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Uyagdok: Ethnography on the Ritual of Permission of the Manobo Tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Fluellen L. Cos
World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2021, 7(3), 68-82. DOI: 10.12691/wjssh-7-3-1
Received May 15, 2021; Revised June 20, 2021; Accepted June 28, 2021

Abstract

Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur is a mountainous area in Mindanao where the Manobo tribe dwells. The culture, traditional practices and rituals are still practiced up to the present. This study aims to document the Uyagdok (ritual) which is done prior to the immersion of visitors from the outside area. The study sought to find the materials used for the ritual and how it is performed through ethnographic, qualitative research method where the researcher conducted observations, interviews and focused group discussion. It was found out that Uyagdok consists of three ritual parts: Ugbok (pre-ritual), Uyagdok (ritual proper) and Hakyad (post-ritual). The pre-ritual starts with the finding of the right tree to be used in the binangko (platform), the preparation of Minhow (young coconut leaves) and the actual mounting of the platform with the food and wine on it with the Minhow tied on both sides of the platform. The Uyagdok proper involves the Baylan (Manobo healer) doing Tud-om (chant) invoking the Abyan (diety) so to ask permission for the outsiders to be with the tribe. The native pig is slaughtered and its blood is wiped on the platform. Hakyad then is performed when the right side of the slaughtered pig is grilled and be shared by all who is present with cooked rice. Documenting all the rituals of the tribe and legislations to preserve such cultural heritage are recommended.

1. Introduction

The Philippine Constitution of 1987, Chapter 1, section 2, mentioned that the state shall recognize, respect and protect the rights of the indigenous people and to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions and institution.

Republic Act (RA) 8371, known as Indigenous Peoples Rights Act, defined indigenous people as a group of homogenous society, who have continuously lived as an organized community on communally bounded and possessed land used as their abode, sharing common bonds of language, customs, culture, traditions and indigenous religions, become historically differentiated from the rest of the Filipinos.

Indigenous Peoples (IP) are the living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others; they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler who encroached their lands 1.

Many rights of our indigenous people have been disregarded and there is a difference between indigenous group and the general population. Thus, such disregard played a major factor contributing to social marginalization, poverty and dispossession of indigenous people 2.

An online article published by IFAD, opined that indigenous peoples have rich and ancient cultures, view their social, economic, environmental and spiritual systems as interdependent. Against all odds, the indignities of colonization and the lures of modern society, indigenous people have survived as communities with a strong felt, time-honored identity. Their claims and aspirations are diverse, but their common ground is a quest and claim for the preservation and flourishing of their endangered culture, their language which are inextricably and often spiritually tied to their ancestral lands.

Manobo tribe is a group of Indigenous People who live in the Province of Surigao del Sur. They speak in minanuvu languages, according to De leon 3.

Manobo tribe is one of the largest indigenous groups of people on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, and that includes the tribe of Surigao Manobo in the province of Surigao. The word Manobo came from “mansuba” meaning man and “suba” meaning river 4, which means river people 5. Manobo settlers live in mountain regions and hinterlands of Mindanao in the northernmost part along rivers, valleys, and swamp. Manobo people are concentrated in Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Misamis Oriental, and Surigao del Sur 6.

In the municipality of Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, the Manobo tribe is settled in the northernmost part of the town specifically in Barangay Pantukan.

The largest indigenous groups of Manobo tribe practice rituals as an integral part of their culture. Ritual observations are significant practice of Manobo culture in asking permission and approval from their deities in any activities in their ancestral lands and indigenous territories 7.

Ritual serves as a traditional practice, which marks as the cultural identity of a particular indigenous group through prayers and worship to their deities, gods, and goddesses for protection, thanksgiving, and betterment of human life. Rituals are part of worshipping gods and goddesses in various occasions from birth to mourning death 8.

In the study conducted by Buenconsejo 9, the Manobo believed in the myth that Spirit interacts with human beings. Manobo’s belief in these beings perpetuates the idea that the cosmos where the human being lives is a place where they survive because human beings share and exchange gifts, not only with spirits but among themselves.

The Manobo of Panukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines has still these living rituals which are undocumented. The cultural heritage of them must be preserved for future generations through the intervention of the academe and the municipal tourism office of the local government for future legislations related to cultural preservation which will later lead to the developmental measures of the indigenous people of the municipality of Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

2. Literature Review

The Manobo are probably the most numerous of the ethnic groups of the Philippines in terms of the relationships and names of the various groups that belong to this family of languages. Mention has been made of the numerous subgroups that comprise the Manobo group. The total national population including the subgroups is 749,042 (NM 1994); occupying core areas from Sarangani island into the Mindanao mainland in the provinces of Agusan del Sur, Davao provinces, Bukidnon, and North and South Cotabato. The groups occupy such a wide area of distribution that localized groups have assumed the character of distinctiveness as a separate ethnic grouping such as the Bagobo or the Higaonon, and the Atta. Depending on specific linguistic points of view, the membership of a dialect with a super group shifts.

The Manobo occupy and have adapted to various ecological niches ranging from the coastal to the rugged mountain highlands of the interiors of Mindanao. The different subgroups are highly dispersed transecting the entire island of Mindanao, there adapting to various environmental niches to develop self-contained variations of a generalized culture. The orientation of all the subgroups, however, is upland. Commonly, cultivation is multi-cropped and intercropped, including rice, corn, legume, yams, and sweet potato. Agriculture production is supplemented by hunting and food gathering 10.

Surigao Del Sur is the home of the illustrious Manobo’s, calm loving Mamanwas and royal Mandayas. A province considered as indigenous homeland of the said communities. Literatures cited by scholars such Almeda, Eleazar, and Garvan, Maceda, Senoc and among others mentioned it as a Manobo land 11.

Oral traditions narrated that the word Manobo “hubo” which is translated in English as “naked “highlander tribe was a name calling of the Spaniards during the early part of Spanish occupation later when the American colonized the Philippines “Manobo” word then was equated as dweller in the upstream and the river banks.

Garvan 12 also narrated that the Manobo’s practiced slavery of the captured tribe since a century ago tribal wars were frequent with the neighboring Mandaya, Didabawon; Banwaon. This was also reported by Beyer 13. It was in this reason that the Mandaya moved southward due to the frequent tribal wars. Beyer 13 also reported that the Mamanwas a century ago was haunted by the Manobo’s as result the Mamawas settled in the deep of the Pacific Cordilleras to avoid conflict with fearsome Manobo’s 13. Eleazar 14 concluded that the Madaya of Davao region fled there due to the tribal wars with the neighboring Manobo as Eleazar 14 further narrated “Until the 18th century, the province was fully known as Manobo, Mandaya and Mamanwa land. The early evangelist called them animist. Some records of these tribes were mentioned by ecomendero Garci Sierras’ Chacon. Those written by missionary priest in 1600’s mentioned the Manobo’s north of Tandag as the people occupying in the area. Inter-tribal wars caused the Mandayas to leave for southern Mindanao” (Eleazar, 14 as cited by Tomaquin, 11).

As a result of this tribal wars the Mandayas moved southward in Lianga, Marihatag and beyond to escape the fury of the Banwaon. Azarcon ( 15 in Caynap et. al. 16) further narrated the details of the tribal war “During the time, a church was built in the area was named after a patron saint named “San Miguel”. San Miguel was then part of Tago was then called San Miguel from that time on. Dating back before the Spanish colonizers came, the Banwaon who from time to time raided the settlements of Tago, (which San Miguel formerly belong as sitio) upon not finding the hidden settlements of the Manobo tribe, expanded their raid and even reached the dead end of Tago river which is the shoreline of “Unaban” (now known as Gamut) from which, Mandaya were settling then. The Mandaya captives of the raiding Banwaons were then brought and settled to death at the place now known as “Bolhoon” – a Manobo term which literally means “to stab”. Their events forced the Mandaya tribes of Unaban to flee to the adjacent area of Cagwait, San Agustin and Marihatag.” (Azarcon, 15 in Caynap et. al 16).

Similarly the river systems of Surigao del Sur was contributory in the choice of the settlement of the Manobo’s as Senoc 17 revealed that the “coastal parts of Surigao del Sur is strung by many winding rivers. Two are the peculiars ones, Tandag and Tago Rivers. These rivers were mentioned in this paper because of the fact that the Manobo’s oral lore pointed it as one of the prime reason why the Manobo’s of Agusan migrated in the central valley of Surigao del Sur 17.

The religious beliefs of the Manobo revolve around the concept of many unseen spirits interfering in the lives of humans. They believe that these spirits can intrude on human activities to accomplish their desires. The spirits are also believed to have human characteristics. They are both good and evil in nature and can be evoked to both anger and pleasure. While the religious practices of the Manobo vary slightly, there seems to be at least one common thread linking them together. Each culture believes in one "great spirit." This "great spirit" is usually viewed as the creator figure. As the various Manobo groups have been separated, the religious beliefs of other peoples have influenced them somewhat. However, the Manobo have often incorporated these new practices into their belief system, rather than abandoning their practices and being converted to new religions.

The initiation of rituals involves separating neophytes (initiates) from everyday social life and forcing them to pass a luminal state in which the boundary of the human social world seems to blur. The ritual communication is established between human beings and non- human beings such as spirits, divinities, and the spiritual owners of natural species, subjectivities that inhabits animal bodies and plants and so on all that is endowed with different capacities 18.

In the study conducted by Buenconsejo 9, the Manobos believed in the myth that Spirit interacts with human beings. Manobo’s belief in these beings perpetuates the idea that the cosmos where the human being lives is a place where they survive because human beings share and exchange gifts, not only with spirits but among themselves. The Manobo’s distinguished between diwata, witches and the disembodied souls of deceased humans (umayad). They maintain these funda- mental categorical distinctions between supernatural beings. In fact the action of the spirits conceptually separate from anti- social sorcery (kumetan), spirit mediums can only heal illness caused by a member of a class of spiritual beings, compatible to human interventions, while victims of sorcery must be treated with other methods involving magical substances and talisman.

According to the study conducted by Tomaquin 11, among the Tambajon or baylan of Manobo-Mamanwas of Surigao province, they are believed to be charmers and an herbalist. It is thought that they have several charms. It is a popular belief among the Bisaya/lowlanders population that they are endowed by the power of barang, a curse or simply a form of sorcery. The Mamanwas generally are peace loving. They are unassuming and tend to settle their conflict peacefully. The Tambajon/Baylan, in some extent is a peacemaker, if the Datu seeks his services. Tambajon/baylan is an institution of Mamanwa society. It holds the community and provides its solid framework of the society. He is a protector of their indigenous religion. As a herbalist, his knowledge of indigenous/traditional medicine is exemplary including the knowledge in treating or curing snakebites. The Tambajon then is a healer - religious expert. He is an intermediary between the Diwatas and the settlement. The Tambajon/baylan becomes through his own effort or through a visionary experience. He is an expert of the indigenous prayer (Tud-om), the Mamanwa shaman, whose influence of culture is noticeable. He is highly respected in his spirituality as intermediary to the temporal world to the Paradise (Katahawan). The Tambajon/Baylan can directly receives communication from Tahaw, as the Mamanwas believed. He is the most sincere person in the village for he led the Kahimonan with deep respect to Tahaw. He is expert in the Mamanwa oral tradition and is endowed with wisdom of the Tud-om and the code of religious vow of the Tambalons or the Binaylans.

3. Research Questions

This study delved on Uyagdok a ritual of Permission to enter the area of the Manobo tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Considering the research problem, the following questions are posed:

1. What is the ritual of permission to enter the area of the Manobo in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines?

2. What are the materials used in this ritual?

3. How is the ritual performed?

4. What measures are recommended to preserve the ritual of asking permission of the Manobo tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines?

4. Research Locale and Methods

4.1. Study Area

The fieldwork was conducted at Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines as shown in Figure 1. Pantukan is situated at approximately 9.3164, 125.8140, in the island of Mindanao. Elevation at these coordinates is estimated at 641.4 meters or 2,104.3 feet above mean sea level. Its population as determined by the 2015 Census was 737. This represented 3.28% of the total population of Carrascal. According to the 2015 Census, the age group with the highest population in Pantukan is 1 to 4, with 101 individuals. Conversely, the age group with the lowest population is 75 to 79, with 3 individuals. Carrascal is the boundary town of Surigao del Sur with Surigao del Norte. Carrascal is politically subdivided into 14 barangays namely: Adlay, Babuyan, Bacolod, Baybay (Poblacion), Bon-ot, Caglayag, Dahican, Doyos (Poblacion), Embarcadero (Poblacion), Gamuton, Panikian, Pantukan, Saca (Poblacion), and Tag-Anito.

4.2. Methodology

This study used ethnographic qualitative type of research which include direct observation, video recordings, photography, sketches, interviews and focused group discussions. It was initiated by an entry protocol asking consent from both the local officials of Patukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur and the Manobo elders through the Takusajan (tribe decision-maker). The rituals are actually observed and documented through notes, videos and photographs and are qualified though follow-up questions during the focused group discussion (FGD). The persons involved in the FGD are the Baylan (healer), the Datu (tribal chieftain), two (2) leaders of the dominant Manobo clans in the place, the takusajan, and two (2) barangay officials. The notes are then compared with the video and photographs taken the actual ritual and the concepts coming from the resource persons.

5. Results and Discussion

This part deals with the presentation of the gathered data.

1. What is the ritual of permission to enter the area of the Manobo in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines?

Uyagdok is the term used by the Manobo tribe in performing a ritual giving permission to the visitors from the outside to immerse with them. The ritual is performed in three parts. Table 1 presents the different phases of the Uyagdok.

  • Table 1. Phases of the Uyagdok: ritual of permission to enter the area of the Manobo in Patukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines

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The table shows that the ritual of giving permission to enter the area of the Manobo in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines is called Uyagdok and it has three parts namely: Ugbok, Uyagdok and Hakyad. The pre-ritual starts with the finding of the right tree to be used in the binangko (platform), the preparation of minhow (young coconut leaves) and the actual mounting of the platform with the food and wine on it with the minhow tied on both sides of the platform. The Uyagdok proper involves the baylan (Manobo healer) doing tud-om (chant) invoking the abyan (diety) so to ask permission for the outsiders to be with the tribe. The native pig is slaughtered and its blood is wiped on the platform. Hakyad then is performed when the right side of the slaughtered pig is grilled and be shared by all who is present with cooked rice and local wine.

2. What are the materials used in this ritual?

Figure 2 shows the materials used in the Pre-ritual (ugbok) namely: Anilow (log used as base), minhow (young coconut leaves), binangko (platform), plato (plate with beetle leaves and sliced fruit of mam-on A. catechu), baso (glass with local wine – Mallorca), sopas (biscuit) and kendi (candy), sigarilyo (cigarette) and kandila (lighted candles).

Figure 3 shows the materials used for the ritual proper (uyagdok) namely: Baboy (native pig colored black), sunoy (native rooster colored red), sable (sharp bolo).

Figure 4 shows the materials used for the post-ritual (hakyad) namely: luto (cooked rice), sugba (grilled heart, liver and meat of the slaughtered pig) and Mallorca (local wine).

3. How is the ritual performed?

A. Pre-Ritual (Ugbok)

As early as 4:00 o’ clock in the morning, the assistant baylan (healer) goes to the forest to look for anilow (tree) preferably the ones they call Kaliyaan. Two (2) medium-sized stems of the tree good enough to make as the stand or small columns of the binangko (platform) where the offerings will be placed are brought to the area where the ritual takes place. The assistant baylan also cuts two (2) stalks of young coconut leaves. Once the logs arrive at the ritual place, the assistant baylan slices the edge of one end of the anilow to make it sharp. Triangular shapes are designed on the sharpened part as part of their communing with the earth (see Picture no.1 in Figure 2). The young coconut stalks are then hit on the ground making the leaves separate from the stalks. The baylan (healer) then takes away the sticks at the center of each leaf allowing the leaves to fall down. This is now the minhow (Picture no. 2 in Figure 2). The two logs are then planted on the ground in a parallel way. A flat wood then is placed on the top of them forming the binangko (platform) (Picture no. 3 in Figure 2). The minhow is tied on both sides attached to the anilow while the bark of the tree is peeled to the ground. The plate with beetle leaves and Mam-on fruit (Picture no. 4 in Figure 2), the biscuits (Picture no. 6 in Figure 2), candy (Picture no. 7 in Figure 2) and the local wine on glasses (Picture no. 5 in Figure 2), the lighted candles (Picture no. 9 in Figure 2), and cigarettes (Picture no. 8 in Figure 2), are then placed on top of the platform. These will be under the direction of the baylan assisted by a group of men called manhinangay (assistants). Among these people are the future tribe’s baylan depending on the yuna (gift) which can be inferred by the retiring baylan.

The visitors are then called to stay in front of the binangko for the ritual proper to start.

B. Ritual Proper (Uyagdok)

The ritual proper starts when the baylan starts to chant the tud-om while the two assistants at the side and the datu (chieftain) at the back. The things on the platform are offered to the deities during this stage. The baylan then invokes the Abyan (higher deity). When the Abyan enters the body of the baylan, he sways and experiences a seizure. The assistant baylan then addresses the Abyan in a chant. Each visitor is then urged to offer coins to be placed on a white plate on top of the platform. The datu then speaks and presents the request of the visitors to immerse with the tribe members for specific purposes. The baylan then speaks the decision of the Abyan.

If the decision of the Abyan is on the positive, and after leaving the body of the baylan, the healer then pours wine from the glasses around the platform.

Two native roosters (Picture no. 2 in Figure 3) are then prepared by the Manhinangay (assistants).The first rooster is given to the baylan and he then holds its two feet then proceeds to the visitors and performs Kabkab while chanting. The live rooster is fanned to each visitor to ward off bad spirits and illness brought from the outside (Figure 5). When all of the visitors are fanned, the second rooster is given to the baylan. It is held on its feet and the healer fans the surrounding with the rooster. Then, at the command of the baylan, one of the assistants will proceed to the tied native pig (Picture no. 1 in Figure 3) and using a sable (Picture no. 3 in Figure 3) the manhinangay stabs the pigs at the neck area. Some of the blood is contained on a plate and then placed on the platform. The assistant then rubs the blood to the minhow and the anilow. The wine from the glass on top of the platform is given to all the visitors. Everyone is enjoined to drink.

C. Post-Ritual (Hakyad)

The slaughtered pig is place on a fire to get the fur out and poured with hot water. Once it is clean, one of the assistants proceeds to take the right part and the internal organs. The left side of the animal will be left behind to be shared by the tribe later. Rice is cooked (Picture no. 1 in Figure 4) and the liver and heart of the pig is grilled, or sugba (Picture no. 2 in Figure 4). Once the sugba and luto (rice) is cooked, rice is placed on a plate and placed on the platform. The assistant baylan then prepares a banana leaf holed with a triangular shape which is used to cover the cooked food placed on the platform. The baylan starts the tud-om once again while the rest of the cooked food are being placed on plates and held by the assistant. Then, the cooked rice is distributed to the visitors and all the members of the tribe present. Mallorca or local wine (Picture no. 3 in Figure 4) is also shared as the visitors and the tribe commune with one another.

4. What measures are recommended to preserve the ritual of asking permission of the Manobo tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines?

In order to preserve the cultural heritage of the Manobo tribe of Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines, the following measures are highly recommended.

1. Legislations from the Local Government Unit of Carrascal, Surigao del Sur on preserving the cultural heritage of the Manobo tribe in Patukan must be crafted.

2. Documentation of all the rituals of the Manobo tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur will be done by the academe in cooperation with the Municipal Tourism Office.

3. Integration of the living traditions in the curriculum of the elementary and secondary schools of Pantukan, Carrascal Surigao del Sur will be done.

4. A policy from the Municipal Tourism Office will be crafted making the Manobo rituals as part of the town’s identity and branding.

5. Future researches on the rituals of the Manobo tribe of Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur will be conducted.

Acknowledgments

This paper would not be possible without the efforts of the following persons: Hon. Vicente H. Pimentel, III for the approval and financial support; the Municipal Tourism Office headed by Mr. Joseph L. Urgel, the Manobo of Pantukan headed by the tribal Chieftain Datu Engwan Ala, the resource persons; Mr. John Merick L. Cifra for the illustrations, Mr. Perfecto L. Erno II for the photographs, the Grade 12 STEM students of Carrascal National High School (S.Y. 2020-21) headed by Mr. Christopher Christian S. Braza, the Grade 12 HUMSS students of Carrascal National High School (S.Y. 2020-21) headed by Mr. Jayzel Rey J. Aba-a and the people of Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

Definition of Terms

The following are the terms used in the study:

RITUAL - a religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order.

UYAGDOK – a ritual of asking permission to enter the area of the Manobo tribe of Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

TAKUSAJAN- the Manobo tribe’s decision-maker.

DATU – chieftain or an elder/head of a Manobo clan in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

BAYLAN- the tribes’ healer.

MANHINANGAY – assistant/s of the Baylan.

ANILOW – the tree used to mount the platform.

MINHOW- young coconut leaves.

BINANGKO – the platform used for the offering during the ritual.

ABYAN – the spirit who will enter the Baylan and makes the permissions.

TUD-OM – a chanted prayer.

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APPENDICES

PHOTO DOCUMENTATIONPre – ritual

Ritual Proper

Post Ritual

ENTRY PROTOCOL

PANTUKAN ELDERS

The Research Team

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Fluellen L. Cos

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Fluellen L. Cos. Uyagdok: Ethnography on the Ritual of Permission of the Manobo Tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2021, pp 68-82. http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjssh/7/3/1
MLA Style
Cos, Fluellen L.. "Uyagdok: Ethnography on the Ritual of Permission of the Manobo Tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 7.3 (2021): 68-82.
APA Style
Cos, F. L. (2021). Uyagdok: Ethnography on the Ritual of Permission of the Manobo Tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 7(3), 68-82.
Chicago Style
Cos, Fluellen L.. "Uyagdok: Ethnography on the Ritual of Permission of the Manobo Tribe in Pantukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 7, no. 3 (2021): 68-82.
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  • Figure 5. Kabkab is part of uyagdok (ritual) where two native roosters are fanned to each visitor to ward-off bad spirits and illness brought from the outside.
  • Table 1. Phases of the Uyagdok: ritual of permission to enter the area of the Manobo in Patukan, Carrascal, Surigao del Sur, Philippines
[1]  Annaya, S. (2004), Indigenous People in International law: Second Edition, Oxford; New York; Oxford University Press.
In article      
 
[2]  UNESCO. 2001 Indigenous Peoples retrieved 19 May 2021 at https://en.unesco.org/indigenous-peoples.
In article      
 
[3]  De Leon, L. (2006), MANOBO/ Lumad sa Mindanao; Kagahapon, Karon, ug Ugma.
In article      
 
[4]  Felix MLE. 2004. Exploring the indigenous local governance of Manobo tribes in Mindanao. Phil J Pub Adm. 48: 125.
In article      
 
[5]  Dapar, M. (2020), Ritual Plants used by the Manobo tribe of Surigao del Sur, Philippines.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Ronald De Jong (2010), The last tribe of Mindanao, The Manobo river People of Cotabato, Mindanao, Philippines.
In article      
 
[7]  Dapar MLG, Alejandro GJD. 2020. Ethnobotanical studies on indigenous communities in the Philippines: current status, challenges, recommendations and future perspectives. J Complement Med Res 11 (1): 432-46.
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