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The Difference of Two Application Methods (Manual and Electronic) and Their Effect on the Personality Metrics Psychometric Properties: A Structural Equation Model

Boshra A. Arnout , Khalid J. Jasim, Mohammed A. Mahmood
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2019, 7(1), 5-15. DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-7-1-2
Received July 15, 2019; Revised August 25, 2019; Accepted September 05, 2019

Abstract

This study aimed to compare the psychometric properties between two methods in the application of personality metrics (manual and electronic). To achieve this aim, researchers used the power of personality scale prepared by Alwalidi and Arnout (2016), which consists of (90) items distributed equally over six dimensions, each dimension consists of (15) items. This scale was applied to a sample consisted of (200) male and female students from Zagazig University, their ages ranged between 19 to 25 years. The researchers used the design of repeated measurements in the application of the procedures of the scale two forms (manual and electronic) on a sample of (200) students, was divided into two groups, by (100) students in each group according to the form of the scale (manual or electronic) the respondent receives the two forms, in a different order from one group to another. The psychometric properties related to the items represented by (item discrimination, and the validity of the items) and the psychometric properties related to the scale represented by (reliability) were calculated. The study found that the electronic application method was superior to the manual application method. Therefore the results recommend using the electronic method of application when initiating the construction or application of personal metrics.

1. Introduction

The collect of data process is very necessary to answer the study questions or test the hypotheses by using one or more methods of collecting. One of the most prominent foundations in the tools application is the role played by the researcher in collecting data. Researchers may design a research tool in which the sample members are asked to answer the items in the absence of them as in the self-report scales 1, 2.

Developing a search tool does not guarantee access to the data for which the tool was developed, unless the tool is implemented in a planned manner that ensures the removal of all undesirable factors that may affect the results or responses of the respondents 3, 4.

Many factors can affect the responses of the respondents, which is reflected in the data sought by the researcher and affect the results of the study, perhaps the most prominent of these factors are the following: -

1 - Timing of application: The timing of the application process is very important in terms of influencing the response of the respondent, when the application takes place at a time not appropriate for the researcher should not expect to get the response expressing the attribute as it is in reality.

2 - place of application: one of the influential factors that can affect the response of the individuals is the place where the application of the instrument and the physical factors such as ventilation and lighting, as well as furnishing, which constitutes the influential elements in the psychological environment of the respondents, which should be appropriate, because all these will certainly influence the responses.

3. Motivation of the respondents and their desire to participate in the study: When the respondents are willing to participate in the study sample, they will contribute to report a real response related to the attribute to be measured. But if respondents are not willing to participate, this will adversely affect his handling of the study tool does not react with it and does not care to answer its items as it should.

4- The personality of the researcher: the researcher character with a strong personality, attractive and clear voice capable of showing the importance of his study and convince respondents to participate and arouse their enthusiasm will get more and more accurate responses contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the study, and vice versa occurs with the researcher with a weak personality 3, 5.

5. The method of application: The method of application is one of the factors affecting collecting data process, If the method of application depends on the response of respondents and their interaction, as the method of manual application can feel the respondents bored and lack of attention, unlike the electronic application that is available to the respondents, especially we are in the age of electronic development and the adherence of respondents to electronic devices more than answering features through manual or manual 3, 6.

The method of application of the tools is one of the most important procedures that the researcher should take into account when collecting the data because the method of application can have a negative or positive impact on the results and therefore cannot be trusted in and then generalized.

The psychological measurement movement faced a number of difficulties in its attempt to develop tools for psychological measurement in general, and personality metrics in particular, and perhaps the method of application of metrics are one of these difficulties, as most of the studies and opinions of specialists in the method of application vary, some of whom believe that the manual application gives better results than some of them Just the opposite.

The difficulties and problems of psychological measurement increase in measuring the emotional aspects of the personality and attitudes, and also the difficulty of determining its concepts and components 7.

The difficulties faced by psychological measurement may increase in the measurement of personality, as it is not possible to measure the character without the presence of errors, may lead to increase or reduce the real score, which makes the scores in psychological measurement in general and non-measurement of personality in particular does not represent the true of the characters measured 8.

The errors from the psychological scale are the most effective errors in the scores of measurement, because the scale is a sample of the behavior to be measured 9, which makes it difficult to make this sample representative of all behavior associated with the character or phenomenon that the scale aims to measure.

The reasoning of personality traits is their influence, not their structure, which makes their measurement difficult, as well as that the individual in the measurement of personality tends to place himself in the place of others, which confirms the subjectivity of the researcher who is developing the scale. Thus the respondent tries to give answers that society accepts or wants.

Therefore, it is not possible to measure the true degree of a trait or psychological characteristic without errors, as it must show in the experimental scores obtained from the measurement errors may increase or decrease depending on the accuracy of its sources, the most important of which is the accuracy of the scale and experimental conditions 2, 10.

That is, the accuracy of the measurement properties, whether for the scale as whole or for its items, depends mainly on the accuracy of the formulation of items, and on the determination of the content of items in line with the objective of measurement, the concept we measure, and the method of response, which should be consistent with the formulation of the item 11, 12. Abdul Khaliq 13 points out that one of the most important properties of a good scale is that when it is presented to the respondents, the examiner makes it difficult for him or her to give correct, clear and non-false responses, thus increasing the likelihood of giving false and incorrect responses.

Moreover, the researchers believe that the method of application is one of the factors affecting the accuracy and objectivity of the response and thus affect the results obtained by researchers when applying measurement tools in the field of personality.

Hence, the interest of psychometrists is mainly directed towards the preparation of standard methods that reduce measurement errors. One of these prominent concerns is the application method of scales to reduce measurement errors resulting from an excessive increase in the length of the scale and trying to reduce the errors that keep it from giving the true scores of properties measured 4, 8.

Behavior does not appear in the form of expressing the nature of the individual only when he finds himself in a natural situation, because most of the traits have a social character does not appear only when the individual finds himself with a certain group of individuals in a social situation, and therefore the creation of a particular situation with standard tools and methods to choose a sample The true behavior of the measured characteristic is difficult if not impossible 14.

Therefore, those who work in any profession must know the tools that should be used and which help them to achieve their goals, as the use of any tool in any profession is conditioned by certain properties and specifications 15.

The study conducted by Benson and Wilcox (1981) aimed to detect the impact of positive and negative formulation of items in measuring attitudes, three parallel models have been developed to assess attitudes towards integration and each model contains 15 items differ only in the formulation (positive, negative, positive and negative (mixture). The sample of the study consisted of 621 students in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades. Each respondent responded to one of the three models. The results indicated that the different wording resulted in different patterns in the responses due to the different grade level. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences. In estimates of internal consistency between the three models.

Al-Omari 16 study aimed to reveal the effect of the order of items in psychological scales on the properties of the scale and the items, the researcher used the self-confidence scale, and then rearranged items in four methods, the first three is the order of items in descending order of each index (item discrimination, reliability of the item. The researcher used the design of repeated measurements in the presence of the scale in a sample consisted of (264) students, divided into four groups, each consisted of (66) students, each respondent receives the four patterns of the scale, But in a different order from one group to another, the results indicated the superiority of the order of items based on the index of reliability, as this arrangement gave the highest coefficient of reliability of the scale as well as this arrangement has advanced on other methods in improving the mean psychometric properties of the items themselves.

From previous studies, we noted that there is no previous study has determined the preference of the method of application over another, so there was a need to conduct this study to compare the method of application, for personal metrics (manual - electronic), and identify the best method in the application of personality metrics.

Therefore, the importance of the current study lies in determining which methods are better in the application of metrics (manual or electronic), from calculating the psychometric properties of the scale and its items in each method, to make it easier for researchers to select the best method in the metrics application in the field of personality, as well as provide a measure in the field of personality usable from other researchers in the future.

2. Methodology

2.1. Population and Sample

The statistical population of this study includes all students of the Zagazig university in Egypt enrolled in the academic year 2018/2019. The researchers considered that the size of the sample to calculate the psychometric properties of the method of application of the scale (200) students, were selected by the random stratified method of university students, and this number is appropriate in light of the size of previous studies, especially that the current research adopted the design of repeated measurements, which the sample size is doubled by the number of levels of the independent variable compared to other experimental designs, so the researchers divided the current study sample into two groups according to the levels of the independent variable by (100) students and the scale is presented in a different order, to eliminate the effect of the scale of the scale [mentioned in 7].

2.2. Tools

Since the current study aims to compare two methods in the application of personality metrics, and after reviewing the researchers on several studies, researchers found the power of personality scale prepared by Alwalidi and Arnout 17, which consists of (90) items distributed over six sub-dimensions, each dimension consists of (15) Item was applied to a sample of (597) male and female students from Zagazig University and King Khalid University, the psychometric properties of the scale were verified, represented by validity and reliability, and given the novelty of the scale will be adopted by researchers to achieve the research objectives (see Alwalidi and Arnout 17).

Validity of the power of personality scale (PSS-90):

In order to verify the face validity of the scale, the researchers presented the scale to a group of experts and specialists in educational and psychological sciences in order to survey their views on the validity of the scale in achieving the research objectives. It became clear through this procedure that all items are ostensibly valid.

After the preparation of the personal strength scale (PSS-90), it was applied to a sample of (200) male and female university students according to the answer method (manual and electronic method). Psychometric properties of items and scale of the two application methods were calculated, as follows:

A- Psychometric properties of the scale tow forms (manual and electronic):

For the comparison between the two forms of the scale (manual and electronic) the researchers calculated discrimination power and validity of items, as following.

The item discrimination of manual and electronic application methods: for the purpose of identifying the item discrimination power in two application methods, the following steps were followed:

Ÿ Determine the total score for each respondent (manual- electronic) after we are correcting it.

Ÿ Arrange the scores (manual- electronic) obtained by the sample members from the highest score to the lowest score.

Ÿ The highest (27%) and the lowest (27%) of the scores (in each of manual and electronic application) were chosen to represent the two extremist groups. Because the analysis sample consists of (200) individuals, the number of questionnaires for both the upper and lower groups was (54).

Ÿ The application of T-test for two independent samples to test the significance of differences between the upper and lower groups for each item (in manual and electronic application).

Results (see Table 1 and Table 2) show that all items in two application methods (manual and electronic) have a discriminating power.

Items Validity

The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to extract the correlations between the score of each item and the total score of the scale as whole on each the manual and electronic applications sample. It was found that all correlation coefficients are statistically significant because their calculated values are greater than the critical value of (0.139) at the significance level (0.05) and the degree of freedom (198) (see Table 3 and Table 4).

Dimensions relationships (correlation Matrix) for manual application:

The researchers calculated the correlation coefficients between each dimension to the others, which known as the internal consistency (see Table 5).

The results showed in Table 5 indicated that all the calculated correlations were statistically significant at the level of (0.05) and the degree of freedom (198) when compared with the critical value of the correlation coefficient of (0.139).

Dimensions relationship (correlations matrix) for electronic application:

Finding the correlation coefficient between each dimension to the other dimensions in manual and electronic application, what we called the internal consistency (see Table 6).

The above Table 6 shows that all the calculated correlations were statistically significant at the level of (0.05) and the degree of freedom (198) when compared with the critical value of the correlation coefficient of 0.139.

B - Reliability of the scale

The researchers used test - retest formula to calculate the reliability of the forms of the scale. This equation is used to calculate the reliability based on the application of the scale twice and after an appropriate period of time.

2.3. Research Design

The method used in this study is the experimental method, in order to suit the objectives and the nature of this study. Repeated-measures design employs an experimental design of the current study in a single experimental group, and the replication of the strategies of the scale (independent variable), because of the advantages of this design as 1 that this design enables the researcher to control individual differences among the respondents in the factors that may affect the results of the experiment is independent factor, which reduces measurement errors, as well as being more economical than other designs in terms of the required number of sample members in the experiment. Two groups, for the universe a the independent variable includes two treatment Table 8 illustrates this diagram.

2.4. Data Analysis

The obtained data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS 26.0 and IBM SPSS Amos 25, after testing of normality. We used T - test, Person correlation coefficient, coefficient of item's reliability (Si Rix), and Zr-test to determine the significance of the difference between the coefficients of validity and reliability coefficients, and one-a methodical analysis of variance.

3. Results and Discussion

Researchers calculated psychometric properties of the two scale application methods, and then comparing this psychometric properties for manual and electronic application to determine the preference of the application method for personality metrics.

1. Calculate the psychometric properties of (items discrimination, items validity, validity and reliability) of the two forms of scale applications.

A. Measuring the psychometric properties of the items.

To achieve this goal, the psychometric properties related to the items were calculated, results showed in Table 9.

It is clear from the Table 9 that there is a difference between the arithmetic means, in the favor of the electronic application method in the two properties (item discrimination, and item validity), which indicates the preference of electronic application over manual application method.

B- Measuring the psychometric properties of the scale

1. Reliability

When we calculated the reliability of the two application methods of the scale using the Cronbach-alpha method, the correlation coefficient of the manual application was (0.990), while the coefficient of reliability of the electronic method was (0.995).

2 - Comparison in psychometric properties of (items discrimination, validity of items, reliability) of the two application methods.

A. Comparison in psychometric properties of items.

Ÿ Items discrimination :

For verifying this procedure, an arithmetic mean and standard deviation of t values were extracted in both manual and electronic application methods. Then, the t- test was used for two independent samples. The results are shown in Table 10.

The above Table 10 shows that the calculated t value of (7.771) is greater than (1.96) at the significance level (0.05) and the degree of freedom (178). This means that there are statistical significant differences in the means of t values between the manual and electronic applications in the favor of the electronic application.

Ÿ Validity of items:

For verifying this procedure, the mean of the correlation coefficients between each item and the total score of the scale in both manual and electronic application methods was calculated, the results showed in Table 11.

The above Table 11 shows that the differences in the relationship between the manual and electronic applications was not statistically significant because the calculated Z-value (1,737) is smaller than the Z-critical value (1,96).

B. Comparison in psychometric properties of the scale.

Identify the statistically significant differences between the reliability factors for the manual and electronic applications. For verifying this procedure, the reliability coefficient was calculated in both manual and electronic application methods.

From the results showed in Table 12 we notice that the difference between the reliability coefficients between the manual and electronic application methods was statistically significant, as the calculated Z-value of (3.47) is greater than the Z- critical value (1,96).

Comparison in the measurement structural model:

For verifying this procedure, we design an measurement structural model for strength of personality (see Figure 1).

In this model, ellipses represent latent variables, and rectangles represent measured variables. The Figure 1 illustrates the measurement components of the structural model of the variable dimensions of power of personality. sex factors are shown by their measured indicators:

1. The choice power factor (F1) saturated of 15 measured indicators ( from item 1 to 15).

2. The power of life factor (F2) saturated 15 measured indicators (from item 16 to 30)

3. The power of aims factor (F3) saturated 15 measured indicators (from item 31 to 45).

4. The power of action factor (F4) saturated of 15 measured indicators ( from item 46 to 60).

5. The power of self-talking and faith factor (F5) saturated 15 measured indicators (from item 61 to 75).

6. The power of intellectual orientations factor (F6) saturated 15 measured indicators (from item 76 to 90).

The data were analysis using AMOS (V.25) for the measurement model of factors or dimensions of power of personality resulted from several indices of fit scores for manual and electronic application methods. The results of the analysis indicated the validity of the proposed model on the Goodness of fit. most of the fit indicators indicate that the default model is validity. The standard chi- square divided by the standard for each manual and electronic method are (3.335 and 2.932) respectively, the GFI good index of (0.92 and .979) respectively are good fit because it is greater than 0.90 and the square root of the RMSEA, and the PRATIO, which is (0.952 and .974) respectively. All of these economic indicators are above the 0.60 mark, thus enhancing the availability of the measurement model on a fit. Finally, the default model for the AIC for manual and electronic method (default model: 13576.408 and 12003.902) respectively, and the default cross- Expected ECVI (default model: 37.630 and 44.367) respectively, far surpassed its independent models that are equal to 32137.105, 109.914 and 35062.430, 105.023) respectively. Because the values of the default model are much smaller than those of the corresponding independent models. The independent model indicates the worst-case scenario because it is devoid of relations between variables. As for the square of the kay of the supposed model which was statistically significant, it should not be indicative of the presence of a fit. We should identify the implications of these indicators on the factors to which they belong. Results showed in Table 13 - Table 18 shows.

The results of factor analysis of the scale showed a great good fit between the theoretical aspect of the scale with the analysis data obtained from the sample, and this increases confidence in the ability of the power of personality scale in the paper and electronic applications of university students. The power of personality scale has internal validity and high reliability indications that allow use in both application methods, although the electronic method is the best in psychometric properties when we compare the GFI good index of manual and electronic (0.92 and .979) respectively.

4. Conclusions

From the results of this study, researchers found that the preference of psychometric properties in electronic application method compared to manual application.

5. Recommendations

In light of this finding, the researchers recommend the adoption of the method of electronic application in the preparation and applied of personality metrics in view of what showed the psychometric properties of this application compared to the manual application.

Future Directions

Based on the results of the current study, researchers suggest conducting a study between manual and electronic application methods according to the theory of potential properties. And also conduct a balance study between the models of the theory of potential properties and classical theory in the method the application of scales in the field of personality and mental abilities.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their gratitude to King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia for providing administrative and technical support

Conflict of Interest

All the authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

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[2]  Al-Sharifain, N., and Al-Sharifain, A. (2011). Developing the Shyness Scale of University Students, Journal of the Union of Arab Universities for Education and Psychology, 9(4), 124-161.
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[3]  Attia, M. (2010). Scientific research in education, methods, tools, statistical methods. Amman: Dar Al-Manahj for publication and distribution.
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[4]  Abdul Rahman, A. and Zangana, A. (2008). The conceptual and theoretical foundations in the curricula of humanities and applied sciences. Baghdad: House of Books and Documents.
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[5]  Odeh, A. and Malkawi, F. (1987). Fundamentals of Scientific Research in Education and Humanities - Elements, Methods and Statistical Analysis of its Data. Jordan: Al-Manar Library for Publishing and Distribution.
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[6]  Helmistadter, G. (1966). Principles of psychological measurement. London: Methuen Co.
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[7]  Amin, A. (1996). Religious Commitment and its Relationship with Psychological Compatibility among Baghdad University Students. MA Thesis (Unpublished), University of Baghdad, College of Arts.
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[8]  Lord, F. (1960). Psychological measurement. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
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[9]  Anastasia, A. (1976). Psychological Testing. New York: 6th ed, Macmillan publishing Inc.
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[10]  Taylor, C. (2008). Health Psychology, Translated by Brik et al. Amman Dar Al-Hamed for Publishing and Distribution.
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[11]  Abu Hatab, F. (1987). Mental abilities, the Cairo: Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop.
In article      
 
[12]  Allam, S. (2000). Analysis of psychological, educational and social research data, 3rd ed. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi.
In article      
 
[13]  Abdul Khaliq, A. (2005). The measurement of personality. Alexandria: Dar ALmarifa Aljameia.
In article      
 
[14]  Al-Masri, M. (1999). The Effect of Item Direction and its Formulation Method on Psychometric Properties of the Personality Scale and the Mental Health Level of the Respondent. Not published PhD thesis, Baghdad University.
In article      
 
[15]  Ahmed, M. (1981). Psychological and Educational Measurement, 4th ed . Cairo: Arab Renaissance Library.
In article      
 
[16]  Al-Omari, Hassan (2011). The effect of the order of the paragraphs in the psychological scales on the internal homogeneity of the scale and the properties of paragraphs. Damascus University Journal, 27 (3), 111-129.
In article      
 
[17]  Alwalidi, A. and Arnout, B. (2016). Development of the power of Personality Scale, King Khalid University Journal of Educational Sciences, 27, 99-121.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Boshra A. Arnout, Khalid J. Jasim and Mohammed A. Mahmood

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Boshra A. Arnout, Khalid J. Jasim, Mohammed A. Mahmood. The Difference of Two Application Methods (Manual and Electronic) and Their Effect on the Personality Metrics Psychometric Properties: A Structural Equation Model. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp 5-15. http://pubs.sciepub.com/rpbs/7/1/2
MLA Style
Arnout, Boshra A., Khalid J. Jasim, and Mohammed A. Mahmood. "The Difference of Two Application Methods (Manual and Electronic) and Their Effect on the Personality Metrics Psychometric Properties: A Structural Equation Model." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 7.1 (2019): 5-15.
APA Style
Arnout, B. A. , Jasim, K. J. , & Mahmood, M. A. (2019). The Difference of Two Application Methods (Manual and Electronic) and Their Effect on the Personality Metrics Psychometric Properties: A Structural Equation Model. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 5-15.
Chicago Style
Arnout, Boshra A., Khalid J. Jasim, and Mohammed A. Mahmood. "The Difference of Two Application Methods (Manual and Electronic) and Their Effect on the Personality Metrics Psychometric Properties: A Structural Equation Model." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 7, no. 1 (2019): 5-15.
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  • Table 4. Correlation coefficients of each items with the total score of the scale in electronic application
[1]  Pedhazur, E. (1982). Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research: Explanation and Prediction. 2nd ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
In article      
 
[2]  Al-Sharifain, N., and Al-Sharifain, A. (2011). Developing the Shyness Scale of University Students, Journal of the Union of Arab Universities for Education and Psychology, 9(4), 124-161.
In article      
 
[3]  Attia, M. (2010). Scientific research in education, methods, tools, statistical methods. Amman: Dar Al-Manahj for publication and distribution.
In article      
 
[4]  Abdul Rahman, A. and Zangana, A. (2008). The conceptual and theoretical foundations in the curricula of humanities and applied sciences. Baghdad: House of Books and Documents.
In article      
 
[5]  Odeh, A. and Malkawi, F. (1987). Fundamentals of Scientific Research in Education and Humanities - Elements, Methods and Statistical Analysis of its Data. Jordan: Al-Manar Library for Publishing and Distribution.
In article      
 
[6]  Helmistadter, G. (1966). Principles of psychological measurement. London: Methuen Co.
In article      
 
[7]  Amin, A. (1996). Religious Commitment and its Relationship with Psychological Compatibility among Baghdad University Students. MA Thesis (Unpublished), University of Baghdad, College of Arts.
In article      
 
[8]  Lord, F. (1960). Psychological measurement. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
In article      
 
[9]  Anastasia, A. (1976). Psychological Testing. New York: 6th ed, Macmillan publishing Inc.
In article      
 
[10]  Taylor, C. (2008). Health Psychology, Translated by Brik et al. Amman Dar Al-Hamed for Publishing and Distribution.
In article      
 
[11]  Abu Hatab, F. (1987). Mental abilities, the Cairo: Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop.
In article      
 
[12]  Allam, S. (2000). Analysis of psychological, educational and social research data, 3rd ed. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi.
In article      
 
[13]  Abdul Khaliq, A. (2005). The measurement of personality. Alexandria: Dar ALmarifa Aljameia.
In article      
 
[14]  Al-Masri, M. (1999). The Effect of Item Direction and its Formulation Method on Psychometric Properties of the Personality Scale and the Mental Health Level of the Respondent. Not published PhD thesis, Baghdad University.
In article      
 
[15]  Ahmed, M. (1981). Psychological and Educational Measurement, 4th ed . Cairo: Arab Renaissance Library.
In article      
 
[16]  Al-Omari, Hassan (2011). The effect of the order of the paragraphs in the psychological scales on the internal homogeneity of the scale and the properties of paragraphs. Damascus University Journal, 27 (3), 111-129.
In article      
 
[17]  Alwalidi, A. and Arnout, B. (2016). Development of the power of Personality Scale, King Khalid University Journal of Educational Sciences, 27, 99-121.
In article