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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Following beyond the Trail: Motivations and Roles of Indigenous Tour Guides in Local Tourism

Kenneth L. Maslang, Darwin Don M. Dacles , Fe Yolanda G. Del Rosario
World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2018, 4(3), 126-145. DOI: 10.12691/wjssh-4-3-1
Received August 02, 2018; Revised September 24, 2018; Accepted September 28, 2018

Abstract

With the onset of heritage sites being considered for tourism attractions, the recognition of tour guides became part of the thrusts of the Department of Tourism and the local government units. Using combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches in research through semi-survey, document scanning, photo documentation and individual interview techniques, the study dealt on the motivations and roles of indigenous tour guides in local tourism. Findings revealed that Batad is a home to some of the well-preserved tourism attractions in the Cordillera region providing the potential long-term sustenance of a tour guiding program. The motivations ranged from marginal to full time employment and from external to internal self-actualization while the roles of tour guides varied from leadership to mediatory roles and as ambassadors for the conservation of natural resources. Furthermore, while there are people and institutions that guide and help the tour guides, there are still many challenges that are being encountered from limited knowledge to environmental conservation to the lack of resources and enabling mechanisms for formal recognition and accreditation. As recommendation, there should be more relevant legislative or political actions from the local government units, review of the registration and accreditation processes for the recognition of tour guides, strengthening of community participation, continuous partnership and linkages between the public and private sectors including national and international organizations, and the conduct of empowerment and local leadership-initiated programs and activities.

1. Introduction

The onset of heritage sites being considered for tourism attractions paved the way for researchers’ great interest on the motivations and roles of tour guides as they play a very essential part in the course of bringing tourists to their destinations. Heritage sites or heritage tourism according to the UNESCO manual refers to “a broad category that embraces both eco-tourism and cultural tourism, with an emphasis on conserving natural and cultural heritage” 1. These sites carry the inevitable destiny of sustaining interest, the very reason why a lot of tourists flock to these sites year after year.

Relative to these, Pond (1993), as cited by 2, believed that tour guides are considered the “face of a business or company and are known to be representatives of the region or country.” The chance given to tour guides in dealing face to face with tourists provides the opportune time to disseminate accurate information about the area being covered. 3 opined that tour guides are “responsible for projecting the correct image of the country/region and ensuring safety and well-being of the tourists.” This is far cry from the common idea that guides just show foreigners the way. Hence, there is now a notable empowerment of tour guides who are indigenous to the place being visited by tourists.

2 claimed that “indigenous tour guides are unique in that they are part of the fabric of the site and interpret the value of the area within their own cultural context.” 4 also relates that tour guides can change the way a travel could be experienced. Most of the known tourist spots have their own unique stories that need to be told and interpreted. The institution then which is tasked to oversee the local tourism industry has to ascertain the active participation of individuals who are native to the tourism attraction sites. Motivations and roles then must be structurally and functionally laid down for both indigenous and non-indigenous tour guides to avoid discrimination and dominance of a certain group.

In line with motivations, 3 identified 13 factors, namely: (1) self – actualization; (2) telling and selling; (3) skills and abilities; (4) networking; (5) job quality; (6) survival; (7) learning needs; (8) heritage tourism; (9) marginal employment; (10) limited options; (11) personal satisfaction; (12) employment, and (13) government support. Six out of these 13 factors were highlighted by the present study, such as: (1) self – actualization; (2) skills and abilities; (3) networking; (4) job quality; (5) survival and learning needs; and 6) marginal employment.

For the roles of tour guides, Bryon, J. 5 forwarded that “tour guides are story tellers”, they have an interesting role “from sharing to selling”. Furthermore, 6 believes in the ability of tour guides as cultural heritage interpreters. Notwithstanding, one comprehensive study on the roles of tour guides on which this study expounded is the work of 2 which elaborated the roles in three clusters, namely: (1) leadership sphere – instrumental roles in providing direction, security and social roles; (2) mediatory sphere – interactionary roles; and (3) reseource management sphere.

The role of tour guides does not stop when they are able to bring tourists to their destination and back to their origin but the accomplishment of a report form submitted to the institution in-charge in that area. If there are any, a financial report shall be submitted including liquidation of expenses in the pre and on site tour events. However, these sometimes, are undermined especially for those who lack the formal training needed for professional tour guides.

Meanwhile, in some instances, there are also tour guides who would deliberately take advantage of the situation to advance their personal and economic gain. An example of this is a condition where tour guides do not follow the protocol set by the provincial and municipal tourism offices and the breaching of previously closed agreement. These then drive foreign and local tourists away because they end up patronizing a particular individual or group. As expounded by 7, tour guides who were poorly trained may have pessimistic effects on tourists’ enjoyment and satisfaction as they do not show professionalism in their craft.

To enhance and remodel the image of tour guides, myriad of efforts had already been done since the Department of Tourism has extended its thrust to formalize many aspects of the tourism industry. Notwithstanding at present, there is still a dearth of related studies on tour guiding in the Philippine tourism sector, especially in local tourism or community-based tourism efforts. In this regard, this study in Batad, Banaue, Ifugao maximizes the potential of tour guiding as a socio-cultural and an economic activity to support the local tourism sector of Ifugao province. Moreover, it explicates the need for local tour guides to know the nuances of the tour guiding industry and must therefore be skillful in what they do.

This study also responds to the mandate of higher education institutions like Saint Mary’s University to produce quality researches of demonstrable national and international importance to serve as catalysts for positive changes in local communities. With regards to the harmonized national research and development agenda (2017 – 2022), this study would fall under the themes of “Sustainable Communities” and “Re-Engineering the Philippines towards Inclusive Nation Building” particularly on vulnerable ecosystem and data collection on social phenomena. Finally, this research endeavor highlights two of the priority areas of SMU - Research Center, namely: (1) Philippine culture and values; and (2) cultural tourism/eco-tourism.

From these discourses on the nature and scope of tour guiding industry, the study first determined the profile of tour guides as a potential economic activity in the local tourism sector in terms of demographic profile, presence of tourist attractions and guide rates. It also explored the motivations and roles for becoming a tour guide relative to the following factors: (1) For motivations: a. self – actualization, b. skills and abilities, c. networking, d. job quality, e. survival and learning needs, f. marginal employment, and g. Batad tourism; and (2) For roles: a. leadership or instrumental and social roles, b. mediatory or interactionary roles, and c. resource management roles. Finally, the study discussed some enablers and challenges of the tour guides and provided relevant recommendations to ensure the sustainability of the tour guiding program not only in the locale of the study but for other communities with relative conditions.

2. Methodology

2.1. Research Design

This study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches in research to describe and analyze the motivations and roles of indigenous tour guides in local tourism. Specifically, the researchers utilized the following:

a) Armchair research – this entailed qualitative data collection by doing library and on line research about the topic.

b) Document scanning and analysis – this technique substantiated and validated or affirmed the existence of available information gathered from the provincial and municipal tourism offices, tourists and tour guides on the nature of tour guinding industry in the locale;

c) Quantitative descriptive – this part described the demographic profile, in terms of the: number of tour guides and extent of distribution; composition in terms of age and gender; years in the tour guiding business; status of tour guides (primary source of income / secondary); relevant trainings attended; and other conditions relative to tour guides.

d) Qualitative approach – this part involved the techniques of in-depth interview and focus group discussions to gather direct experiential accounts on tourist accomodations provided by tour guides including their perceived roles and motivations in tour guiding. This part also covered the discussion on enablers, challenges and relevant recommendations based on the findings of the study; and

e) Photo documentation – this was utilized to cover other aspects that surfaced in the duration of data gathering.

2.2. Research Environment

The research locale was Brgy. Batad, Banaue, Ifugao. It is about 15 kilometers from the center of Banaue to the junction road that leads to Mayoyao (another Ifugao municipality). It is a well-known barangay in Banaue where a great and majestic rice terraces could be found. It is also a popular destination because of its natural sites and socio-cultural cohesiveness relatively unaffected by the outside world.

It has been said that a trip to Banaue will never be complete without seeing Batad. It is a place where the divine creation meets human masterpiece. A place for reflection and soul-searching or to escape the hustles and bustles of the metropolis and find beauty and serenity in a peaceful barangay, one can listen to the folklores of the local people. It is also a place to witness their skills in weaving, carving and farming which are reflections of their cultural richness as a people in this highland Cordillera.

2.3. Respondents of the Study and Source of Data

Relative information were gathered through the following:

a. Batad Tour Guides. There were 20 Batad tour guides who served as respondents of the study. Nine tour guides represented those who are registered in the provincial tourism of Ifugao, eight for the freelancers and three for those who had accreditation from the Department of Tourism.

b. Provincial Tourism Office of Ifugao. Relative information were requested from the provincial tourism office of Ifugao particularly on the records of tour guides – registrations, accreditations and tour guide organizations.

2.4. Research Instrument

The research instrument in this study was of four parts. The first part gathered information on the personal and survey of tourist attractions and guide rates. Specifically, this covered personal profile of tour guides, presence of tourist attractions, tourist arrival and package. To validate some of the information about tour guides in Batad, relative information were taken from the provincial tourism office of Ifugao.

The second part was related to items for the motivation of tour guides that were synthesized from the motivation factors organized by 3. Originally, there were 13 factors presented but these were trimmed down to six factors to suit the objectives of the study and reduce redundant statements.

The third part reflected the roles of tour guides, the concept patterned from 2 which categorized the roles into three, namely: leadership or instrumental and social; mediatory or interactionary; and resource management.

The fourth part of the questionnaire was open-ended questions that elicited responses from the key informants regarding their perceived enablers and challenges besetting the tour guiding program in Batad.

2.5. Analysis of Data

Data were analyzed through the following tools and techniques:

1. For the profile of tour guides as a potential economic activity in the local tourism sector, open listing from selected key informants was done and was verified from the provincial and municipal tourism offices.

2. For the motivations for becoming a tour guide, frequency and percent of affirmative responses were presented.

3. Inductive reasoning and thematic approach were used for the description of the roles of tour guides relative to the spheres of leadership or instrumental and social roles, mediatory or interactionary roles and resource management roles. The same approach was used for the discussion on some enablers and challenges of the tour guides in Batad and relevant recommendations to ensure the sustainability of the tour guiding program.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Demographic Profile, Tourists’ Attractions, and Rates of Batad Tour Guides

Records from the provincial tourism office of Ifugao reflected that there were 30 registered Batad tour guides and affiliated to two Batad organizations, namely: Barangay Batad Tourism Council and Batad Environmental Tour Guides Association. Of this 30, there were 12 who were able to get accreditation from the Department of Tourism. Aside from these registered and accredited Batad tour guides, there were tour guides who can be classified as freelancers. These were either: residents of Batad who take tour guiding as a secondary source of income and those who were previously registered but were not able to renew. In this study, sampled respondents were from these different groups, such as tour guides who were: (1) currently registered in the Provincial Tourism Office of Ifugao; (2) accredited by the Department of Tourism; and (3) freelancers.


3.1.1. Demographic Profile of Batad Tour Guides

In terms of the number of tour guides and extent of distribution, 45% were registered in the Provincial Tourism Office. Of this nine, there were three who were affiliated with the Barangay Batad Tourism Council (BTC) and five were members of the Batad Environmental Tour Guides Association. Out of 20 respondents, 15% are DOT accredited and 40% identified themselves as freelance tour guides.

In terms of age, 35% are between 22 to 30 years old, 30% are between 31 to 36 years old, and 35% are from 37 and above years old. The youngest is 22 while the oldest is 50. The mean age is 34 with a standard deviation of 6.63. With regards to gender, 65% are male while 35% are female tour guides.

For the status of tour guides or tour guiding as a source of income, 30% related that tour guiding is their primary source of income while 70% shared that it is only a part time job. With regards to the years in the tour guiding industry, 30% are between one to six years, 40% are between 7 to 12 years and 30% are from 13 years and above. The youngest has one year of experience while the oldest has been in the industry for almost 18 years.

For the relevant trainings attended, 40% of the respondents indicated that they have not attended any formal training, 45% mentioned having attended a 1-day training on first aid and emergency responses conducted by the Provincial Local Government Unit of Ifugao and 15% stated having attended a five-day training also on first aid, emergency responses and handling local and foreign tourists.


3.1.2. Tourist Attractions of Batad
3.1.2.1. Batad general information and georaphical location

The Philippine Statistics Agency shows that Ifugao province is a host to numerous domestic, foreign and balikbayan tourists from different countries in the world 8. The municipality of Banaue remains to be the premier tourist destination in the province. Barangay Batad is one of the points of interest in Banaue. It is home to natural and man-made wonders including one of the five clusters of Ifugao rice terraces inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site starting 1995. For these, tour guiding thrives in Batad as both primary and secondary source of income as well as a pride and honor for Batad tour guides to relate their rich history and culture.

Batad could be visited throughout the year but the best time depends on what tourists want to experience. Respondents related that the coolest time of the year in Batad is from December to February; hence most of the rice terraces are barren, muddy and not yet planted. The planting season starts from March to June so one can see the rice terraces turning to green. Rainy season starts in June to September but these months could be the time when the rice terraces are at most lush and their greenest. Harvesting time starts in September so what can be viewed are golden yellow rice terraces.

Getting to Batad from different parts of the country like Manila, Baguio, Sagada, and Tuguegarao becomes accessible through land transportations. It is about 18 kilometers from Banaue - the jump off point to Batad. Once in Banaue, there is a need to register at the municipal tourism office and pay an environmental fee of Php20. Then from the town proper, going to Batad (down to the Saddle) access can either be through a public jeepney (150/person), a private jeepney (2,800/jeep), or a tricylce (700/tricycle). Upon arrival in the village, another environmental fee of Php50 at the Batad Tourist Information Center is paid.

From Manila to Banaue, two transits are operating, namely: Ohayami Transit and Florida Lines. Ohayami Transit terminal is located near the University of Sto Tomas (UST) in the corner of Fajardo Street and Lacson Avenue in Sampaloc Manila. The departure time from Manila starts at 8:00 to 10:00PM with two to three trips. Meanwhile Florida Lines is located at Florida Cubao Terminal near Kamias, Quezon City and operates a trip leaving daily at around 8:00PM. For both transits, travel time is around nine hours with a fare of Php450.

Two buses also travel from Baguio City to Banaue, such as Ohayami and KMS. Ohayami buses are parked along Otek St. near Burhnham Park while KMS busses are stationed near Rizal park. Both have daily night trips with a fare of Php450 and travel time of about seven hours. From Sagada, Mountain Province, highlander jeepneys travel via Bontoc with Php150 fare and about two hours travel. Meanwhile, from Tuguegarao City, busses can traverse via Tabuk then Bontoc to Banaue or Santiago City to junction of Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya then to Banaue.


3.1.2.2. Batad tourist attractions and guide rates

For a more comprehensive discussion on the activities of tour guides in Batad, tourists attractions were grouped into three, namely: natural (God-made); man-made; and socio-cultural attractions. It shows in Table 2 that in terms of natural (God-made) wonders, all of the respondents are knowledgeable that the Tappiyah Falls is frequently being visited by both foreign and local tourists. Next is the green and lush forest (50%) and the underground water source (40%) that steadily supplies irrigation for the rice terraces.

With regards to the man-made attractions, all the respondents could relate well to the Batad Rice Terraces as a tourist attraction. In fact, more than the physical features of the terraces, the respondents could tell many stories of the past that could add up to the outstanding ingenuity of the Ifugaos. This is followed by the Awa Viewdeck (90%), then Sitio Patpat, a sub village of Batad and Batad’s Traditional Ifugao Huts (80%), and Ifugao Native Products on Display (50%).

For the socio-cultural activities, about 90% of the respondents know that story telling is part of the socio-cultural activities that tourists want to experience. Then 80% of the respondents mentioned that singing, dancing and participating in bonfire while getting to know each other are usual activities where the rich history and culture of the Ifugaos could be learned. Finally, 60% of the respondents’ related that they have knowledge on the wearing of native costumes (60%) as part of socio-cultural aspect of tourism. In the pages that follow, is a general travel guide to Batad and a discussion of the highlights of the aforestated tourist attractions including the corresponding guide rates of tour guides in each tourist destination.


3.1.2.2.1. General travel guide to Batad

a. Batad, as one of the five clusters of Ifugao rice terraces that is recognized in the UNESCO World Heritage List, is one of the landmarks in Ifugao. It is famous for its rice terraces resembling an amphitheater.

b. As mentioned earlier, the best time to visit Batad depends on what tourists would want to experience. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the average temperature and annual rainfall graphs respectively and these could be useful in considering the best time to go to Batad.

c. Batad is a small village with a rugged terrain, going around entails walking by foot. Depending on the number of days of stay, there is a need to bring the basic cargo shorts, extra t-shirts, a jacket (with a hoodie is recommended), camera bag, extra pair of socks, slipper, underwear, flashlight and a durable pair of trekking shoes. Since trekking entails comfort and flexibility, a walking stick and backpack are suggested so there will be no problem in going up and down the steep and mountainous terrain. Plastic bags, dry sack, umbrella, and/or raincoats can also be included in the back pack upon the onset of rain.

d. Planning ahead of time and checking the accesibility of activities in the itinerary of travel are helpful. Batad is a remote rural area and the medium of exchange is through cash (Philippine peso) as there is no ATM machine or money changer. Bank and ATM machines are situated in Banaue (Landbank) and Lagawe (Landbank and PNB), Ifugao. It is then recommended to bring enough cash to pay all the planned transactions and for emergency cases.

e. Electricty that comes from Banaue is available 24 hours. Signal for communication through mobile phones, however, is very weak. Too weak that only text messages at certain points can be sent and received. Calls/video or voice messages and mobile data for internet are not possible.

f. There are a good number of Homestays for accommodation in Batad. The most popular are Ramon’s Homestay, Simon’s Viewpoint Inn, Rita’s Mount View Inn and Hillside Inn. During peak seasons, however, homestays maybe fully booked. Thus, it is recommended to make a reservation in advance. Reservation can be done through the Homestays’ accounts in Facebook, e-mail addressess and contact numbers that are available online. Typically, the homestays respond within a day or two as they have relatives and contacts who open their online accounts in Banaue or in any place where internet could be accessed. As soon as the contact numbers are provided, booker and bookee start to communicate.

g. Food, snacks and drinks are available in some restaurants and retail stores. Prices of various commodities are marked up and relatively higher compared to the prices in the town proper. This is reasonable because Batad is one of the tourist destinations known to the world let alone the difficulties in transporting goods and services.

h. Hiring a tour guide, buying souvenirs such as handicrafts, woven ethnic attires and patronizing other useful services offered by the community. Return tickets and depature itinerary out from Batad must be ascertained prior to the visit to avoid inconveniences. When in Batad, respecting the community’s beliefs, taboos, formal rules and regulations and leaving without any disturbances just like the common principle in eco-tourism which says “take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints, kill nothing but time” were a must.


3.1.2.2.2. Trek to Tappiyah (Tappia) Falls

The Tappiyah or Tappia Waterfalls is a breathtaking, astonishing and undoubtedly an incredible body of water. It is an extraordinary exemplification of God’s creation and gift to mankind. From the words of Romeo, 40 years old, “It is a hidden treasure of Ifugao that is untouched”. Approximately about 70-meter high with a magnificent swimming area, it is a good place where one could be freed from anxieties and worries in life.

Taking Ramon’s Native Homestay as a starting point, the Tappiyah falls could be reached in an hour at a continuous and normal walk. It is not an easy trek, however, because of the steep, sometimes slippery, uneven, and descending trail. Some parts of the road are concrete with steel guard rails but there is still a need to have a walking stick and a guide who is familiar with the place. Starting from the Saddle point, there are walking sticks for rent amounting to Php10 and, in Batad village proper, some fancy and decorated walking sticks are being sold starting about Php3,000.

From the village proper, trekking to Tappiyah waterfalls could already be a momentous event especially for those who will go there for the first time. One can stop and take photos of the century old rice terraces, feel the cool and breezy temperature or taste a natural mountain dew. It is best to trek to the falls early in the morning and this is also the best time to take pictures, refresh or swim. Upon reaching the falls, there is a need to check on some established practices and taboos. For safety and peaceful trekking, it is best to hear and follow the advice of tour guides and the community.

Respondents relate stories of bad luck for some local and foreign tourists. Hence, it is really advised to communicate properly with tour guides who are responsible for the safety and convenience of visitors. For instance, if you are not a good swimmer, you must stay in the shallow part and do not ever attempt to go near or swim in the waterfalls’ catch basin for it has been known to be deceptive and deep.

Trekking to Tappiyah falls from the village proper may already be exhausting but one must be prepared in trekking back. Most of the trails leading to the falls are downward; some are through concrete pathways and others through muddy roads. Thus, going back entails greater physical endurance for one has to climb a seemingly unending stairway.

Though there are areas where one could stop and drink natural spring water from the mountain, it is still recommended to bring one’s own drinking water. For those who are already familiar to the place, hiking to the falls may not require a tour guide but absolutely helpful for first timers. The usual rate of tour guides from the village proper to the falls is Php650 and Php800 if from the end of the concrete road at the Saddle to view point and the Tappiya Falls.

Standard rates to the different parts of Batad are set but these may go up relative to the agreements made by the tourists and tour guides. The standard rate of Php650 to trek Tappiyah falls from the village proper may go up to Php800 and the Php800 rate from the Saddle to view point and the Tappiya Falls may go as high as Php1,200.


3.1.2.2.3. Stroll around Batad Rice Terraces

The village of Batad is secluded but it became renowned because of its rice terraces resembling an amphitheater. It has been known also that these rice terraces were built around two thousand years ago by the early Ifugaos. 9 presents that the rice terraces of Batad are made of compacted soil similar to other rice terraces in Ifugao. In the Cordillera region and even in the entire Philippines, most consider the rice terraces of Batad as the finest. Foreign and local tourists become more interested and visit this side of the Cordillera particularly during summer, the months of March to May.

One of the best things to do in Batad, aside from taking pictures, is walking around the rice terraces for it gives a feeling of comfort and tranquility. Walking along these paved stones will also bring someone back in time and wonder at the ingenuity and creativity of the early Ifugaos in creating the stone wall. Jessa, one of the local tourists shared that “each level of the terraces were carefully bound by rocks piled intricately together that, from what it seemed was designed to withstand anything even the worst of tremors from the Earth.”

From the homestays to the terraces or tour around Batad village, guide rates range from Php500 to Php600. Native houses, natural flowing waters and souvenir shops could be found in strategic places around the village. Tour guides may bring tourists to the best scenic spots or right to the concrete footpath of rice paddies where one could examine the rocks piled intricately forming the terraces.


3.1.2.2.4. Trek to Awa view deck

To have the best bird’s eye view of Batad rice terraces, a trek to Awa view deck is recommended. It is about two hours, one-way, to get to the summit. This is considered to be the highest point of the rice terraces cluster and being used by the villagers of Batad as a way to go to sitio Papat (a sub-village of Batad). Getting to the peak of Awa view deck requires a tourguide who is knowledgeable of the place and could help the visiting tourist with many possible necessities. The figure below shows the location of Awa view deck taken from Ramon’s Homestay.


3.1.2.2.5. Summary of standard guide rates

a. Batad View Point: Php400

Description: From Batad Information Center to Batad View Point

b. Batad Village Tour: Php500 – 600

Description: From Hadchog or Saddle point to Batad Village proper then about two hours walk around scenic and celebrated parts of the village like the rice terraces, native houses and souvenir shops.

c. Batad Rice Terraces Tour: Php500

Description: From the homestay to the terraces of Batad.

d. Trek to Batad Hanging Bridge: Php600

Description: From Batad homestay to the hanging bridge.

e. Trek to Tappiya Falls Tour: Php800 – 1,200

Description: From Hadchog or Saddle point to Batad Village proper then to Batad view point and to and from the Tappiyah Waterfalls.

f. Trek to Awa View Deck: Php1,200

Description: From Hadchog or Saddle point to Batad Village proper then to and from the highest view point of Awa view deck

g. Batad Information to Hanging Bridge and Best View

Point: Php1,200

h. Batad – Bangaan trek: Php1,200

Description: From Batad Homestay to and from the village of Bangaaan.

i. Batad to Sitio Patpat: Php1,500

j. Kinakin – Cambulo – Batad Trek: Php1,500 per day

Description: From Hadchog or Saddle point to Batad Village proper then to and from the villages of Kinakin and Cambulo


3.1.2.2.6. Sample itinerary of travel coming from Manila

Table 3 shows a sample itinerary travel to Batad coming from Manila using a public transportation.


3.1.2.2.7. Batad trip budget

Table 4 shows a sample Batad trip budget for 1 person. Total amount can be cheaper if by group since fees (tour guide, tricycle/jeep fees) can be shared with.

3.2. Motivations for Becoming a Tour Guide

The present study explicated six factors that motivate tour guide to perform their formidable tasks, namely: (1) Self actualization; (2) Skills and abilities; (3) Networking; (4) Job Quality; (5) Survival and Learning needs; and (6) Marginal employment. Table 5 reflects the respondents’ responses with regards to self – actualization.


3.2.1. Self-Actualization

Self actualization included motives that are personal focusing on development of the inner passion of an individual. With regard to this, Table 4 shows that all the respondents affirmed that tour guiding provides a gratifying fulfillment that one is helping visitors during visitation. About 85% agreed that when they guide tourists, they are given the opportunity to know and interact with people from all over the world. Meanwhile, 80% of the respondents believed that tour guiding gives an opportunity to represent one’s homeland and country and it could also offer a realization that one has an autonomy and independence in work. Finally, about 70% of the respondents indicated that tour guiding helps in understanding different cultures of the world.

These findings imply that there is a perceived optimism in the tour guiding industry. Self-actualization relates to the inner passion of an individual, thus the realization of helping and interacting with people, knowing different cultures and representation of one’s place enhance the self and this would drive the desire to perpetuate relevant and functional actions. This premise was expounded further by Lilibeth, 35 years old, who mentioned that “tour guiding is something that you should know by heart and willingly to share with others”.


3.2.2. Skills and Abilities

Skills and abilities as motivating factors entail sharing one’s gained competencies from trainings attended and acquired through observations and actual experiences. 10 opined that “a tour becomes doubly enjoyable when there is a well-trained tour guide who makes a place of interest alive…”. Table 6 presents that 80% of the respondents affirmed that tour guiding gives a chance to tell the history of a place; about 65% related that it provides an opportunity to apply skills and desirable attitudes in giving unforgettable experiences; while 55% shared that it offers local tour guides, an avenue to actively participate in promoting local tourism; moreover, 45% of the respondents indicated that it refreshes the lessons learned during seminars and trainings.

Table 7 reflects that 90% of the respondents are confident that their craft helps to build cooperation and camaraderie between the community and visitors and offers an occasion to know new friends; meanwhile, about 70% believed that tour guiding sustains my connection with different people and institutions; and 55% mentioned that tour guiding leads to having more contacts and broadening of linkages in the profession.

These findings could be related to the study of 3, where networking was considered to be the top 5 motivation in tour guiding. Accordingly, some people are inspired to be part of the tour guiding industry because they have a good number of people who could readily help them. They have friends who are already in the trade and could invite more to enter in the business. 3 believes that “primacy of relationship within the network also suggests that this vocation promotes humanity and fraternity.”


3.2.4. Job Quality

Another factor for motivation is job quality, in this aspect tour guides expect tour guiding as a decent means of livelihood. It earns a lot of respect from the community and it allows one to travel to different places. 2 viewed that the motivation of indigenous tour guides emanates from the concept that tour guiding is a decent job which is the very nature of the job. Accordingly, it is in fact considered as one of the most valuable assets in the tourism industry as they are in many ways considered the face or front-liners of tourism.

Table 8 shows that for job quality, about 90% of the respondents agreed that tour guiding is a good means to earn a livelihood and allows one an opportunity to travel; then 85% believed that it gives one a stature where a lot of respect and toleration of one’s begining are given; and 65% indicated that it provides an avenue to go back to one’s roots and become proud of their ancestors and gives someone a part over decision making on matters related to travel. Essentially, it gives the tour guide self-worth, knowing that his clients are satisfied with the manner he carries on his job.

These results on the motivation of job quality of tour guiding relates closely to the the study of 11, who, among others, stated that tour guides are expected to give the best services to the tourist so that they feel satisfied and willing to come back. It was then suggested that tour guides must have the following constructs: 1) core service delivery; 2) costumer orientation, and 3) communication effectiveness. These constructs are anchored on the idea that many authorities in different destinations acknowledge that tour guides have great role in the entire system of tourism industry.


3.2.5. Survival and Learning Needs

For some, one motivation for becoming a tour guide is the realization that it could be a means of survival and a means to satisfy learning needs. Survival in the sense that there seems to be no (or limited) option or choices and learning needs because one would be able to know more about the places being visited. Table 9 presents that about 80% of the respondents mentioned that tour guiding is a convenient job for those who want to work within their community; while 75% indicated that it provides one a chance to go to places where one has a very limited knowledge of; and 70% shared that it is a means of survival for those who have no choice or options and it gives an opportunity to learn more about their own place.

In the case of Arnold, 45 years old, who is not an accredited tour guide since he works in his farm, tour guiding becomes part of his tasks since he just lives within the community. He stressed that “tour guiding is also a means of survival for us who have to work for our needs”. He also believes that even if it is considered by those who have no options, it is gratifying since through guiding the tourists, many of the places that are not frequently being visited are explored.


3.2.6. Marginal Employment

Other tour guides are being motivated to enter the trade since it gives marginal employment. 3 explained that marginal employment is another motivation for becoming a tour guide, since those who are interested use tour guiding as a part time vocation where they do not have to work round the year as the tourism demand is seasonal. Lots of people are getting attracted towards tour guiding as it can be pursued part time and at one’s personal will. Compared to other motivations, the responses in this factor were lower. Table 10 reflects that 60% of Batad tour guides perceived tour guiding as a marginal employment that gives an additional income and it is a kind of job that is not fixed and permanent; then 55% indicated that it is a good part time opportunity; and about 40% claimed that it turns local people into entrepreneurs.

3.3. Roles of Tour Guides

5 forwarded that “tour guides are story tellers”, for they have an interesting role “from sharing to selling”. Meanwhile, Rabotic (2008) believed on the ability of tour guides as cultural heritage interpreters. This is supported by the study of Nien-Te Kuo, et al. (2016) with regards to the effects of tour guide interpretation and tourist satisfaction on destination. Chang, et al. (2012) also related that tour guides are one of the key front-line players in the tourism industry. Communication and service skills and the ability to transform the tourists’ visit into an experience and knowledge level are possible because of the knowledge and interpretation of tour guides of a destination’s culture and history.

Notwithstanding, one comprehensive study on the roles of tour guides is the work of 2, who elaborated the roles in three clusters. These are: (1) leadership sphere – this include instrumental roles (2) mediatory sphere – which means an interactionary role that deals with organizations of meals, making the setting of the trip non-threatening, etc. This sphere also makes the tour guide a teacher or communicator as he/she has to provide information and interpretations; and (3) resource management sphere – this leads the tour guide to become a motivator and reduces impact on site. The tour guide in this sphere also becomes an environmental interpreter and encourages long term behavior.


3.3.1. Leadership or Instrumental and Social Roles

Tour guides are perceived to lead tourist, provide direction, access, security and safety while social roles relate to the maintenance of social cohesion within a group. This role could start even before the visit to the tourism site. Usually, this is also pre-determined since it is expected that tourists have to follow their tour guides all the time and not to wander off the planned activities. As a leader, the following were related by some of the respondents:

Andrew – “Tell them to listen to avoid an accident and I give them walking stick for their support.”

Evelyn – “Tell them to be careful so that they will not meet an accident

Noah – “First is to explain do’s and donts’ to the desired and some warnings related to their safety, to make tourists interesting, tell about the history about the desired site and some other information they need to know.”

Janeth – “By giving them walking sticks and tell them to listen to avoid accident, slowly but surely and be careful always.”

During the interviews, some respondents also mentioned things to do that could be related to this leadership role like for Andrew who related that sometimes they had to ask the tourist what they prefer and take care of the whole group so no one will lag behind. Other tour guides would remind tourists to be extra careful at certain areas of the place being visited where there are forbidden things to do and taboos established in the community. Andrew also shared that before starting I will tell them about the route for today and tell to bring their own water and some kind of foods.”


3.3.2. Mediatory or Interactionary Roles

The role of mediatory or interactionary roles is very significant and helpful to tour guides. This is also reflected in the motivation that tour guides see themselves as a representative of the place being visited. What they say or do would leave an impression to visitors. This role was also reflected in the study of 10 saying that “aside from pointing out places of interest, a tour guide must be able to explain to visitors what they see, the background and history of the places, what activities can be done and what they can buy.” With this, it is expected that a good tour guide must have a reserved knowledge and be able to reflect clearly those important aspects of the tourist destination being visited as well as current issues being encountered by the community.

Respondents when asked about the activities to do, to ease boredom and for those who are lagging behind, some tourists mentioned the following:

Lilibeth – “I will approach them, I do the talking and telling stories and I always recommend porters specially on how many days the trek.”

Josie – “By telling them some funny stories and tell them about the tradition and cultural life here in Batad to let them know.”

Andres – “When the guests arrive during planting season and harvesting season, we can try to ask them to join with us so that they can also experience.”

Evelyn – “I always encourage our guest to recommend farming in terraces or how to harvest the rice so that they have also big experience.”


3.3.3. Resource Management Roles

This role is very significant for tour guides and in the thrust of conservtion in eco-tourism. Tour guides must be capable of encouraging tourists to reduce their negative impact on the site. Many of the tourist destinations have established norms, folkways and mores that need to be respected and tolerated. Although rules and regulations are evident in many places through signboards, tour guides still have to warn the visitors not to do any cultural transgressions. When asked on the role as resource management motivator, the respondents stated the following:

Janeth – “Show our respect regarding on what happen on that place and safety first. And yes, every site have their own aspect so we need to respect it.”

Eliza – “Yes, I always remind our guests to respect our regulations and if necessary show them some of approved rules and ordinance in our place.”

Andrew – “For me, I always explain and give them the important while everybody is resting and always with honesty and sincerity.”

Part of the mediatory roles are hands-on activities to communicate what tour guides want to tell or emphasize in relating significant meanings and symbolisms of various material and non-materials aspects that are present on the site. During the interviews, a number of tour guides related the following:

Andrew – “Yes, using actual activities that have to fix the stone to the mud and also how to pound the rice and show some materials to use and let them do it.”

Grace – “By showing them how to plant and the materials being used in planting.”

Grail – “The Rice – god – it symbolizes the good harvesting and necklaces symbolize good luck and charm.”

4. Enablers and Challenges of Tour Guides in Batad

Enablers pertain to people or institutions that aid tour guides in the process of tour guiding like the offices which issue certificates of registration and accreditation. Meanwhile, challenges are those experiences being encountered by the tour guides whether optimistic or pessimistic aspects as they bring the tourists to their destinations.


4.1.1. Enablers of Tour Guides in Batad

People and some enabling institutions were established that guide and help tour guides in Batad. Respondents related that their local government unit through the tourism offices from provincial, municipal to baragay level: (1) help in the formulation of policies; and (2) provide capacitation trainings for tour guides. The UNESCO (local office in Ifugao), Department of Tourism and LGU Banaue and Batad provide financial assistance, seminars, trainings and other functional activities that protect and promote the tour guiding program in the community

For the capacitation trainings, respondents mentioned that they are invited to be trained in first aid, rescue team to emergency like when some tourists are missing or had an accident, massage, motivation of tour guides, leadership skills and management roles. Individuals and companies from international, national and local groups also provide assistance through cash and infrastructure projects


4.1.2. Challenges of Tour Guides in Batad

Challenges of tour guides in Batad as presented by the respondents include: garbage problems in the village; lack of familiarity with the place (some guides are not from the village, hence, they don’t know how to explain the history and other aspects of the place); lack of materials and equipment needed during emergency rescue especially on basic life support, limited knowledge and awareness on environmental education; weak stand in tourism development; difficulties in applying and renewing registration both in the provincial and the Department of Tourism; absence of internet, mobile phones and telecommunication signals; marketing problems; inexperienced tour guides and sustaining financial support for farmers to continue cultivating and preserving the rice terraces.

5. Recommendations to Ensure Sustainability of the Tour Guiding Busines in Batad

From the synthesis of the results gathered in this study, the following project proposal is recommended to ensure sustainability of the tour guiding program in Batad.

I. TITLE: Project TRAIL

(T – Tour Guides, R – Revitalization, A – And, I – Innovative, L – Landscape)

A. Implementers: Tour Guides (Individuals and Associations)

Batad and Banaue Tourism Councils

B. Cooperating Agencies: Provincial Tourism Office, Department of Tourism

Identified Partners from:

1) Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)

2) Civil Society Organizations

3) Cultural Organizations

C. Target Group: Batad tour guides

II. PROJECT DETAILS

A. Rationale

The UNESCO advances the belief that “World Heritage sites belong to everyone and should be preserved for future generations” 1. It is then imperative for decision makers, tourism officers both national and local offices to adhere to the rules and regulations that the World Heritage Convention has established. The tourism industry must be managed with great responsibility, first by the government-funded tourist organizations like the National Tourism Offices (NTOs). This will then be collaborated by the higher educational institutions, civil society organizations and cultural organizations as reflected in the introduction and sections 1,2,3 and 4 of this study, tour guides maintain a significant role in the tourism industry. As many institutions become formal and professional and so must the tour guides. Tour guiding must be professionalized so it will carry necessary requirement to surpass predetermined challenges and inevitable changes in the community. Both freelancers and organizations could co-exist just like the partnership of the public and private sectors.

From the study, it is evident that there are people and enabling institutions that guide and help tour guides in their activities. These come in terms of cash assistance, infrastructure projects and the like. Challenges, however, are being encountered by tour guides as the guidance and assistance given are lacking or not all aspects have been covered by the enabling institutions. Hence, this project TRAIL is conceptualized.

B. Objectives of the Project

This project TRAIL aims to:

1. provide an avenue for the review and implementation of practical processes in the registration and accreditation of tour guides;

2. strengthen community participation;

3. enhance continuous partnership and linkages between the public and private sectors including national and international organizations; and

4. conduct of empowerment and local leadership-initiated programs and activities.

C. Conceptual Framework

There are a myriad of factors that could motivate tour guides. This can be material or non-material, tangible or intangible, external or internal. These motivations are conceived to provide positive contributions in the tourism industry while those who contribute are reciprocated back. Meanwhile, the roles of tour guides vary from becoming a leader of the group, to mediatory and an ambassador for the conservation of natural resources (Howard et al, 20. The different contexts where people live could explain the various motivations and roles they play in the tour guiding industry. While there are people and institutions that guide and help the tour guides of Batad, there are still challenges needed to be addressed.

Tourist attractions have been determined, motivations were resurfaced and roles were identified. The crux of the matter, notwithstanding, is the question on how the tour guiding industry will be sustained. The impact study conducted in 2008 by the Save the Ifugao Terraces Movement (SITMo) under the assistance of UNESCO based in Bangkok, Thailand opined four future direction of tourism in Ifugao, namely: (1) Preserving the living rice culture; (2) developing a sustainable tourism framework; (3) marketing the Ifugao Rice Terraces; and (4) sustaining tourism growth.

These four future directions are geared towards attracting more visitors both local and foreign. Project Trail incorporates these four aspects in its objectives as it follows the premise that to sustain tour guides, there is a need to attract more visitors who will be needing their expertise and functional services. Figure 25 shows further the paradigm of the project.

Project TRAIL stands for Tour Guides, Revitalization and Innovative Landscape. This project primarily aims to boost and provide tour guides a significant stature in the Tourism Industry. The revitalization starts from themselves with the aid of both the public and private sectors and domestic and international institutions. The public sector is represented by the Department of Tourism, Provincial Tourism office of Ifugao and the private sector by the international organizations, higher educational institutions, civil society organizations, and cultural organizations.

The collaboration and complementation of the aforementioned institutions will be able to help in the professionalization of tour guides. Through these institutions also, the operation of the four aspects on the future of tourism in Ifugao will be realized. These are to preserve the living rice culture; develop a sustainable tourism framework; market the Ifugao rice terraces and sustain tourism growth.

D. Concrete Actions

6. Conclusions

Based from the information gathered in this study, the following conclusions were derived:

1. Batad, Banaue, Ifugao has a lot of things to offer, this range from tourism sites to socio-cultural activities. The tourism sites are places not only for recreation and source of material aspects but also a place to realize the great achievement of different cultural communities and the wonders of nature.

2. Motivations come in different ways, this can be material or non-material, tangible or intangible, external or internal. In the aspect of tourism, different institutions are progressing and so with tour guides. Motivations of tour guides are conceived for positive contributions in the tourism industry while those who contribute are reciprocated back. The various contexts where people live could explain the different motivations that drive them to endeavor greatly in their craft. Not a single factor could motivate an individual, a combination of these must be considered.

3. The roles of tour guide vary from becoming a leader of the group, to mediatory and an ambassador for the conservation of natural resources. These roles are vital in the course of tourism site visitations. These start from the beginning up to the end of the trip. Tourism sites are not just identified geographic destinations but also embedded with socio-cultural contexts that must be respected and tolerated.

4. While there are people and institutions that guide and help the tour guides of Batad, there are still challenges needed to be addressed. These are all related to cash assistance, capacitation trainings, leadership and management skills, empowerment, and sustainability for the tour guiding profession.

5. Project Trail aims to revitalize the motivations and roles of tour guides and create an innovative landscape that will boost and sustain the tour guiding industry in Batad, Banaue, Ifugao.

7. Recommendations

From the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are forwarded:

1. Since Batad has a lot of tourism attractions to offer both for local and foreign tourists, the following are highly recommended to boost further these tourism attractions:

1.1. That infrastructure projects like paving of roads and electrification must be continued to cater to the far-flung sitios of Batad;

1.2. Addition of some rules and regulations (to be place in visible areas) be provided to visitor-tourists to always maintain the cleanliness along the pathways from the saddle to the various ecotourism sites;

1.3. All those areas with dangerous uphill and downhill climbs be provided with metal or concrete guardrails for the safety of the trekkers;

1.4. Tour guides should see to it that all local and foreign tourists register at Banaue and Batad Tourism Information Centers;

1.5. Unattended or abandoned areas of Batad rice terraces should be tilled and planted using the Chaw’wa system;

1.6. Conducting feasibility studies on establishing communication links among schools or HEIs in the area be made a research theme;

1.7. Establishing partnerships with the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) and other telecommunication groups such as SMART and Globe to boost the effort to install communication links;

1.8. A separate Tourism Master Plan for Batad can be created that complements the Provincial and or Municipal Tourism Master Plans;

1.9. Integration of more socio-cultural activities as part of local tourism to deepen attachments of the local people and visitors to their indigenous knowledge, systems and practices; and

1.10 Sustaining or establishing linkages or partnerships with international and national agencies and private organizations to help beautify the ecotourism sites.

2. For motivations, since tour guides are not registered and accredited, thus, they do not enjoy benefits given by the Local Government Unit of Ifugao: hence, the following are recommended:

2.1 That the processes (requirements for application, assessments and evaluations) for registration in the Ifugao Provincial Tourism Office and the Department of Tourism accreditation must be reviewed to cater to the nature of applicants from Batad.

2.2 That capacitation among tour guides should be sustained to further professionalize them;

2.3 Capacitation trainings should be wide-ranging and reflective of skills along services offered by tour guides;

2.4 Helping the tour guides by providing the equipment and materials greatly needed in tour guiding, given as a subsidy or to be rented by the tour guides.

2.5 The Ifugao Provincial Tourism Office may also craft more attractive packages in visiting the tourism sites that will necessitate the services of tour guides.

3. For the roles, since it has been established that the tour guides are the face or front liners in the tourism industry, professionalization of tour guides must be done. Attractive benefits and privileges must also be included so more tour guides will be motivated to register and be trained for DOT accreditation. Relative to the roles of tour guides as ambassadors for the conservation of natural resources, more comprehensive capacitation must be initiated. Tour guides must be knowledgeable not only of those they already know as indigenous tour guides but also other practices that protect, preserve and promote the natural habitat.

4. Some challenges affecting the tour guides can be resolved through the following:

4.1 Establishing a strong Batad Tour Guide Association;

4.2 Producing more promotion materials and attending local tourism assemblies;

4.3. Partnering with local legislators who can sponsor bills in support of the tour guide industry;

4.4 Conducting benchmarking activities and attending business counseling sessions or training programs;

4.5 Hiring of a skillful (ICT competent) staff to create websites and other social media means to do the marketing promotion using digitized means, including creation of brand image and employing a consultant to oversee brand image creation;

4.6 Creating tour programs and packages and attending short term business schooling to know the rudiments of business;

4.7 Employing various strategies and techniques such as technology-based broadcast (radio, television, multimedia, and online means) and print media (newspaper advertisements, brochures, feelers, flyers and tarpaulins;

4.8 Conducting community-based approach in solving waste disposal and sewerage problems;

4.9 Creating stronger networks with travel agencies and linkage partners in the international and national organizations or agencies that give donations;

4.10 Identifying abandoned and unattended rice fields and sustaining the Chaw’wa system that provides help for the farmers in the form of financial and manual help for the restoration of privately owned rice terraces.

5. As on offshoot of this study, project TRAIL may be taken into consideration by local government units and tour guides; for initial or starting point to enhance their conditions in the tourism industry or as a framework in their future endeavors. In any case, whenever needed and upon request, the researchers are always willing to provide pertinent information (or the full paper) regarding said project.

Acknowledgements

Figure taken from Batad Travel Guide (2017). Retrieved from

https://www.lakwatsero.com/destinations/travel-guide-batad/#sthash.qRn5UPOg.dpbs

Figure 4. Batad Rice Terraces resembling an amphitheater

Figures taken by Marineth P. Balansi, SMU BS Pharmacy–4 and one of the Research Enumerators

Figure 7. An ideal bagpack, big enough yet not too large, that does not weigh down the user.

Figure 8. A pose of a foreigner and a local tourist

Figure 11. Concreted pathways with steel guard rails built in some very steep trails

Figure 12. Entry point to Tappiya Falls, westward of Batad Rice Terraces

Figure 13. The Tappiyah Waterfalls

Figure 15. Trekking back to the village proper

Figure 16. Taking pictures of the rice terraces

Figure 24. A photo of one spot going to Batad village proper

Figures taken from Macatulad, J.B. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.willflyforfood.net/2017/ 09/15/the-first-timers-travel-guide-to-batad-rice-terraces-banaue-ifugao-philippines-2017/

Figure 5. Batad’s average temperature

Figure 6. Batad’s average rainfall

Figure 10. Two fancy walking stick for sale

Figure 18. A glimpse of the Awa view deck from Ramon’s Homestay

Figures taken from the photos of Ms. Claribel Matias, SMU SHANS Research Coordinator

Figure 14. Trekking down to the Tappiyah Waterfalls

Figure 17. Some local tourist wlaking around Batad rice terraces

Figure 19. A tour guide actively interacting with local tourists as he shares some activities being performed when visiting the Tappiyah Waterfalls

Figure 20. A tour guide skillfully ushers a foreign tourist down to a concrete pathway of the rice paddies.

Figure 21. A tour guide (male) and two local tourists pose as they marked and firmed up their newly established friendship

Figure 22. A foreign tourist who marvels in awe as he is accompanied by a tour guide in trekking Batad view point

Figure 23. Some souvenir items being sold in the Batad villgae proper

Acknowledgement is also due to the Administration and the University Research Center for incentives awarded for this paper.

References

[1]  Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing tourism at world heritage sites: A practical manual for world heritage sites managers. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-113-2.pdf.
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[2]  Howard, J., Thwaites R. and Smith, B. (2001). Investigating the roles of the indigenous tour guide. The Journal of Tourism Studies. 12, (2). Retrieved from http://web.mnstate.edu/robertsb/390/Investigating%20the%20role%20of%20the%20indigenous%20tour%20guide.pdf.
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[3]  Prakash, M., Chowdhary, N. and Sunayana (2010). Becoming a tour guide: Analyzing the motivations. Retrieved from http://revistadeturism.ro/rdt/article/view/86/57.
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[4]  Lindberg, P.J. (2015). The virtues of a tour guide. Retrieved from http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/the-virtues-of-a-tour-guide.
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[5]  Bryon, J. (2012). Tour guides as storytellers – from selling to sharing. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 12. (1).
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[6]  Rabotic, B. (2008). Tourist guides as cultural heritage interpreters: Belgra de experience with municipality-sponsored guided walks for local residents. Retrieved from http://rabotic.tripod.com/Branislav_rabotic/tourist_guides_as_cultural_heritage_interpreters.pdf.
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[7]  Mcdonnell, I. (2001). The role of the tour guide in transferring cultural understanding.
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[8]  Philippine Statistics Agency (2015). Special tables on Tourism Statistics, Ifugao Province. Retrieved from http://nap.psa.gov.ph/rucar/stat_trsm_ifu.htm#arrivalsbyorigin.
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[9]  Batad Travel Guide (2017). Retrieved From https://www.lakwatsero.com/destinations/travel-guide-batad/#sthash.qRn5UPOg.dpbs.
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[10]  Cimacio, M.B., Pormentira, D.B., Reside, O.H., and Nullar, M.B. (2009). Tour guiding in Baguio City, Philippines: Perspectives from three stakeholder groups. Retrieved from http://www.eisrjc.com/documents/Tour_Guiding_In_ Baguio_City_1325667282.pdf.
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[11]  Magdy, H. (2016). Challenges affecting the quality service of the tour guide in Egypt. Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Kenneth L. Maslang, Darwin Don M. Dacles and Fe Yolanda G. Del Rosario

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Kenneth L. Maslang, Darwin Don M. Dacles, Fe Yolanda G. Del Rosario. Following beyond the Trail: Motivations and Roles of Indigenous Tour Guides in Local Tourism. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2018, pp 126-145. http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjssh/4/3/1
MLA Style
Maslang, Kenneth L., Darwin Don M. Dacles, and Fe Yolanda G. Del Rosario. "Following beyond the Trail: Motivations and Roles of Indigenous Tour Guides in Local Tourism." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 4.3 (2018): 126-145.
APA Style
Maslang, K. L. , Dacles, D. D. M. , & Rosario, F. Y. G. D. (2018). Following beyond the Trail: Motivations and Roles of Indigenous Tour Guides in Local Tourism. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(3), 126-145.
Chicago Style
Maslang, Kenneth L., Darwin Don M. Dacles, and Fe Yolanda G. Del Rosario. "Following beyond the Trail: Motivations and Roles of Indigenous Tour Guides in Local Tourism." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 4, no. 3 (2018): 126-145.
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  • Figure 19. A tour guide actively interacting with local tourists as he shares some activities being performed when visiting the Tappiyah Waterfalls
  • Figure 21. A tour guide (male) and two local tourists pose as they marked and firmed up their newly established friendship. While on the surface, it would seem that this is personally motivated, there is understanding on the part of the tour guides that this is essential to get things done around visitors: selling the potentials of village life.
  • Figure 24. A photo of one spot going to Batad village proper (notice here that signboards about some rules and regulations are placed strategically so upon entrance tourist would be able to read and consider)
[1]  Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing tourism at world heritage sites: A practical manual for world heritage sites managers. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-113-2.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Howard, J., Thwaites R. and Smith, B. (2001). Investigating the roles of the indigenous tour guide. The Journal of Tourism Studies. 12, (2). Retrieved from http://web.mnstate.edu/robertsb/390/Investigating%20the%20role%20of%20the%20indigenous%20tour%20guide.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Prakash, M., Chowdhary, N. and Sunayana (2010). Becoming a tour guide: Analyzing the motivations. Retrieved from http://revistadeturism.ro/rdt/article/view/86/57.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Lindberg, P.J. (2015). The virtues of a tour guide. Retrieved from http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/the-virtues-of-a-tour-guide.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Bryon, J. (2012). Tour guides as storytellers – from selling to sharing. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 12. (1).
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Rabotic, B. (2008). Tourist guides as cultural heritage interpreters: Belgra de experience with municipality-sponsored guided walks for local residents. Retrieved from http://rabotic.tripod.com/Branislav_rabotic/tourist_guides_as_cultural_heritage_interpreters.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Mcdonnell, I. (2001). The role of the tour guide in transferring cultural understanding.
In article      
 
[8]  Philippine Statistics Agency (2015). Special tables on Tourism Statistics, Ifugao Province. Retrieved from http://nap.psa.gov.ph/rucar/stat_trsm_ifu.htm#arrivalsbyorigin.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Batad Travel Guide (2017). Retrieved From https://www.lakwatsero.com/destinations/travel-guide-batad/#sthash.qRn5UPOg.dpbs.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Cimacio, M.B., Pormentira, D.B., Reside, O.H., and Nullar, M.B. (2009). Tour guiding in Baguio City, Philippines: Perspectives from three stakeholder groups. Retrieved from http://www.eisrjc.com/documents/Tour_Guiding_In_ Baguio_City_1325667282.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Magdy, H. (2016). Challenges affecting the quality service of the tour guide in Egypt. Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development.
In article