and then weighed again until a constant weight (Pf) is obtained.


2.2.6. Protein Content

The protein contents of the samples were determined by the method of Kjeldahl according to the French standard V03-050 1970. The principle is based on the fact that organic nitrogen from the sample to be analyzed is transformed into inorganic nitrogen in ammoniacal form ((NH4)2SO4) due to the oxidizing action of the concentrated sulfuric acid in the presence of a catalyst. After displacement with sodium hydroxide as a strong base, the ammonia is distilled and then titrated in the presence of a colored reagent of boric acid by acidimetry. The total protein content is calculated by multiplying the amount of nitrogen by a conversion factor (6.25), i.e. 16% of nitrogen in the proteins.


2.2.7. Lipid Content

Lipid contents of the samples were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method according to the international standard ISO 659: 1998 10, with hexane as solvent. The lipid content is determined by weighing after evaporation of the hexane from the cartridges in an oven.


2.2.7. Total Sugar Content and Energy Density

Total carbohydrate contents were determined by the differential method according to Egan et al. 17.

Energy densities of porridges were calculated from the coefficients of Atwater and Benedict 18.

2.3. Microbiological Analysis
2.3.1. Enumeration of Aerobic Total Mesophilic Flora

Aerobic total mesophilic flora (ATMF) was counted on the Plate Count Agar according to ISO 4833: 2003. The dishes were incubated in an oven at 37°C for 24 to 48 h.


2.3.2. Enumeration of Total Coliforms

Total coliforms were enumered according to ISO 4832 (2006). Seeding was done on violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) and plates were incubated at 37°C during 24 h.


2.3.3. Enumeration of Staphylococci

Staphylococci were counted on the Chapman stone Agar according to ISO 6888-1 standard. After seeding, the dishes were incubated at 37°C for 48 h.


2.3.4. Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds

Yeasts and molds were enumered according to ISO 7954 (1988) after incubation the dishes at 30°C for 3 to 5 days onto SABOURAUD CAF Agar.


2.3.5. Enumeration of Salmonella

Salmonella were counted according to the AFNOR standard NF in ISO 6579 (2002) modified at two stages.

First stage: Pre-enrichment. It was done by incubating 25 ml of porridge sample added to 225 ml of sterilized Buffered Peptone Water at 37°C for 24 h for revivification of the stressed bacteria.

Second stage: Seeding of inoculum obtained from stage on Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS agar) for 72 h at 37°C.


2.3.6. General Expression of Microbiological Results

N: number of microorganisms per g of porridge;

ΣC: sum of colonies counted on the two boxes of the dilution considered;

Vi: volume of inoculum in ml;

d: dilution considered.

2.4. Data Processing

The descriptive statistics (frequencies, averages) were performed by the Microsoft Office 2013 Excel spreadsheet. The R software was used for principal component analysis (PCA). The paint.net v 4.0.6 software was used for image processing.

3. Results

3.1. Physicochemical Parameters
3.1.1. Average of Physicochemical Parameters of Cereal-Based Porridges

The viscosities of the porridges vary from one cereal to another, between 187.50±0.06mm/s (BSM20) to 32.50±0.22mm/s (BKM14). For the same cereal, porridges with different values in flow velocities are also obtained. It is with pearl millet especially that extreme values in terms of flow velocities are observed. Temperatures are in the range of 33 to 71°C. The pH range between 4 and 5.99 in general except in the case of BKOM21 where the value (9.55±0.03) is almost twice the other porridges. Also, there is an increasing ash content (05.00±0.05) in BKOM21 compared to all other porridges and above the standards (2.9%). BSM20 represents the porridge with the highest acid content (0.23±0.01g/100g) but it remains very low for BKOM21 (0.04±0.01g/100g). As for dry matter, the highest content (49.97±0.03%) is found with BKSR4, a granular porridges (Benkida) based on red sorghum. The fine porridge (Bensaalga) of pearl millet (BSM20) has the lowest content (5.04±0.40%). The lowest ash content (0.64±0.00%) is observed in the rice porridge (BCR29). The values of parameters such as viscosity, pH, temperature, acidity, dry matter and ash content of the cereal-based porridges are shown in Table 1.


3.1.2. Average of Physicochemical Parameters of Mixed Cereal-based Porridges

Table 2 reports the physicochemical parameters of mixed cereals porridges. The porridges from cereal combinations are all granular (Benkida) with viscosities between 32.50±0.24mm/s obtain for BKSRMA12 and BKSRB13; 182.50±0.28mm/s obtain for BKMMA16 as extreme values. The pH values are almost similar to those of a single cereal mixture, that is, between 4 and 5.48 corresponding to temperatures of 50°C or lower. The majority of the acidity contents are concentrated between 0.14g/100g and 0.15±0.02g/100g except for BKMMA23 (0.17±0.00g/100g) and BKSRB30 (0.12±0.03g/100g). Mixed-cereal porridges have the lowest dry matter values (04.34±0.57%), but there are also porridges with values up to 15.53±0.83% of BKMMA16 (Table 2).


3.1.3. Nutrients and Energy Densities of Traditional Porridges
3.1.3.1. Cereal-Based Porridges

Rice porridges are higher in fat content (Table 3) with a maximum content of 18.26±0.23% (BCR11) compared to low (06.60±0.00%) for BSM19 and BKSB18, which are produced from pearl millet and white sorghum. Protein levels range from 07.22±0.09% (BKSB18) to 9.93±0.19% (BKSR4). Carbohydrate contents (Table 3) have extremes ranging from 30.61±0.27% (BKRS4) to 79.46±0.62% (BKSB18). Energy densities range from 22.62±1.10 Kcal/100g of porridge (BKSB18) to 114.73±0.44 Kcal/100g (BKSR4) are recorded (Table 3).


3.1.3.2. Mixed Cereal-based Porridges

The combined cereals do not provide such significant changes in the minimum fat content that remains substantially equal to that given by single cereals (06.07±0.05%). But the highest value (07.64±0.04%) is significantly lower than given by the cereal-based porridge (18.26±0.23%). Protein levels, on the other hand, are slightly changing and range between 07.92±0.09% to 10.22±0.13%. The highest carbohydrate content is 80.52±0.14% (BKSRB30) versus 66.87±0.11 % (BKSRB13) as low. The energy densities did not change significantly and ranged from 17.82±0.15 Kcal/100g of porridge (BKSRB30) to 56.67±0.30 Kcal/100g (BKMMA16) compared to measure in cereal-based porridges (Table 4).


3.1.3. Correlation Analysis

Correlation between cereals used and physicochemical parameters: Principal component analysis of the data indicates that the most viscous porridges are those obtained by mixing cereals or those made from rice (Figure 1). On the other hand, red sorghum porridge is more fluid with a high dry matter content (Figure 1a and Figure 1b). The most acidic porridges are those produced from maize and white sorghum

Correlation between types of porridge and physicochemical parameters: Potash porridge (Benkoonré) has higher pH and ash values. The rice porridge is richer in fat, energy and protein. Benkida and Bensaalga have higher carbohydrate contents and viscosities compared to other types of porridge. These two porridges also contain more acid and dry matter compared to others (Figure 2a and Figure 2b).

Influence of ingredients on physicochemical parameters: Eleven ingredients were identified in the preparation of the porridge in Ouagadougou. The most used is Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) with a frequency of use of 83.33% against 03.33% frequency of use for the hull of rice and potash (Koonré). Mint, seeds and tamarind leaves are also used with respective frequencies of 50%, 36.33% and 33.33% (Figure 3).

3.2. Parameters Microbiological Quality of Porridges
3.2.1. Microbiological Quality of Cereal and Mixed Cereals-based Porridges

The total mesophilic aerobic flora (ATMF) varies from one sample to another between 2.101 CFU/g to 1.19×104 CFU/g with an average of 1.05±2.23×103 CFU/g (Table 5). Minumun loads in microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, coliforms and Staphylococci was less than 10 CFU/g in the porridges. Average loads of yeasts and molds, coliforms and Staphylococci in the porridges were 2.64±4.03×102 CFU/g, 0.5±1.06×102 CFU/g and 0.64±1.29×101 CFU/g, respectively. Maximum loads of yeasts and molds, coliforms and Staphylococci in the porridges were 1.56x103 CFU/g, 5.5x102 CFU/g and 6x101 CFU/g, respectively. No Salmonella was counted in the samples taken (Table 5).


3.2.2. Assessment of Contamination

Aerobic total mesophilic flora was counted in all the porridges sampled with 100% meeting the satisfaction standard. The presence of coliforms is considered satisfactory at 53.33%, acceptable at 36.66% and unsatisfactory at 10%. For yeasts and molds, the satisfaction rate is 93.33% against 6.66% acceptability. No samples were considered unsatisfactory. Staphylococcal contamination was considered satisfactory at 83.33% against 16.66% acceptable frequency. No samples showed CFU/g greater than the acceptable margin for Staphylococci. For Salmonella, there is 100% satisfaction (Figure 4a). The overall appraisal score gives 53% satisfaction for all germs, 37% acceptability and 10% dissatisfaction (Figure 4b).

The rice porridge gives 100% of satisfactory followed by that of Benkida (6%). The most contaminated porridges are those of Bensaalga-type with a dissatisfaction rate of 28.57%. For cereals, it is rice that makes it possible to obtain porridge with more satisfaction (100%), followed by mixed cereals (74.42%), red sorghum (50%) and maize (33.33%). The porridges prepared with white sorghum have not been microbiologically satisfactory, but the acceptable margin remains high (100%) (Figure 5).

4. Discussion

Single-grain porridges have flow rates either below, or above the standards required by the Codex Alimentarius (120 mm/30sec) to serve as a complementary food 16, 19, 20. According to some producers, the traditional processes can’t provide porridges with gelled starch which can improve their fluidity to improve energy density 4, 12, 15. In addition, an increase in dry matter leads to the thickening of the porridge. Consequently it can reduce the flow rate 21, 22.

The pH of porridges are acidic but higher than the values (less than 4) found by other authors. The pH of porridges is an important indicator of their level of acidification to ensure their preservation 23, 24. The duration of soaking and settling are steps that, when not long enough, do not allow sufficient fermentation and this at the same time affects the acidity which remains low 25. The only high value found at BKOM21 is related to the addition of potash (Koonré) which neutralizes the acidity and increases the ash content compared to other porridges.

The variations in temperature are due to sales periods and storage material for the porridge. The porridges sold in the mornings (6 am to 9 am) are naturally more influenced, because the ambient temperature is relatively low compared to that observed between 15 and 19 pm in the evening depending on the customer. The dry matter depends on the amount of material and quantity of water used for the preparation at the start of cooking. The energy nutrient content of cereal-based porridges can be modified by the various traditional treatments that can lead to considerable losses 10, 12. The addition of certain ingredients can also contribute to raising these levels 26, especially those of lipids (fats) and proteins. The high level of protein found in BKSRB13 is related to the mixture of the two sorghums that have higher protein fractions than millet and maize 27. Protein levels of all the porridges collected are lower than those required for infant flours (15% protein per 100g DM porridge’s). Also, the high lipid levels recorded in porridge made of rice due to the presence of grated coconut, which is very rich in lipids estimated between 12.74 and 54.84% 28. For other porridges, the levels are lower than the standards required by the joint FAO / WHO commission in 2006 29 which estimated the value at 8% of material in standard flours. These variations are also due to the diversity in cereals, which originally do not have the same nutrient content. These differences in nutritional composition are observed within the same species given the varietal differences caused by environmental conditions 30, 31. The levels of energy nutrients strongly influence the energy densities of porridges, justifying the variability in observed values. Tou et al. 32 estimated energy densities of traditional porridges at 30 Kcal/100g, with very low levels of energy nutrients and dry matter content. The materials are very low compared to the WHO recommendations that suggest an average of 30% for local porridge meant for supplemental feeding for children at weaning 12. These energy densities have similarities with those obtained from infantile flours from semi-modern production units 33, but the lipid and protein contents remain low compared to standards.

The frequent use of ginger is linked to its availability all over the world, but also because of its various medicinal virtues 34. Despite the fact that its culture is not widespread in Burkina Faso, it remains an accessible ingredient used by households because of the presence of some components (gingeroles, gingerdioles and gingerdiones) considered as powerful antioxidants 34. Ginger extracts associated with porridge can therefore help avoid or treat stomach problems, indigestion, diarrhea, nausea and that is well known to producers 34. However, due to the presence spices in it, its use is well controlled especially when it comes fora porridge meant for children.

Some ingredients like mint, tamarind seeds and leaves (Tamarindus indica) are known for their ability to preserve food 35. Indeed, mint (Mentha spicata) is known for its strong flavor because of essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids and menthol 35. This ingredient provides potassium and folic acid (vitamin B9). The tamarind has an acidifying feature and it is therefore more used for this property than for the flavoring taste 35. Nomel et al 36 reported that potash was mostly used as an ingredient to improve the fluidity, digestibility and preservation of the tô (a more solid form of cereal based-food). This property can be attributed to Koonré when added to the porridge explain more its use by some producers. The use of grated coconut matches with women concern to offer a porridge with new, acceptable and economically profitable features. This is the reason why porridge made of coconut is three times more expensive than the other ones. The high viscosities indicate the lack of control by the producers to establish a balance between the amount of water on one hand and the proportions of cereals during mixing on the other hand. It should also be noted that in the case of rice, the soaking time is reduced and the grains remain visible in the porridge, which slows the flow.

The presence of ATMF originates from the raw material itself 27. These microorganisms decrease in number after the cooking operation, which partly explains the number of CFU/g below the satisfaction standard (105 CFU/g) for the ATMF. A study confirmed the reduction of the ATMF by the effect of acidity and temperature in traditional pearl millet porridge. The acidification of porridges inhibits the growth of a large number of microorganisms through which potential pathogens, thus reducing their number. When the cooking operation is carried out under optimum conditions, this considerably reduces the ATMF. The number of coliforms is mainly located in the satisfaction margin. A fraction of the samples is considered unsatisfactory, which is an indicator of fecal or oral contamination and some of the germs may represent a danger to the consumer. As for porridges, the risk of contamination beyond acceptable standards is a sign of hygiene rules breach (hand hygiene, premises, equipment, etc 27, 37. There is a need to sensitize the actors on the precautions they have to take in order to preserve the porridges out of contaminations. The fungal flora (yeasts and molds) counted in some samples are not in compliance with the satisfaction standard, but remain acceptable (<103 CFU/g). Molds are particularly at the origin of the deterioration of the taste of porridge if their presence is not regulatory 38. Staphylococci counted in some samples are above the satisfaction limit, which may be at risk. Contamination by Staphylococci may be of exogenous origin, that is to say by contact with the working equipment, or simply related to manipulations made at some of the production process.

Rice provides more satisfaction both in the type of porridge and cereal. This is because its use does not require complex steps compared to other cereals such as maize and white sorghum. In fact, these last two cereals require shelling before being used because of their indigestible envelope and full of antinutritional factors. The complexity of operations is a potential risk of contamination especially when it is done manually.

Efforts are being made by the government, the University Joseph KI-ZERBO and research centers (DTA) to improve the quality of traditional foods, but expectations are still enormous for providing baby food for young children.

5. Conclusion

Traditional porridge contributes to improving the nutrition of people, especially those of young children as for supplementary foods during weaning. In Ouagadougou, as in most urban centers, there is a diversity of production processes, but also in the use of cereals. This justifies the diversity of porridges sold in the streets. They have energy densities below the standards proposed by the Codex Alimentarius and some authors as well. Pathways for improving the levels of energy nutrients and the balance of other physicochemical parameters are necessary. Also, educating producers about best hygiene practices can ensure healthy and nutritionally balanced porridges to the profit of consumers.

Acknowledgements

We thank our laboratory (LABIA) and Food Technology Department (DTA) for the reception and the provision of the material.

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[21]  Elenga, M., Tchimbakala, M.S and Sahou, A. Amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des bouillies d’igname et leur efficacité chez les rats de souche wistar, Journal Applied Biosciences, 103 (1). 9819-9828. 2016.
In article      
 
[22]  Kayode, A.P.P., Ahouanse, I.S., Kotchoni, S.O and Hounhouigan J.D. Optimisation du procédé traditionnel de maltage du sorgho pour la production de boissons fermentées. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(4). 1552-1561. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Bokossa, I.Y., Banon, J.S., Tchekessi, C.C., Sachi, P., Djogbe, A and Bleoussi, R. Production de Ablo, un aliment céréalier fermenté du Bénin: Synthèse bibliographique [Production of Ablo, a food cereal fermented of Benin: Bibliographic synthesis], International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 16(2). 356-369. 2016.
In article      
 
[24]  Tchekessi, C.K.C., Yaou, I.B., Agbangla, C., Adeoti, K.., Dossou-Yovo, P and Assogba, E. Caractérisations physicochimiques et microbiologiques d’une pâte traditionnelle “gowé” fabriquée à base de maïs au Bénin. Journal Recherche Science Universel.15(2): 377-387, 2013.
In article      
 
[25]  Messad, F., Létourneau-Montminy, M.P., Charbonneau, E., Sauvant, D and Guay, F. Prediction of standardized ileal digestibility and essential amino acid content of ingredients in swine: A meta-analysis, Journées Recherche Porcine,. 47:204-221, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Sidibe, S., Coulibaly, A., Koné, D and Doumbia, M. Amélioration de la viscosité et de la densité énergétique des bouillies infantiles préparées à partir de farines composées à base de riz, de niébé, de soja et d’arachide, Agronomie Africaine, 29(1). 53-61. 2017.
In article      
 
[27]  Tchekessi, C., Bokossa, A., Agbangla, C., Azokpota, P., Daube, G., Scippo, M.L and Bokossa, I.Y. Production and microbiological evaluation of three types of “Dèguè”, a local fermented drink made from milk in Benin. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2. 714-720. 2014.
In article      
 
[28]  Kodjo, N.F., Konan, K.J.L., Doue, G.G., Yao, S.M., Allou, K and Niamke, S. Caractérisation physicochimique des composantes de noix immature et mature de l’hybride de cocotier (Cocos nucifera L.) Nain Jaune Malaisie x Grand Vanuatu cultivé en Côte d’Ivoire, Journal of Animal &Plant Sciences 27(1). 4193-4206. 2015.
In article      
 
[29]  Joint, F.A.O. and W.E.C.o.F. Additives. Safety evaluation of certain food additives. 2006. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43265/9241660546_eng.pdf.
In article      
 
[30]  Banon, J.S., Bokoss, IY., Tchekessi, C.C., Bleoussi, R., Sachi, P., Dogbe, A., Assogba, K., Bade, F., Dahouenon-Ahoussi, E., Azopkota, P and Mensah, G.A. Production of Millet-Based (Pennisetum glaucum) Ablo and Sorghum-Based (Sorghum bicolor) Ablo Cultivated in the Republic of Benin, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(3). 276-282. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Boussari, Y.A.O., Chabi, N.W and Houssou, P. Fortification de farines infantiles par les feuilles de Calotropis procera et de Fagara xanthoxyloïdes. Mémoire de licence, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, 59. 2016.
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[32]  Tou, E.H., Mouquet, C., Guyot, J.P., Traoré, A.S and Trèche, S. Essai de modification du procédé traditionnel de fabrication des bouillies de mil fermenté ben-saalga en vue d'augmenter leur densité énergétique. 2nd International Workshop, Ouagadougou, 23-28 Nov 2004.
In article      
 
[33]  Sanou, A., Tapsoba, F., Zongo, C., Savadogo, A and Traoré, Y. Etude de la qualité nutritionnelle et microbiologique des farines infantiles de quatre unités de production: CMA saint Camille de Nanoro, CSPS Saint Louis de Temnaoré, CM saint Camille d’Ouagadougou et CHR de Koudougou. Nature & Technology, 17. 25-39. 2017.
In article      
 
[34]  Nandkangre, H., Ouedraogo, M and Sawadogo, M. Caractérisation du système de production du gingembre (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) au Burkina Faso: Potentialités, contraintes et perspectives. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 9(2). 861-873. 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Massieke, A.A.R.S., Tapsoba, F.W.B., Kaboré, D., Seogo, I., Tankoano, A., Dicko, M.H., Toguyeni, A and Sawadogo-Lingani, A. Etude sur la capacité de production, du circuit de commercialisation et de la consommation du zoom-koom vendu dans la ville de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11(5). 2294-2305. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Nomel, C.A.M., Kouadio, Y., Dan, G.C., Komadé, T and Kouamé, P.L. Enquête sur les Farines Céréalières et les Ingrédients Utilisés Dans la Préparation de la Pâte Alimentaire Traditionnelle Appelée" Tôh" à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), European Scientific Journal, 15(6). 508-524. 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Maiwore, J., Baane, M.P., Ngoune, L.T., Fadila, J.A., Yero, M.Y and Montet, D. Qualité microbiologique et physicochimique des laits fermentés consommés à Maroua (Cameroun). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 12(3 ). 1234-1246. 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Kouadio-Yapo, C.G., Dou, G.S.P., Aka, N.A.D., Zika, K.D., Adoubryn, K.D and Dosso, M. Identification des espèces de levures isolées de l’attiéké commercialisé sur les marchés à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire): étude préliminaire, Journal de Mycologie Medicale, 28(2). 305-309. 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Boureima Kagambèga, Hama Cissé, Sidbewendé Clarisse Compaoré, François Tapsoba, Souleymane Zongo, Adama Sawadogo, Cheikna Zongo, Yves Traoré and Aly Savadogo

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Boureima Kagambèga, Hama Cissé, Sidbewendé Clarisse Compaoré, François Tapsoba, Souleymane Zongo, Adama Sawadogo, Cheikna Zongo, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo. Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Traditional Cereal-Based Porridges Sold in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp 78-87. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/7/3/2
MLA Style
Kagambèga, Boureima, et al. "Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Traditional Cereal-Based Porridges Sold in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7.3 (2019): 78-87.
APA Style
Kagambèga, B. , Cissé, H. , Compaoré, S. C. , Tapsoba, F. , Zongo, S. , Sawadogo, A. , Zongo, C. , Traoré, Y. , & Savadogo, A. (2019). Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Traditional Cereal-Based Porridges Sold in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(3), 78-87.
Chicago Style
Kagambèga, Boureima, Hama Cissé, Sidbewendé Clarisse Compaoré, François Tapsoba, Souleymane Zongo, Adama Sawadogo, Cheikna Zongo, Yves Traoré, and Aly Savadogo. "Physicochemical and Microbiological Qualities of Traditional Cereal-Based Porridges Sold in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7, no. 3 (2019): 78-87.
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[16]  Elenga, M., Massamba, J., Kobawila, S., Makosso, V and Silou, T. Evaluation et amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des pâtes et des bouillies de maïs fermenté au Congo, International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(6). 1274-1285. 2009.
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[19]  El Tou, H., Mouquer, C., Trèche, S., Guyot, J.P and Traoré, A.S. Caractérisation des procédés traditionnels de fabrication des bouillies de petit mil fermenté dans 24 micro-ateliers de production à Ouagadougou. Forum National de la Necherche Scientifique et des Innovations Technologiques (FIRSIT), Ouagadougou, 15-18 Mai, 2002.
In article      
 
[20]  Fogny, N.F., Madode, E.Y., Laleye, F.F., Amoussou-Lokossou, Y and Kayodé, A. Formulation de farine de fonio enrichie en ressources alimentaires locales pour l’alimentation complémentaire des jeunes enfants au Bénin, International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11(6). 2745-2755. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Elenga, M., Tchimbakala, M.S and Sahou, A. Amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des bouillies d’igname et leur efficacité chez les rats de souche wistar, Journal Applied Biosciences, 103 (1). 9819-9828. 2016.
In article      
 
[22]  Kayode, A.P.P., Ahouanse, I.S., Kotchoni, S.O and Hounhouigan J.D. Optimisation du procédé traditionnel de maltage du sorgho pour la production de boissons fermentées. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(4). 1552-1561. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Bokossa, I.Y., Banon, J.S., Tchekessi, C.C., Sachi, P., Djogbe, A and Bleoussi, R. Production de Ablo, un aliment céréalier fermenté du Bénin: Synthèse bibliographique [Production of Ablo, a food cereal fermented of Benin: Bibliographic synthesis], International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 16(2). 356-369. 2016.
In article      
 
[24]  Tchekessi, C.K.C., Yaou, I.B., Agbangla, C., Adeoti, K.., Dossou-Yovo, P and Assogba, E. Caractérisations physicochimiques et microbiologiques d’une pâte traditionnelle “gowé” fabriquée à base de maïs au Bénin. Journal Recherche Science Universel.15(2): 377-387, 2013.
In article      
 
[25]  Messad, F., Létourneau-Montminy, M.P., Charbonneau, E., Sauvant, D and Guay, F. Prediction of standardized ileal digestibility and essential amino acid content of ingredients in swine: A meta-analysis, Journées Recherche Porcine,. 47:204-221, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Sidibe, S., Coulibaly, A., Koné, D and Doumbia, M. Amélioration de la viscosité et de la densité énergétique des bouillies infantiles préparées à partir de farines composées à base de riz, de niébé, de soja et d’arachide, Agronomie Africaine, 29(1). 53-61. 2017.
In article      
 
[27]  Tchekessi, C., Bokossa, A., Agbangla, C., Azokpota, P., Daube, G., Scippo, M.L and Bokossa, I.Y. Production and microbiological evaluation of three types of “Dèguè”, a local fermented drink made from milk in Benin. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2. 714-720. 2014.
In article      
 
[28]  Kodjo, N.F., Konan, K.J.L., Doue, G.G., Yao, S.M., Allou, K and Niamke, S. Caractérisation physicochimique des composantes de noix immature et mature de l’hybride de cocotier (Cocos nucifera L.) Nain Jaune Malaisie x Grand Vanuatu cultivé en Côte d’Ivoire, Journal of Animal &Plant Sciences 27(1). 4193-4206. 2015.
In article      
 
[29]  Joint, F.A.O. and W.E.C.o.F. Additives. Safety evaluation of certain food additives. 2006. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43265/9241660546_eng.pdf.
In article      
 
[30]  Banon, J.S., Bokoss, IY., Tchekessi, C.C., Bleoussi, R., Sachi, P., Dogbe, A., Assogba, K., Bade, F., Dahouenon-Ahoussi, E., Azopkota, P and Mensah, G.A. Production of Millet-Based (Pennisetum glaucum) Ablo and Sorghum-Based (Sorghum bicolor) Ablo Cultivated in the Republic of Benin, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(3). 276-282. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Boussari, Y.A.O., Chabi, N.W and Houssou, P. Fortification de farines infantiles par les feuilles de Calotropis procera et de Fagara xanthoxyloïdes. Mémoire de licence, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, 59. 2016.
In article      
 
[32]  Tou, E.H., Mouquet, C., Guyot, J.P., Traoré, A.S and Trèche, S. Essai de modification du procédé traditionnel de fabrication des bouillies de mil fermenté ben-saalga en vue d'augmenter leur densité énergétique. 2nd International Workshop, Ouagadougou, 23-28 Nov 2004.
In article      
 
[33]  Sanou, A., Tapsoba, F., Zongo, C., Savadogo, A and Traoré, Y. Etude de la qualité nutritionnelle et microbiologique des farines infantiles de quatre unités de production: CMA saint Camille de Nanoro, CSPS Saint Louis de Temnaoré, CM saint Camille d’Ouagadougou et CHR de Koudougou. Nature & Technology, 17. 25-39. 2017.
In article      
 
[34]  Nandkangre, H., Ouedraogo, M and Sawadogo, M. Caractérisation du système de production du gingembre (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) au Burkina Faso: Potentialités, contraintes et perspectives. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 9(2). 861-873. 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Massieke, A.A.R.S., Tapsoba, F.W.B., Kaboré, D., Seogo, I., Tankoano, A., Dicko, M.H., Toguyeni, A and Sawadogo-Lingani, A. Etude sur la capacité de production, du circuit de commercialisation et de la consommation du zoom-koom vendu dans la ville de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11(5). 2294-2305. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Nomel, C.A.M., Kouadio, Y., Dan, G.C., Komadé, T and Kouamé, P.L. Enquête sur les Farines Céréalières et les Ingrédients Utilisés Dans la Préparation de la Pâte Alimentaire Traditionnelle Appelée" Tôh" à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), European Scientific Journal, 15(6). 508-524. 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Maiwore, J., Baane, M.P., Ngoune, L.T., Fadila, J.A., Yero, M.Y and Montet, D. Qualité microbiologique et physicochimique des laits fermentés consommés à Maroua (Cameroun). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 12(3 ). 1234-1246. 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Kouadio-Yapo, C.G., Dou, G.S.P., Aka, N.A.D., Zika, K.D., Adoubryn, K.D and Dosso, M. Identification des espèces de levures isolées de l’attiéké commercialisé sur les marchés à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire): étude préliminaire, Journal de Mycologie Medicale, 28(2). 305-309. 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed