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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Environmental Impact Assessment of Phulbari Coal Based Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh

Dewan Md. Shah Alam, Md. Redwanur Rahman
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2019, 3(2), 34-54. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-3-2-1
Received May 10, 2019; Revised June 21, 2019; Accepted July 12, 2019

Abstract

Coal fired power plants produce electricity for the nation and for the countrymen, but they also produce more hazardous air emission than any often industrial pollution sources and contain heavy-metals, leading to acid rain, toxic in the environment. Temperature, pH, EC and DO were analyzed from water in the surrounding area of coal based thermal plant. Element of water such as Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn were standard level; Hg are not detected, Chromium in three years (2014-2016) 0.0405, 0.0884, and 0.0152mg/L, Cadmium in three years 0.07, 0.08 and 0.15mg/L; Nickel in water in three years 0.19, 0.18, and 0.3mg/L, Lead in three years 0.114, 0.344 and 0.021mg/L higher than standard level respectively. Element of soil such as Si, Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Sr and Pb are 88.479, 4.25, 0.60, 4.40, 2.94, 0.01, 0.17, 0.08, 0.06, 0.03% respectively and Hg, Cd, As, Mg are not detected. Fly Ash and Bottom Ash were analyzed, element of a fly ash such as Si, Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Sr and Pb are 69.627, 20.027, 4.011, 3.38, 6.35, 0.014, 0.0677, 0.03, 0.0756, 0.155 and 0.0686% respectively. Exhaust Gas Emission were analyzed, NOx, SOx, COx, O2 and Dust are 169.24, 225.28, 7.14, 5.91 and 98.46 μg/Nm3 respectively. The situation is also posing a threat to the existence of fish, species, aquatic resources and birds of the area as most of the ponds in the area. Many ponds, khal and small canals of the affected area became valuable for fish and birds. In this area it was found that fly ash, bottom ash, waste water, SOx, NOx, COx etc. which effects on human health, employees, agriculture, water, land, soil, biota and environment. The study illustrated that the waste water in the power plant and fly ash and bottom ash are threat to both human health and environment. As soon as possible mitigated these and fly ash-bottom ash disposal properly.

1. Introduction

The baseline environmental conditions around the thermal power plants for various environmental attributes, viz., physical, biological and socio-economic within the 10 km radial zones. Topography, soil, water, meteorology, air, noise and land constitute are the physical environment; whereas flora and fauna constitute are the biological environment.

Most of the development projects produce impacts on or changes in the state of natural environment. Of which some are positive and some are negative. Similarly, some positive and negative impacts have been identified for the Coal Based Power Plant Project. 1 guidelines for industries, 2) environmental assessment guidelines for Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) guidelines were followed during impact assessment. Screening and scoping were used to determine the environmental issues and impacts for Coal fired Power Plant Project and identified as IECs. These issues and impacts had been evaluated in terms of distribution, quantity, quality and seasonality, ecological and socio-economic importance.

Bangladesh is the most densely populated and agricultural nation in the world. Coal Based Thermal Power Plant falls under the red category (Category D). Coal fired power plants are the largest human caused source of Sulfer dioxide (SO2) a pollutant gas that contributes to the production of acid rain and causes significant health problem 3. Thermal pollution from coal plants is the degradation of water quality by power plants 4. To mitigate the prevailing crisis of electricity demand as well as to achieve the desirable overall development of the country.

Water pollution from coal fired plant is negative health and environmental effect. Power generation has been estimated to be second only to agriculture in being the largest domestic user of water 5. So the study will mainly deal with an environmental impacts coal based thermal power plants. The researcher is intended to explore environmental impacts and finally showed the possible suggestion to minimize the impacts. Create a great attention of many researchers from long since. A very little information is available in our country. The present study has aimed to focus on the characterization of the coal fired power plants untreated effluents and assessing the possible impacts of untreated effluents on soil, water and air in the proximately of the adjacent area.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

Coal based thermal power plants, Fulbari (Barapukuria), Dinajpur, Bangladesh is the first coal fired power plants. This have an easy accessible from the main town (Figure 1). This field is also well communicated by bus, train and other vehicles.

2.2. Physical Environment of the Power Plant Area

The climate in Bangladesh is divided into three seasons: Summer from March to June with high temperature and high humidity, the monsoon season from June to October with high winds and winter from October to March with low temperatures and low precipitation.

The temperature is January is 19-21°C, and then gradually rises toward April to 28-29°C. The high temperature of 27-29°C continue from April to October, which it is a little lower from July to October compared to April to June. The temperature is in decline in November and December, and the average temperature in December is 21-23°C.

2.3. About Barapukuria Coal Based Thermal Power Plant

Barapukuria coal based thermal power plants site is located in flat paddy land of the north-western corner of Bangladesh at about 45km east of the district headquarters of Dinajpur, 20km east from the border of India. The coal field has a proved area of about 5.25 sq km. In addition, the field is suggested to have possible extension for 1 to 1.5 sq km area to the south (Figure 1).

Barapukuria coal fired power plants field has been operating officially since 2004, near the coal mine project with a coal reserve of 390 Million Tones. The yearly production is 1 million tons; out of which 65% is supplied to the Barapukuria Coal fired Thermal Power Plants.

Barapukuria Thermal Power Plants (BTPP) is the only coal based power plant in Bangladesh. It consists of two 125 MW units with an installed capacity of 250 MW.

Estimated energy from the project is equivalent to 53 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) of natural gas; more than threefold of gas reserves of the country. So, a new dimension is added to the economy of Bangladesh, regarded as coalmine industry. At Barapukuria, itself has the capacity to extract 3,333 tons of coal per day and can be used for electrical power generation (Figure 2 & Figure 3).

2.4. Primary Data

The primary data are those, which are collected a fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original character.

2.5. Secondary Data

The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process and this data collection from various publications and literature reviews, Journal, Article, book and internet.

2.6. Sampling Method

The research was studied in 14 sample stations of each study area (Dudhipur, Usufpur, Sherpur, Talipara, Bhabanipur, Pirujpur, Ramvadrapur etc.). Monthly sampling was carried out and air, water, soil and biological samples were studied in the field and laboratory. Water, Soil, Fly ash and Bottom Ash and other environmental sample were analyzed in the laboratory of Ecology and Biodiversity Research Lab., Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi and Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) in the Central Science Lab of University of Rajshahi.

Secondary data were collected from published documents and different government offices. All data were analyzed and potential environmental impacts were identified and calculated by using standard tools and methodologies.

The sources of information for the scoping process were: Field visits and environmental survey; Collected data from (Dudhipur, Usufpur, Sherpur, Talipara, Bhabanipur, Pirujpur etc.). Several time held on meeting with chairmen, members, local people, government officials, teachers, social workers.

Prediction of environmental impacts is an important part of impact assessment study as it provides quantitative information related to projection of possible environmental consequences from the project well in advance. Several mathematical and statistical techniques and methodologies are available for predicting impact from any proposed developmental projects on the surrounding physico-chemical, ecological and socio-economic components of environment.

Household surveys were 384 household heads as well as Focus Group Discussing (FGD). The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) were observed on topography, land use, flood, river erosion, drainage congestion, surface water pollution, groundwater table depletion, groundwater pollution, loss of wetlands, air pollution, noise pollution, loss of habitats and biodiversity, loss of capture fisheries and agriculture, human population, literacy, status of women, water supply, sanitation, electricity and telephone facilities, health services, human diseases, solid waste, urbanization, industrialization, employment, business opportunity, housing, transportation, markets and bazaars, traffic congestion, fire hazard and tourism in the study area.

2.7. Impact Assessment Matrix

The impact assessment matrix is the potential impacts of coal based power plant of Barapukuria. The assessment matrix was done in consultation with multi-disciplinary team members. When an impact could not be quantified, qualitative judgment was used based on professional experience. The scoring was done within a 21 point score scale ranging from –1 to –10 for negative impacts and +1 to +10 for positive impacts while “0” was used for no impact (neutral impact).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Population

Total population is 151339; male 78803, female 73136, Muslim 126044, Hindu 20827, Buddhist 2335, Christian 63 and others 2670 6 and (Figure 4). The total population 176023 (both sex); male 88984, female 87039, Urban 34786, Rural 141237. The sex ratio of the upzila is 102 in 2011 as against 108 in 2001 7

In the study area (Figure 4) about 4% to 5% population were increased from questionnaires. Some people migrates another to district for job searches.

3.2. Literacy Rate

Average literacy rates are 31.7%, male 39.0%, female 23.8% 8. Average literacy rates are 52.6% (both), male 54.6% and female 50.5% 7). The literacy rate of the area is average although the female literacy rate was found to be low (Table 1).

The Table 1 show that 36.5%, 37.0%, 19.5%, 4.0% and 3.0% respondent having below SSC, HSC, Degree and Maters degree respectively in this areas are respectively. After power plant installed as against 37.5, 37.5, 19, 04% and 02% in the village before power plant installed. Maximum 37.0% respondent of after power plant having SSC level and maximum 37.5% respondent of before power plant installed, villages were found having below SSC and SSC level education. A few numbers of higher education respondents 3.0% having master degree after power plant installed and 02% in the before power plant under the study 36.5% respondent after power plant installed and 37.5% respondent of before power plant installed, village were remaining below S.S.C level of education.

3.3. Occupation

Agriculture 41.65%, Agricultural labor 31.07% wage laborer 1.97, industry 1.44, commerce 11.32, transport 1.6, service 4.54, others 6.41% were found in the study areas reported by 8. Agriculture 68.83%, non-agricultural labour 2.98%, industry 0.9%, commerce 12.41%, transport and communication 3.73%, service 5.55%, construction 0.65%, religions others 0.2, rent and remittance 0.17%, others 4.58% were reported by 7.

A household survey over 384 household heads were response their occupation. Table 2 shows that 50, 25, 2%, 1, 7, 4, 5, 0.5, 0.5 and 5% having Agriculture, Agriculture labor, Wages labor, Industry labor, Commerce, Transport, Service, Construction, Religions and others in this areas after power plant installed as against 45, 22.5, 5, 2, 7.5, 2.5, 4, 2, 2.5 and 7% engaged several occupation before power plants installed respectively.

Maximum 50% of engaged after power plant installed and maximum 45% respondents engaged in agriculture before power plant installed. Agriculture labour increased 2.5% after power plant, transport labour increased 1.5% and service holder increased 1% and wages labour 3%, industry labour 1%, commerce 0.5%, construction labour 1.5% religions service holder 2% and other 2% decreased after power plant installed (Table 2). The occupational structure in both the power plant site area and study region has predominance of the primary sector with majority of the population depending on agriculture for their livelihood. In this study area, agriculture and agriculture labour and transport occupation are increased.

3.4. Poverty in the Power Plants Areas People

In Bangladesh, almost 40% people live under upper poverty line. The power station project may change the poverty status through income generation, communication development and improved health facilities. In contrast, land acquisition may change the economic condition of the affected person. Hence, this has been selected on an IEC to assess the potential impacts. According to 9, the incidence of poverty in national, urban and rural areas were 31.5, 21.3 and 35.2% respectively, Upper Poverty Line (UPL) is 31.5% in 2010 and 24.8% in 2015; 17.6% lower poverty line (LPL) in 2010; and 12.9% in 2015. Poverty in Bangladesh national, urban and rural is 56.7, 42.8 and 58.8 in 1992, same as 50.1, 27.8, and 34.5 in 1996, 48.9, 35.2, and 52.3 in 2000; 40, 28, and 43.8 in 2005; and 31.5, 21.3 and 35.2% in 2010 respectively 9.

From the study areas over 384 household heads explained their poverty. The above Table 3 shows that poverty increase very high 5%, high 4%, medium 3.5%, low 20%, very low 35% and no comments 32.5% of the respondents in this areas after power plant installed and poverty decreased very high 2%, high 1.5%, medium 4% low 30%, very low 22.5% and others 40% no comments respectively.

Land acquisition means permanents loss of landowner. Some villager said a few paternal lands cultivated. They are livelihood status hand to month but all land acquisition for the development of power sector as a result permanent loss of land and for this reason poverty increased very high. In the study areas under poverty line very high increase 3% high level 2.5% increase and very low 12.5% increase against before power plant for land acquisition.

3.5. Land Ownership in the of Power Plant Areas

Land ownership landless 35, small 28 medium 35 and rich 2% were published by 8. Agricultural land ownership 50.29%, landless 49.71% agricultural landowner: Urban 44.41% and rural 51.53% were observed by 6. The project areas are mainly fertile for agriculture. The power situation of the villages in the study area is very poor. The thermal power plant will definitely improve in the adjoining village. The land environment would be impacted due to the demolition, construction related activities such as excavation of earth and earthwork. Land may also get contaminated around construction site, machine, maintenance area, material storage, all these impacts and will be of temporary nature. Land ownership day by day decrease and as well as also agricultural land decreased.

A household survey targeting over 384 household heads as well as discussing land ownership. The Table 4 shows that 39, 15, 42 and 4% having landless, small, medium and rich in this study area after power plant installed as against 32, 28, 28, 38 and 2% in the areas before power plant installed respectively (Table 4). Maximum 42% medium after power plant installed and maximum 38% medium before power plant installed. Landless 7%, medium 4% and rich 2% increased after power plant installed and small 13% increased before power plant installed. Land ownership and agricultural land day by day decreased.

3.6. Source of Drinking Water

Sources of drinking water mainly Tube-well 94.67%, tap 0.51%, pond 0.2% and others 4.62% 6. In Fulbari Upazila, 97.4% general households get the facility of drinking water from tube-well, 1.3% from tap and the remaining 1.3% household get water from other sources 2011.

The Table 5 shows that 96% general households get facilities of drinking water from tube-well and other 4% gets from other after power plant installed.

3.7. Sanitation Status in the Power Plant Area

Total dwelling household 24658, source of drinking water tap 80, tube-well 21349, well 2968, pond 103, cannel or river 156 8). 37.8% general household use. Fulbari upazila, 53.6% general household use sanitary latrine, 26.8%, non-sanitary latrine and the remaining 19.6% have not toilet facility 7. Fulbari upazila, it was found that 60.6% general household use sanitary latrine 24.8% non-sanitary latrine and the remaining 12.6% have not toilet facility. The sanitary system was developing day by day in the project area.

The Table 6 shows that 55% general household used sanitary, chacha 22%, sanitary, 19% have not toilet facility.

3.8. Social Safety Nets around the Power Plant Areas

From the field, it has been observed that a large areas drinking water shortage, satisfaction to good communication system, employment opportunity increased, resolve the social environments conflict. Go and NGOs interventions to more the problem. Overall social safety of the power plant areas day by day increased.

In our present investigations that there were many indicators social safety net in the study areas, majority respondent state that income poverty percent 18 and 14 are before power plant installed and after power plant installed respectively. Secondary enrolment percent 50 before power plant installed and 55 in after power plant installed, infarct mortally rate (per 1000 life birth) 70% before power plant installed and 60% after power plant installed. Internal mortality rate (per 100,000 life birth) 175% before power plant installed and 170% after power plant installed. life expectancy (years), male is 70 (years) and female is 72 (years) before power plant installed and male is 72 (years) after power plant installed; children under weight percent 1.5 and 1 in the study areas before power plant installed and after power plant installed respectively.

Primary education stipend program percent 92 and 95 are before power plant and after power plant installed respectively; Female secondary stipend program percent 60 and 62 are before power plant and after power plant installed respectively; village group development program percent 18 and 22 before power plant insulated and after power plant installed respectively. Food for Work Program (FWP) percent 18 and are before power plant installed and after power plant installed respectively; Rural maintenance program (RMP) percent 15 and 11 is before power plant installed and after power plant installed respectively; Vulnerable group development (VGD) percent 15 after power plant installed and 10 percent before power plant instant; Upper poverty line percent 30 after power plant installed and 28 before power plant installed; Lower poverty line percent 12 after power plant installed and 15 percent before power plant installed; Wage employment percent 28 after power plant installed and 22 percent before power plant installed; Infrastructure development percent increased 27 after power plant installed and 23 percent before power plant installed; Emergency fund for disaster risk mitigation percent after power plant installed and before power plant installed; Expenditure increased percent 30 after power plant installed and 20 percent before power plant installed; Old age allowance percent 26 after power plant installed and 21 percent before power plant installed; Allowance for the widowed dissipated percent 15 after power plant installed and 12 percent before power plant installed respectively; Loan from bank in the study areas 3 percent after power plant installed and 2 percent before power plant installed; Free loan from friend percent 5 after power plant installed and 4 percent before power plant installed ; Free loan from relative percent 3 after power plant installed and 2 percent before power plant installed. After power plant installed social safety net day by day increased.

3.9. Income from Power Plant Areas People

Agriculture 41.65, agriculture labours 31.07, wage labourer 1.97, industry 1.44, commerce 11.32, transport 1.6, service 4.54, others 6.41% 9. Main sources of income Agriculture 68.83, non-agricultural labor 2.98, industry 0.9, commerce 12.41, transport and communication 3.73, service 5.55, construction 0.65, religious service 0.2, rent and remittance 0.17 and others 4.58% 7. Employment in these sector will be permanent based on own initiatives and interest of the individual. Involvement of unskilled requirement will be continuous basis depending on the requirement of contractor at site. A major part of this labour force will be hired from local village. The prevailing status of socio-economic aspect comprises of demographic profile, infrastructure, socio-economic condition, literacy level and lifestyle etc. The proposed project will definitely have some positive impact on the socio-economic environment of the people of surrounding villages experimenting development in the study area. The power plant will definitely have some positive impacts on socio-economic environment of the people of the surrounding villages in the study area. Moreover, this research believes that land acquisition to affected people may loss their income opportunity.

A household survey targeting over 384 household heads as well as discussing about average income per month. The Table 7 shows that the highest income after power plant installed respondent 28% was found in the income range of 12001-14000 as against 28% were found in the income range from 10001-12000 in the respondent of before power plant installed under the study. Though the highest income was found villager after power plant installed, it was absent in the respondent of the village before power plant installed.

The maximum 29% respondents of villagers after power plant installed remaining in the expenditure range of 12001-14000 as against 22.5% of before power plant installed villagers under the study area.

3.10. Population Displacement in the Power Plant Area

The Phulbari coalmine and coal based thermal power plant would destroy 14660 acres (around 23 sq. miles) of land, 80% of which fertile farmland. Coal based thermal power plant 5.23 acres. It would physically displace as many as 220000 people, mostly farming and indigenous households. The agricultural land and other vital resources that affected households rely or would not be replaced and most households will become landless. The lives and livelihood transform productive farmers in to mining and coal thermal power plants surrounding landless people with no clear prospects for other livelihood or employment. In fact, the most of people around the area deemed that they have to lost their in herniated land and social status. Ultimately, it affected people (Coalmine area) migration to different city area or upazila level.

3.11. Workers Safety in the Power Plant

Plant operation will involve working on high height, near rotary machine and parts, high voltage, yards, storage, handling and use of hazardous materials like heavy fuel, coal, chemicals etc. These essential components of the power plant may cause different types of hazards for example fire, explosion, falls, toxic exposure etc. And the consequences of these hazards may be health injury, organ disease outbreak, lose of health, loss of life etc. Employees carrying contagious disease may aggravate health problems. The health status of the employees is also important which may affect the working efficiency. Hazard assessment and job safety analysis are very much essential for ensuring the safe working place for the employees. Therefore safety measures dealing with these potential hazards are of vital importance. In the scope of EIA study the occupational hazards assessment has been carried out based on finding of the IEE and experience of existing only coal based thermal power plant in Barapukuria. In the study, plant workers safety strictly maintain but accident does not come to alarm. Fly ash is now major problem, the workers affected from this and they will suffer varieties diseases such as skin diseases, air borne disease. All workers in the power plant claim 10% fly ash incentive per month in their wages and salaries from power development board. Overall workers safety in the power plant is good.

3.12. Impact on Occupational Health

In contradiction to coals for coal fly ash there is no exposure limit for occupational health. If a certain substance has to be judged on its toxic properties, various toxicological tests have to be performed. A great deal of research has been conducted into the health implications of working with coal fly ash produced at 100% coal firing. Data from cell test systems and animal experiments indicate that normal levels of exposure (i.e. exposure to levels below the limit for nuisance inhalable substances) are not likely to have any significant health implications. The applied research indicates that there is no reason to regard coal fly ash dust as harmful. No increased health risk will be caught under circumstances, which generally meet the requirements laid down for nuisance dust in the occupational environment 10.

The maximum 16% respondent says hazardous material handle carefully all over occupational health is good, but fly ash management system is very poor. Respiration problem create by fly ash. Occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards; the health of the workers has several determinants, including risk factors at the workplace leading to cancers, accidents, musculoskeletal diseases, hearing loss, circulatory diseases, stress related disorders and communicable diseases and others. Employment and working conditions in the formal or informal economy embrace other important determinant, including working hours, salary, workplace, polices concerning maternity leave, health promotion and protection provisions etc.

3.13. Forest and Forest Type in Fulbari Upazila

Fulbari Upazila total area 228.49, land area 227.12sq.km and rest off reserve forest 1.37sq.km 11. Climate change in Bangladesh could adversely affect forest ecosystems, biodiversity and even mitigation potential of forests. If forest cover decline continues, then the potential for forest to sequester carbon will be reduced over time. Thus Bangladesh must address the challenge of climate changes, vulnerability to extreme clime risks and depleting forest resources and carbon sink. The area under forest in Bangladesh is estimated to be 2.6 million hector corresponding to 17.5% of the geographic area of the country. This includes 1.6 million hector of forest department controlled land and 0.73 million hector unclassified. The forest sector accounts for about 3% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 2% of the lab our force. The role of forest in poverty alleviation is also critical. There are at least 19 million people depending on forest directly for their livelihoods in Bangladesh. Forest is the reservoirs of both plant and animal biodiversity. The average ecosystem carbon density in Bangladesh forest is estimate to be 175.5 tones per hector.

In Dinajpur district total area 164400 acre, forest 26000 acre, not available cultivation area 356000 acre, cultivable waste area 14000 acre, current fallow area 8000 acre and single cropped area 133000 acre. Fulbari Upazila wise total area of forest in 2010-11 the reserve forest 215.77 acres 11. In the study areas, for development of power generation causes of deforestation and forest degradation and adversely, impacts on forest.

3.14. Access of Electricity in Fulbari Upazila

All the 7 union of upazila have brought under the Rural Electrification Program. However, a total of 42.2% general household reported to have electricity connection in the entire upazila in 2011 as against 22.9% in 2001. Rural Electrification in 2011 according to village 115, residential house holding 12700, large scale industries 4, small scale industries 147, Deep tube-well 233, power pump 450, commercial 800 11. From the field, all the 7 union of upazila electricity condition very good.

3.15. Impacts on Topography in Around of Study Areas

The basic purpose of land use pattern and classification in an EIA study to identify the manner in which different parts of land in an area are being utilized or not utilized. Remote sensing data provides reliable accurate baseline information for land use mapping as it is a rapid method of acquiring up to data information of over a large geological area, the area contains deferent types of land over and land use, such as agricultural land, human settlement, vegetation shrubs water bodies, low-medium and high land. Areas of high, medium and low land are 17080, 30067 and 366 acres, total land 47513 acres 12. The top soil from the productive land is shall be preserved and reused for plantation purposed. The loss of Phulbari’s agricultural lands undermines effects to overcome hunger in a nation in which nearly half of all people do not have enough food to eat. The project would also reduce water supplies by lowering the water table throughout a vast region. So change the land form in this area.

A household survey 384 respondent focusing land form in this areas, show that 5% respondent said low land acquisition for power sector development, 8% respondent said high land use for power plant, 12% and 18% respondent said agricultural land acquisition for power plant construction, road construction and waste water discharging way such as canal construction. 13% human activities can indirectly affect such as flood and bush fires, which is change the land form. 11% respondent said land degradation by induced or aggravated in human activities and 19% respondent said agricultural land affected by indirectly or directly for the development power sector.

Before power plant installation 10% respondent said agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices, 12% respondent said overcutting of vegetation occurs when people cut forests, woodlands and shrub land for own home construction or others purposed, 13% respondent said land form changes or degradation population pressure, 15% land system undergoes change due to national forces, humans intervention and landscape to degradation, 13% respondent said soil erosion changes land form, 14% respondent said land form changes for soil contamination, soil acidification loss of soil carbon, pond dragging and new pond forming for fish cultivation, 14% respondent said flood affecting, natural disaster, causes land degradation. Anyhow human activities, natural and others cause degradation land.

3.16. Impact on Agricultural Land and Agro-based Resources in the Coal Mine Area

In the study area, the farmer loss of this land has been compensated financially. Most of the affected areas were rich agriculture resources. Fly ash accumulation is more and storage creates problem in the power producing units using coal as fuel. Use of coal fly ash in agriculture is one way of disposal of fly ash and at the same time it improves the yield of variety of agricultural crops and physico-chemical properties of soil fly ash and bottom ash analysis in laboratories the element bottom ash and fly ash such as Si (69.62, 69.55 and 6916%), Aluminum, Al (20.02, 14.35, 16.82%), Ti (4.01, 2.09 and 2.989%), Mn (3.38, 17.31 and 4.55%), Ni (0.01), Cu (0.05, 0.06 and 0.06%), Zn (0.009, 0.02 and 0.03%), Sn (0.02, 0.07 and 0.03%), Sr (0.12, 0.10 and 0.10%) Pb (0.06, 0.04 and 0.01%) respectively was found in the power plants area for three years.

12 described FA as mainly being composed of Si, Al and Fe, with a major proportion of Ca, K, Na, Ti along with other trace elements, Coal FA consists of SiO (49-67%), Al2O3 (16-29%) Fe2O3 (4-10%); CaO (1-4%); Mgo (0.2-2%) and SO3 (0.1-2%). The phycio-chemical and biological responses of soil that has been amended with FA soil properties physical pH decrease; Soil Properties such as aggregate stability increase; Soil properties water holding capacity increase 13; Soil properties in porosity decrease 14; Soil properties in toxic element increase 15. Soil properties in Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn is increase 16; soil properties in organic carbon or organic matter is decrease 15; Soil properties in biological microbial activity is decrease 17; soil properties in biological microbial activity is increase 18. Soil properties in leach ability pesticides are decrease; soil properties in heavy metal in increase 19 so fly ash and bottom ash contaminate on agriculture.

Number of agriculture holding by tenure total farming household 23868, owner holding 25147 and owner cum tenant 12242, tenant holding 2334 7. Agriculture is the primary occupation of the people in the study area. Barapukuria is a major producer of paddy (rice). But plant established to decrease crops for agricultural land acquisition. In the study areas there are two season such as winter season and summer season. In winter season vegetable was found Rabi Bringal, Rabi pumpkin, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Tomato, Radish, Beans, Carrot, Palong Sak, Lalsak, Lausak. In summer season vegetable was found Kakrole, Pumpkin, Bringal, Ladies Finger, Jhinga, Karala, Green Banana, Arum, Chalkumra, Cucumber, Khirai, Puisak, Chichinga, Danta, Barbati, Kachur Lati, Shajna, Khacha Papya, in this areas fruit was found such as Mango, Jackfruit, Papya, Lichi, Guava, Lemon, Tetul, Jamrul, Green Coconut, Kamranga, Jalpai, Amra etc. main fruit.

In this study areas crop calendar such as Auspaddy (local broad cast, HYV transplant, HYV broad casts). Aman paddy (local transplant, local Broad cast, HYV, transplant) Boro paddy (Local, HYV, Hybrid), wheat, maize (Rabi), Jower, Kaon, Cheena, Barley, Potato, Sweet Potato, Jute (White, Tossa), Cotton (Kharit, Rabi) Groundemul (Kharif, Rabi), Tell (Kharif, Rabi), linseed, sunflower, Arhar (Pigeon Pea), Masuri (Lentil), Khshari, Chickpea (Chola), Mator (Field Pea), Ginger, Turmaric, Onion, Garlic Coriander Seed, Chillies, Suger Cane, Tobacco, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Oalkapi, Chinese Cabbage, Tomato. Radish, Carnot, Shalgom (Turaip), Beet, Lettuce, Bringal, Ucheheya, Kakor, Beans, Patal, Water melon, Melon, Khurmug, Pine apple, Banana etc. were recorded in the surrounding areas of coal based thermal power plant.

The Figure 5 shows that the maximum 22.5% of these areas after power plants installed against 18% says there is no impact on agriculture by power plants. But acquisition of agricultural land for the development of government in power sector decreased agricultural land.

3.17. Impacts on Ambient Air in the Study Area (Figure 6 and Figure 7)

Dinajpur district annual varies from highest temperature 33.5°C and lowest 10.5°C. The annual rainfall was 2536mm. The coal combustion process will produce maximum 15% ash form the total coal inflow. Ash residue left from coal combustion process will be managed with efficient ash collecting, conveying and storage system. The total process may include Bottom ash collector, fly ash collector (filtered by ESP with the efficiency of 99.9%). Major emission from the coal fired power plant will be SOx and NOx. Emission depends on coal quantity and quality, coal to be used will have low sulfur content (average 0.5%). Ambient air may be changes when this areas polluted by thermal power plants. The ritual monsoon comes late or before.

3.18. Impacts on Noise Pollution in the Power Plant Area

Noise beyond a certain level has on adverse impact on human being and their environment. It intense enough it can damage hearing or is otherwise annoying. Noise can also disturb natural wildlife and their ecosystem system. The impact of noise it left on surrounding areas, during industrial activities and vehicular movement during peak hours. The main sources of noise and vibration during operation will be: delivery of equipment and raw materials by trucks, transfer of coal through convey line and unloading operation of generators and turbine inside the power house, operation of various pumps, fans and motors.

The baseline assessment of prevailing noise levels in and around the study area is important parameters. Impact of noise sources on environment depend upon the sources. Noise levels are more analyzing in the night time particularly in the residential area. The environmental impacts of noise can have several effects varying from hearing loss to an annoyance depending on loudness of noise levels. Noise levels impacts on forest birds, avian-fauna are migrates to others.

In our present observation, noise level of the project area will be increased during construction and operation phase. Although there is no specific noise sensitive flora has been recorded near to project site but avifauna and small animals can be affected by increased noise level. In such cases they can change their habitat.

3.19. Impacts on Wetland by the Coal Based Thermal Power Plant Area

The study of water environment aspect in the ecosystem is to identify sensitive issues, and to take preventive measures by maintaining ecological homeostasis. General water as well as surface water sample was collected from different sources within the study area for impact assessment study. Important physical and chemical parameters were analyzed for establishing the water quality status of the study area. Within a span of about eight months, the underground water-table has apparently depleted by three times, villagers said. As a result, almost all the tube-wells in these 15 villages have become completely dry, creating an acute crisis of drinking water.

Villagers are now being compelled to use polluted and unfiltered water for drinking, cooking, cleaning and other purposes while the authorities are yet to take any remedial action. Lowering of groundwater level now affects nearly 35,000 acres of land of the 15 villages, and the water level is going down day by day, much to the distress of the farmers, sources at the Department of Agriculture Extension said.

To meet the huge water demand for the plant, the authorities installed 24 deep-tube-well pumps with 35 to 40KW horsepower sinking 350 to 420 feet pipes at West Sherpur village near the Power Plant, according to the project outline. To produce power, each of the two 125 MW units of the power plant demand 550 tons of water per hour by running eight pumps round-the-clock, plant sources said.

Locals of Sherpur, Dudipukur, Jaruadanga, Tuniapara, Ramvadrapur, Chakbir, Muzidpur, Bagra, Sultanpur, Hossainpur, Telipara, Pacheempara, Rampura and Yousufpur villages alleged that the water levels fell since the plant went into operation in February this year. Locals and power plant officials agree that excessive pumping of water is the reason for the depletion of the underground water level in the 15 villages for the last 8 to 10 months. People of these villages used underground water by sinking hand tube well pipes to the depth of 60 to 65 feet a year ago. But now, they need to sink pipes to a depth of 150 to 200 feet to reach the underground water table, said the locals.

In our case study, Nur Nahar, a housewife of Yosufpur village, she said that as the local hand tube wells have gone dry, she has to go two kilometers from her house every day to bring safe water. The plant officials, however, said the water is polluted with chemicals. "The drain's water is unfit for irrigation purposes, even for consumption by livestock and humans," said an official. The unplanned use of water is harming nature in many other ways that may not be directly observable, said local Union Parishad Chairman Anwar Hossain. Tilai River is the potential water body present within the present study zone along with various village ponds. In order to assess the biodiversity and understand impacts on it, two aquatic bodies have been selected for aquatic ecology: Tilai river and surrounding ponds in power plant. Fish sample are collected by experimental fishing through cast net and gell net and information also gathered from local shops, huts and village markets.

During operation activities of power plants may cause change in the surface water and ground water quality and potential, little drawdown of local ground water table may be nautical in dry season due to withdrawing of ground water. Power plant area, lowest ground water table occurs during summer season. Therefore, it is necessary to initiate proper management plan for limiting the use of ground water during dry season. However, the problem of this phenomenon will be short term and consequences of this problem might be significant as there are no hand pump tube well activities within 2 km of the power plant. Toxic metal in coal dust and fly ash may contaminate surface water.

The Figure 8 show that the maximum 24% respondents said power plant installed surface water (pond, river, khal, canal etc) contaminate by fly ash, bottom ash, drainage unfiltered water of the power plant, and also most of the tube-well in summer season have become dry, creating acute crisis drinking water, cooking and cleaning domestic purpose.

3.20. Heavy Metal Impact in Water around the Coal Based Thermal Power Plant Area

Iron (Fe):

The average value of Iron (Fe) was found in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 1.03, 1.09 and 0.79 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Fe was 1.931 is 2014 at coal mine gate submergible pump, in 2015 maximum value was 1.799 at coal mine drain water and in 2016, maximum value was 1.697 mg/L at Dudhipur irrigation field water. The minimum value of Fe was 0.587 in 2014 at Dudhipur titol pump water; in 2015, the minimum value was 0.050 at Ash pond water and, in 2016 the Minimum value of Fe was 0.274 mg/L at ash pond water.

The mean concentration of iron (Fe) in the water was obtained to be 1.02 in 2014; 1.087 in 2015 and 0.794mg/L in 2016.

Manganese (Mn):

The average value of Manganese (Mn) was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.23, 0.22 and 0.24 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Mn was 0.606 mg/L is 2014 at Sherpur pond water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.892 mg/L at west Sherpur (Telipara) Tara Pump water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.491 mg/L at Dudhipur irrigation field water.

Chromium (Cr):

The average value of Chromium (Cr) was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.04, 0.10 and 0.16 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Cr was 0.100mg/L is 2014 at coal mine gate submergible pump, in 2015 maximum value was 0.257 mg/L at Bhabanipur (Natun hat) pond water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.212 mg/L at drain water. The minimum value of Cr was 0.014mg/L in 2014 at Dudhipur irrigation field water; in 2015, the minimum value was 0.074 mg/L at coal mine gate submergible pump water and, in 2016 the Minimum value of Cr was 0.142mg/L at ash pond water.

Cupper (Cu):

The average value of Cupper (Cu) was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.02, 0.01 and 0.01 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Cu was 0.056 mg/L is 2014 at coal mine drain water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.048 mg/L at coal mine drain water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.046mg/L at coal mine drain water. The minimum value of Cu was 0.001 mg/L in 2014 at Sherpur pond water; in 2015, the minimum value was 0.0008 mg/L at Sherpur pond water and, in 2016 the Minimum value of Cu was 0.0007mg/L at Sherpur pond water.

Cadmium (Cd):

The average value of Cadmium (Cd) was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.07, 0.08 and 0.15 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Cd was 0.097mg/L is 2014 at ash pond fresh water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.098 mg/L at ash pond fresh water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.189 mg/L at west Usafpur mosque tape water. The minimum value of Cd was 0.034mg/L in 2014 at Perajpur tube well water; in 2015, the minimum value was 0.067mg/L at west Sherpur (Telipara) tara pump water and, In 2016 the Minimum value of Cd was 0.123mg/L at coal mine gate submergible pump water.

Cd was found in water near thermal power plant 0.0004, 0.00035, and <0.0001 mg/L 20. Average value for trace element in international coals in Cd was 0.01-0.19 mg/kg 21. A research work and stated that the concentration of Cadmium was found to be in the range 23.3 mg/L to 23.8 mg/L in the industrial state of Mumbai, India 22.

Zinc (Zn):

The average value of Zinc (Zn) was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.06, 0.06 and 0.04 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Zn was 0.2634 mg/L is 2014 at Dudhipur Titol pump water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.252 mg/L at Dudhipur Tital pump water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.058mg/L at Dudhipur Titol pump water.

Lead (Pb):

The average value of Lead (Pb) was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.19, 0.36 and 0.10 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Pb was 0.427mg/L is 2014 at Bhabanipur (Natun hat) pond water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.435mg/L at Usufpur mosque tape water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.191mg/L at coal mine gate submergible pump water.

Nickel (Ni):

The average value of Nickel (Ni) was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.19, 0.18 and 0.30 mg/L respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Ni was 0.755 mg/L is 2014 at coal mine drain water, in 2015 maximum value was 0.713 mg/L at coal mine drain water and in 2016, maximum value was 0.779 mg/L at Dudhipur Titol pump water.

3.21. Impacts on Power Plants Areas Soil

Soil type unit, grey flood plain soils and non-calcareous brown, floodplain soil, moped grey, dark grey, Brown flood plain soils and grey terrace soils which characteristics are seasonally wet or shallowly flooded grey floodplain soils on lower ridges and in depressing with moderately well drained looms on higher ridges 11. Soil also contains water, air and living organisms.

Actually more living organisms live in the soil than above it. For general characterization of soil a few random sample from the study area to the depth of about 15 cm may be sufficient. Deeper soils sample may be needed only for the study of soil profile. Broad soil classification in Fulbari upazila total 54977 acre, Doash 15132 and Etel 39845 acre 12.

The top soil from the productive land area shall be preserved and reused for plantation purposes. The land environment would be impacted due to demolition. Studies were made to assess the impact of a thermal power plant located at Phulbari on vegetation and soil in surrounding areas. Pollutant concentration in the area gradually decreased along a belt in the prevailing wind direction and a gradient of structural and functional changes in plants and soil was observed.

The effect of the power plant emissions on soil and eco-physiological characteristics such as pH, organic matter and Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn Sn, Sr, Pb, concentrations in soil leaf injury symptoms number and distribution of plant species, Chlorophyll content in leaves, percentage of photo synthetically active leaf area. There was a relationship between plant responses and changes in the chemical factor of soil and plants due to pollution. Toxic metal or heavy metals contaminate soil heavy metal pollution is a great threat to the environment. These metals are enters to the soil plant environment through anthropogenic sources.

23 stated that the mean trace elements status of Cu, Zn, B, Mo, Co, Cr. and Ni of paddy soils of Bangladesh were 27.0, 68.0, 68.0, 3.3, 58.0, 133.0 and 22 mg kg-1 respectively. 24 carried out a survey to the heavy metal pollution of roadside soils in Bangladesh. Accumulation of Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn in roadside soils along Dhaka-Mymensingh highway, possible due to the intensive traffic of vehicles, on the other hand, sporadic high Zn accumulation was noticed in soils along Dhaka-Aricha, Dhaka-Chittagong and Dhaka-Mymensingh highways, which was ascribed to the industrial discharge.

25 is the pioneer for the detection of maximum number of heavy metals in the soil environment in Bangladesh like Pb, Al, T., Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, Mo, Ag, Th etc. 26 conducted on experiment on total and available trace metals like Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Mo, Ag, Cu, Sn, Sb, Ti, Hg and Ni contents were determined from the representative twenty general soil type of Bangladesh at 0-15 depth. A variable available trace metals contents were recorded from the twenty soils and they are Pb (3.6-90) Cd (0.69-1.00), Cr (42-74), and Mn (26-716mg kg-1). 27 carried out an experimental to determine the status of As and other heavy metals and vegetable of five intensively growing areas of Chapai Nawabgonj, he reported that the mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn in soil were 16.2, 0.26, 4030 and 62.72mg kg-1, respectively.

3.22. Heavy Metal in Soil of the Barapukuria Coal Based Thermal Power Plant Area

Iron (Fe):

The average value of Fe was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 2.66, 2.69, and 2.94% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Fe was 3.702% is 2014 at West side black soil of the plant, in 2015 maximum value was 4.082% at West Sherpur village soil and in 2016, maximum value was 3.978% at Coal mine drain sludge.

Manganese (Mn):

The average value of Mn was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 4.40, 4.03, and 3.98% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Mn was 4.932% is 2014 at West side black soil of the plant, in 2015 maximum value was 4.924% at Sherpur Telipara village soil and in 2016, maximum value was 4.430% at West side black soil of the plant (Table 8).

Chromium (Cr):

Chromium was not detected in soil. The permissible limit, recommended value by environmental quality criteria for soil normal ranges ≤ 0.75 μg/g and toxic level 1.0 μg/g. 28.

Cupper (Cu):

The average value of Cu was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.04, 0.07, and 0.17% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Cu was 0.132% is 2014 at Drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.028% at west sherpur pond soil and in 2016, and maximum value was 0.987% at coal mine drain sludge.

Cadmium (Cd):

The Cadmium was not detected in soil.

Zinc (Zn):

The average value of Zn was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.03, 0.04 and 0.08% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Zn was 0.115% is 2014 at Coal mine drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.090% at west Sherpur pond soil and in 2016, and maximum value was 0.343% at Coal mine drain sludge.

The average value of Pb was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.09, 0.02, and 0.03% respectively) (Table 8). The maximum, value of Pb was 0.259% is 2014 at coal mine drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.033% at Coal mine drain sludge and in 2016, and maximum value was 0.381% at Coal mine drain sludge.

Nickel (Ni):

The average value of Ni was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.01% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Ni was 0.042 is 2014% at coal mine drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.054% at coal mine drain sludge and in 2016, maximum value was 0.054% at west side black soil of the plant.

Mercury (Hg):

Mercury was not detected is soil. Environmental quality criteria for soil normal range (0.005-0.147) μg/g and toxic level (1-3) μg/g. 28. 29 was observed Hg in soil 20.51; 15.64; 14.67; 21.74 and 19.74mg/100g 29.

Arsenic (As):

Arsenic was not detected is soil. Environmental quality criteria for soil normal range (0.01-0.8) μg/g and toxic level (1-4) μg/g. 28.

Aluminum (Al):

The average value of Al was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 4.25, 4.00, and 3.92 % respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Al was 5.536% is 2014 at East Dodhipur village Soil, in 2015 maximum value was 4.850% at Coal mine drain sludge and in 2016, and maximum value was 4.916% at coal mine drain sludge.

Titanium (Ti):

The average value of Ti was 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.59, 0.60, and 0.60 % respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Ti was 0.779% is 2014 at Pushim Side West black soil, in 2015 maximum value was 0.997% at West Sherpur village soil and in 2016, and maximum value was 0.979% at Islampur village soil. The Minimum value of Ti was 0.188% in 2014 at Coal mine drain sludge; in 2015, the minimum value was 0.000% at west sherpur pond woil, in 2016 the Minimum value of Ti was 0.147% at West Sherpur pond soil.

Tin (Sn):

The average value of Sn was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.03, 0.05, and 0.06% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Sn was 0.112% is 2014 at Drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.113% at west Sherpur pond soil and in 2016, maximum value was 0.150% at West side black soil of the plant.

Strontium (Sr):

The average value of Sr was in 2014, 2015 and 2016 are 0.03, 0.02, and 0.03% respectively (Table 8). The maximum, value of Sr was 0.196% is 2014 at coal mine drain sludge, in 2015 maximum value was 0.077% at coal mine drain sludge and in 2016, maximum value was 0.174% at West side black soil of the plant.

3.23. Heavy Metal in Fly ash and Bottom Ash Adjacent Area in the Coal Based Thermal Power Plan

Iron (Fe):

Three years, the average value of iron in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 5.05 and standard deviation is 2.12, when fly ash analyzed iron was 2.60, 6.35, and 6.20% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8). The average value of Iron (Fe) in the bottom ash with was obtained to be 2.46% in 2014; 6.54% in 2015 and 5.55% in 2016. Barapukuria Thermal power plant, Bangladesh. Fly ash analysis result Fe2O3 was found 3.32% Barapukuria thermal power plant, Bangladesh. Fly ash analysis Fe2O3 was found 2.9% 30, 31.

Manganese (Mn):

Three years, the average value of manganese in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 8.42 and standard deviation is 7.72, when fly ash analyzed manganese was 3.39, 17.31, and 4.55% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8). The average value of Manganese (Mn) in the bottom ash with was obtained to be 5.62% in 2014; 4.22% in 2015 and 8.22% in 2016.

Chromium (Cr):

The Chromium was not detected in bottom ash and fly ash.

Cupper (Cu):

Three years, the average value of cupper in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 0.06 and standard deviation is 0.01, when fly ash analyzed cupper was 0.06, 0.07, and 0.06% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8). The average value of Cupper (Cu) in the bottom ash with was obtained to be 0.05% in 2014; 0.06% in 2015 and 0.08% in 2016. These bottom ash in copper value increase soil and water.

Cadmium (Cd):

The Cadmium was not detected in bottom ash and fly ash.

Zinc (Zn)

The Zinc was not detected in bottom ash.

Lead (Pb)

Three years, the average value of lead in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 0.04 and standard deviation is 0.03, when fly ash analyzed lead was 0.07%, 0.04%, and 0.02% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively. The average value of Lead (Pb) in the bottom ash with was obtained to be 0.18% in 2014; 0.02% in 2015 and 0.01% in 2016. These bottom ash in lead, which increase soil and water value and contaminate both. Fly ash contains Pb 40.10 mg/kg 33. Fly ash contain in Pb 26.81 mg/kg 34.

Nickel (Ni):

The Nickel was not detected in bottom ash.

Mercury (Hg):

Mercury was not detected in bottom ash and fly ash. Hg in fly ash was found 7.6, 8.6μg/g and Hg in bottom ash was found 7.6, 8.6μg/g 32.

Arsenic (As):

Arsenic was not detected in bottom ash and fly ash.

Aluminum (Al):

Three years, the average value of aluminum in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 17.07 and standard deviation is 2.84, when fly ash analyzed aluminum was 20.03, 14.35, and 16.83% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively. Al2O3 in fly ash was found 35.6% Al2O3 in fly ash was found 40.10% 30, 31.

Titanium (Ti):

Three years, the average value of titanium in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 3.03 and standard deviation is 0.96, when fly ash analyzed titanium was 4.01, 2.10, and 2.99% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8).

Tin (Sn):

Three years, the average value of tin in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 0.05 and standard deviation is 0.03, when fly ash analyzed tin was 0.03, 0.08, and 0.04% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8). No standard value in fly ash and bottom ash.

Strontium (Sr):

Three years, the average value of strontium in the fly ash 2014, 2015 and 2016 was in 0.12 and standard deviation is 0.03, when fly ash analyzed strontium was 0.16, 0.11, and 0.11% in the year of 2014, 2015 and 2016 are respectively (Table 8). No standard value in fly ash and bottom ash.

3.24. Impacts on faunal Diversity in the Study Area

Dinajpur district had a rich mammalian fauna. Tiger and leopard were widely distributed and other cats like jungle cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) were also very common in the Dinajpur district. Other mammals like Buffalo, Lion (Panthera leo), Swamp deer, Hog deer (Axis porcinus), Badger (Arctonyx collaris), Civiet-cat, Wild boars (Sus scrofo), Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mullata) etc. were also common in this district. But with the passing of time and following the destruction of forest and jungles for cultivation there has a rapid decline of the mammalian fauna especially from the beginning of the 20th century.

In order to the present study, the wild mammals, avifauna, herpeto fauna of the power plant area, a normal systematic transect sampling was done using different strata. Under this sampling a 2-5km long transect walks were carried out in the different location. In addition to the field sampling secondary data and information were also collected through indirect evidences such as calls, sign and trophies of mammals, interviews of local villagers for the presence of various animal species and the forest working plant of the Forest Division. As per the forest working plan of Fulbari forest division, a total of 25 mammalian species are present in the forest division. In the present study, a total of 9 mammalian species were recorded directly or indirectly from the study area. The table shows that the maximum 22.5% respondent says that, wild boar, are threatened in this area after power plant installed and 15% those who are age group 43-48 says that buffalos to see rare and tiger, leopard are extinct.

3.25. Impacts on Wildlife in the Study Area

The government in 1973 formed a law for conservation of the forests. Since the independence, of the wildlife the act has been formulated for the conversation and safety of wildlife to manage the protected areas. In an area of about 1,47,570 sq.km, Bangladesh has about 34 species of amphibians, 109 species of reptiles, 301 species of resident birds, 176 species of migratory birds, 143 species of indigenous birds, 30 species of birds went extirpated, 120 species of mammals, and 3 species of marine mammals. Since most wild animals largely depend upon the growth, extent and distribution of forest, decline of these natural habitats severely and adversely affect most inland and resident vertebrate fauna. In the study area, species have been recorded (Table 10 and Table 11).

3.26. Impacts on Birds

The avifauna of Bangladesh includes a total of 466 species of which one has been introduced by humans, and twelve are rare or accidental. Three species listed are extirpated in Bangladesh and are not included in the species count. Birds associated with forests of some sort or with a swampy habited have declined 14 species recorded (Table 9). Noise from power plant operation, starting and shutdown may disturb the feeding activities of migration birds. Habitat destruction due to fly ash, coal ash and fly ash leaching water and shortage of surface water in the surrounding area of the coal base thermal power plant.

Depletion of habitats the migratory bird is decreasing day by day. Pollution causing activities and sound pollution are effect on migratory bird's habitat. A household survey 384 respondent focusing on birds in this area, maximum 22% respondents said noise impact and deforestation causes migration after power plant installed and maximum 21% respondent said feed activities and naturally decreased birds.

3.27. Impacts on Fisheries Diversity in the Power Plant Area

The major types of fishes available in different water bodies of the district are ruhi (Labeo ruhita), Catla (Catla catla), Mrigel (Chirrhinus mrigala), Boal (Wallago attu), Gazar (Channa marulius), Calibaush (Labeo calbasu), Shoil (Channa storiatus), Magur (Clarias batrachus), Shing (Hetropenusha fossiles), Shar puti (Puntus sarana), Bele (Glossogobius giuris). Phalli (Notoptenus notopterus) and Tangra (Mystus vittatus). Exotic fishes like grass carp (Cteopharyngodon idela), Silver carp (Hypoholmichthys molitrix). Telapa (Oreochromis mossumbicus), Nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) etc. have also been introduced for ommercial pisciculture in ponds and tanks.

According to number of fisherman and production of fishes in 2010-11 are fisherman 165 and production 1350 metric ton, 2009-10 are fisherman 160 and production 1200 metric ton 18. The only direct impact during operation phase is acquisition of agricultural cum shrimp aquaculture area. Acquisition of these lands might cause loss of these habitats, which may have impacts on open water fish habitats, fish diversity and hence to some extent on capture fisheries production, the project adopts waste. Open water fisheries habitats like Tilai rivers, khals, beels and canal area may be affected due to coal dust, fly ash, noise oil and chemical spelling.

The sequential approaches for fisheries components study under EIA process. The following 50 sampling site were selected for collection of fisheries and aquaculture data. Primary data collection, the prevailing fish habitats were classified into two broad categories, such as capture and culture fish habitats. Capture fish habitats included Rivers, Estuaries, Khals, Beels, and Floodplains; whereas culture fish habitat included culture fish ponds shrimp etc. Data collection on the migration of fish species along with their life stages were collected by questioning fulltime fisherman engaged in fishing. Moreover, fisherman perception was noted down with regard to the potential implications of fish migration. Attempts were made to identifying potential threat for fisheries due to installation of the power plants.

In our present investigations that the researcher had been seem indigenous fishes on species day by day decreased. This is facing a high risk of endangerment in the wild. Threatened categories are concerned nearly one fourth (64 species) of the species are under threat, among of them (Table 10).

3.28. Impacts on Amphibians and Reptiles Fauna in the Power Plant Area
3.29. Impacts on Livestock and Poultry in the Power Plant Area

Livestock and poultry, being an essential sector of integrated farming system, play an important role in the economy of the study area. Livestock provide significant draft power for cultivation, threshing and crushing of oil seeds. Cow dung is used as a source of manure and fuel, meet, milk and eggs are used for human consumption and a ready source of funds. According to Fulbari upazila number of holding reported selected livestock 2008, cow and buffalo house holding number 25626, number of animal 47671; Goat house holding number 14025, number of animal 41860; Sheep house holding number 3626, number of animal 11173 7.

In our present finding that the most of the households raise poultry and livestock, a practice that significantly reduce the poverty by generating employment and income. Maximum 26% respondent after power plant installed and maximum 24% respondent before power plant insulated, there are no impact livestock and poultry in the areas of village, surrounding the power plants.

3.30. Impacts on Plankton and Benthos in the Wetland

There is microscopic life form belonging to either phytoplankton’s (algae) or zooplanktons (protozoa or rotifers etc.) categories. They form the lowest tropic level of the aquatic ecosystem. Water samples were collected from river, other ponds and canals present in the buffer zone for planktonic analysis. None of the aquatic forms are rare or endangered. Phytoplanktons were reported four locations are basillariophyceae, chlorophyceae, myxophyceae and euglenophyceae members. In our present investigations about 25 species of phytoplankton were reported in the water bodies of the power plant areas. Density of phytoplankton group among the five locations was highest in lentic ecosystem and lowest. The density of phytoplankton group ranged 17 to 26 organisms/ml in all sample. Dominance of Bacillariophyceae members followed by myxopyceae was observed in all the locations, the highest percentage was Ankistrodesmus falleatus and Anabeana sp. and the lowest percentage was Euglena sp. during study period was observed. The participant who is beneficiaries of natural ownership pond 22% are maximum in this areas after power plant installed and 21% again, the beneficiaries of natural pond ownership before power plant installed. Plankton and benthos, the both organisms in the aquatic environment, which improved sub merged aquatic vegetation, the effect of bottom soil textural condition an aquaculture pond, this is the relationship with pH, EC, DO, Total alkalinity, chlorophill, Amonia nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus etc.

3.31. Impacts on Crops in the Coal Based Thermal Power Plant

Agricultural land is limiting day by day due to expansion of settlement and other development activities. The economy of the country largely depends on agricultural activities and productions. Hence, loss of agricultural land is important component that needs to consider in EIA. Acquisition of agricultural land may reduce crop production of the local area. Thence, it has been considered as an IEC to assess the impact. By product of the power plant may contaminate the soils of the surrounding areas and may cause unfavorable condition for plant growth.

In our present finding that the land use pattern in the area is mixed type having industrial, commercial and residential uses. Erratic development of housing and industries, imprudent alignment of roads and commercial places and some pockets of good agricultural land are common features of the exiting topography surrounding the project area. Agricultural land is acquisition for ash pond and power plant. As a result may reduce crop production of the local area. The economy of the country largely depends on agricultural activities and productions.

3.32. Impacts on floral Diversity (Aquatic and Terrestrial) in the Coal Based Thermal Power Plant Areas

Amongst these the most conspicuous are the bangan (Ficus benghalceusis) the peopul (Ficus religiosa), the pakar (Ficus infectoria), the shimul or cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), the neem (Azadirachta indica), the mango (Mangifera indica) the Jack fruits tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus), the Guava (Psidium guajava), Banana (Rlusa sapicentum), Wood-apple (Aegle marmctos), Tamarind (Tamarindus indica), Teak/shall (Shorea robusta) and hijal trees (Barringtonia acutangule) are also seen in absundance everywhere in the district. The Villages are embowered in greenery, clumps of wild bamboos are to be seen on all sides and the banks of the river and old fanks are overgrown with thicker of shrubs and brambles.

A total of 35 terrestrial flora species were recorded after field investigation within the area. The major habitat patterns of the project are classified under three categories namely i) terrestrial natural flora, ii) terrestrial planted flora and iii) medicinal flora (Table 13, Table 14, Table 15 and Table 16). If aquatic fauna is affected severely, it could upset the ecological balance. A total of six aquatic fauna species were recorded from the project area. Out of six aquatic faunas one is endangered and one is threatened. A total of eight aquatic floras were recorded from the project area.

A household survey 384 respondent focusing in flora in aquatic and terrestrial in this area, maximum 22% respondent said deforestation decreased in aquatic and terrestrial flora after power plant installed. 23% respondent said naturally decreased in aquatic and terrestrial flora.

3.33. Impacts on Wetlands in the Coal Based Thermal Power Plant Area

In Bangladesh total number of about 700 rivers including tributaries, which have a length of about 24,140 km. In Dinajpur districts are the rivers i.e. Pathras, Talma, Punarbhaba, Tepa, Tangon, Dahuk, Ghoramara, Jamuna, Koram, Atrai, Kulica, Baral, Garveshwari, Jabuneshwari, Jaldhaka, Torsa, Kollani and Raidak. Heavy metals contaminate of rivers water, the river in Bangladesh mostly polluted by anthropogenic activities, globally alarming ten heavy metal (Zn, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cr, Co).

In our present finding that the Barapukuria thermal power plant produces 300 metric ton fly ash per day by burning 2400 ton of coal to generate 250mw electricity. This coal ash contains contaminants such as lead, chromium, Cadmium, Zinc, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic that can cause harm to environment which danger to human, environment, health, soil, ground water, surface water in the area i.e. pond, river, khal, beel, which is directly contaminates.

3.34. Impacts on Human Health in the Power Plant Area

Environmental and human health consequences of electricity generation are important issues, alongside the affordability of the power which is produced. Production of electricity from any form of primary energy has some environmental effects and some risk. A balanced assessment of coal fired power requires. The health disease profile indicate seasonal prevalence of some of the common sicknesses such as cold, cough, headache, body ache, fever, the symptoms of flue on viral fever during change in season form rainy season to winter, whereas water borne diseases including dysentery, diarrhea, malnutrition, dehydration etc. experienced in rainy season where the water gets contaminated. Skin diseases, health problems of woman occur round the year.

Human Health in Bangladesh (World Health Organization, 2010), mortality and burden of disease: life expectancy at birth male 61 (Years) in 2000, male 54 (years) in 2008, Female 61 (years) in 2000, Female 65 (years) in 2008. Healthy life expectancy was at birth male 56 (yrs) and Female 55 (yrs) in 2007. Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births) 33 in 2008. Cause specific mortality and morbidity (a) maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 lie births) interagency estimates 16 (16-31) in 2005, HIV/AIDS < 50 in 2007, malaria 4.2 in 2006; TB among HIV-negative people 0.0 (0-01); Age standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 population), communicable 97 in 2004; Non-communicable 531 in 2004; injuries 38 in 2004; Distribution of years of life lost by broader cause (%); Communicable 22, non-communicable 66 and injuries 12 in 2004.

The Govt. health facilities are available at nearby places at a distance of 2 to 5 km. Health facilities such as PHC, sub PHCs and multipurpose workers are provided. However they do not function due to poor support system. For good and reliable medical treatment such as surgery and medical treatments is available at a distance of minimum of 5 to 10km.

In our present investigation we found that many villages complained of increasing cases of diseases in the eyes, teeth, skin and stomach and loss of hair and jaundice. This survey report of the respondent at the some in rural areas in Bangladesh, but slightly improved in this areas power plants installed. Several facilities, amenities and infrastructure such as health, education, road, communication, office etc. day by day increased.

The flora and fauna recorded were also cross checked with the local communities. An effort has been made to identity the impacts of the existing project and cumulative effect of the nearby developmental activities or industries or any other activities which will affect the plant and animals of the region along with the resource utilization by the local communities such as timber medicinal and fishing etc. The mitigation measures were suggested only to the buffer zone and the other parameters such as air emissions, noise, effluents will further addressed with functional area experts of the concern people.

4. Conclusions

Coal combustion by product mainly fly ash in an undesirable waste whose interaction with air, soil and water has created effects on human health, agriculture and natural ecosystem. Hence fly ash safe disposal and utilization is an important concern to safeguard the clearer environment. Main problems related to fly ash disposal is due to the presence of heavy metals in the residue, which consequently leach out and contaminate soil as well as surface water and ground water. Most people of the affected villages are now depending on the discharge canal of the plants that drains the used water into the Tilaimari River. The drains water is unfit for irrigation purposes, ever for consumption by fish, livestock and human. Particle emitted to the environment either indirectly or directly with the fly gases or as a result of inadequate fly ash storages, pose a threat to human and animal health. Exhaust gas emission analyzed result NOx = 147.350, SOx = 212.250, COx = 6.230 (μg/Nm3). FGD system should be installed in case coal having high sulfur content (more than 0.6%) where the cost will be compensated by environmental and social benefit. Fly ash management problem. From the study areas analyzed fly ash result such as Si = 66.12%, Al = 17.07%, Ti =3.03%, Mn = 8.42% and Fe 5.05%. If fly ash properly utilized as a better economic benefit and it will be used cement and concrete production, and various agricultural applications. The drained water which is directly disposed to the Tilaimai River without cleaning waste water should be cleaned before disposing. There is no any process of reusing the ash, directly thrown in the nearest ash pond and open field. This can only be avoided through the cessation of coal combustion and the implementation of sustainable technologies and eco-friendly green power such as solar power, wind power and geothermal power generation. Green technology or eco-friendly technology should also be adopted for power generation.

References

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In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
[32]  Wei, D. High resolution three dimensional reconstruction of whole yeast, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Tripathi, R.D., Vajpayee, P., Singh, N., Rai, U.N., Kumar, A., Ali, M.B., Kumar, B. and Yanus, M. Efficacy of various amendments for amelioration of fly ash toxicity: growth performance and metal composition of Cassia siamea lamk. chemosphene, 2004, 54: 1580-1588.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  Gupta, A.K. and Sinha, S. Decontamination and/or vegetation of fly ash dykes through naturally growing plants. J. Hazard meter, 2008, 153: 1078-1087.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Dewan Md. Shah Alam and Md. Redwanur Rahman

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Dewan Md. Shah Alam, Md. Redwanur Rahman. Environmental Impact Assessment of Phulbari Coal Based Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp 34-54. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/3/2/1
MLA Style
Alam, Dewan Md. Shah, and Md. Redwanur Rahman. "Environmental Impact Assessment of Phulbari Coal Based Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3.2 (2019): 34-54.
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Alam, D. M. S. , & Rahman, M. R. (2019). Environmental Impact Assessment of Phulbari Coal Based Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(2), 34-54.
Chicago Style
Alam, Dewan Md. Shah, and Md. Redwanur Rahman. "Environmental Impact Assessment of Phulbari Coal Based Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3, no. 2 (2019): 34-54.
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[1]  DoE, EIA guideline for industries by Department of Environment. Ministry of Environmental and Forest Govt. of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 1997.
In article      
 
[2]  ADB, Environmental assessment guideline. Asian Development Bank, 2003, pp. 175.
In article      
 
[3]  Tennessee valley, Sulfur dioxide. http:www.tva.gov/environment/air/SO2htm, 2008.
In article      
 
[4]  Pollution Issues, Thermal Pollution, Accessed November, 2009.
In article      
 
[5]  Environmental Health Perspective, Low Water Consumption: A New Goal For Coal, 2004.
In article      
 
[6]  Population Census, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001, 2001.
In article      
 
[7]  Population Census, Bangladesh population and housing census, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), 2011.
In article      
 
[8]  Population Census, Bangladesh population statistics census. Bureau, 1991.
In article      
 
[9]  HIES (2010) [12] BBS, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh Population Census, 2014, www.bbs.gov.bd/
In article      
 
[10]  Meij, R., Vredenbregt, I.H.J. and Winkel, H. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants. J. Air Waste Manage Assoc, 2003, 52: 912-917.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Agricultural Census Bangladesh agricultural statistics. 2016. Annual Report. annual home/ publication/ag. statistics.
In article      
 
[12]  Ahmaruzzaman, M., A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prag. Energ. Combust. Sci., 2010. 36(3): 327-363.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Campbell, D.J., Fox, W.E., Aitken, R.L. and Bell, L.C. Physical characteristics of sand amended with fly ash. Aust. J. soil Res., 1983, 21: 147-154.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Page, A.L., Elscewi, A.A. and Straughan, I.R. Physical and chemical properties of fly ash from coal-fired power plants. Residue Reviews, 1979, 17: 83-120.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Gupta, A.K. and Singh, S. Role of Brassica juncea L. Czer (Var vaibhav) in the phyto extraction of Ni from soil amended with fly ash: selection of extractant for metal bioavailability. J. Hazard Mater, 2006, 136: 371-378.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Tripathi, R.D., Vajpayee, P., Singh, N., Rai, U.N., Kumar, A., Ali, M.B., Kumar, B. and Yanus, M. Efficacy of various amendments for amelioration of fly ash toxicity: growth performance and metal composition of Cassia siamea Lamk. Chemosphene, 2004, 54: 1580-1588.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Adriano, D.C., Woodford, T.A., Ciravolo, T.G. Growth and elemental composition of corn and bean seedling as influenced by soil application of coal ash. J. Environ. Qual. 1978, 7: 416-421.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Schutter, M.E. and Fuhrmann, J.J. Soil microbial community responses to fly ash amendment as revealed by analysis of whole soils and bacterial isolated. Soil Biol. Biochem., 2001, 33: 1947-1958.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Natusch and Wallace, Urban Aerosol Toxicity: The influence of particle size, 1974.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Saunders, T. Developments in thermal coal markets. Sydney NSW, Australia, 2012, pp. 28.
In article      
 
[21]  Creelman, R.A., Colin, R.W., Glenn, S. and Lindsay, J. Relation between coal mineral matter and deposit mineralogy in pulverized fuel furnace. Energy Fuel, 2002, 27(10): 5714-5724.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Ram, L.C., Srivastava, N.K., Tripathi, R.C., Thakur, S.K., Sinha, A.K. and Jha, S.K. Leaching behavior of lignite fly ash with shake and column tests. Environ. Geol. 2007, 51: 1119-1132.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Domingo, and Kyuma, Trace element in tropical Asian paddy soil plant, Soil, 1983. 74: 145-147.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Moslehuddin, A.Z.M., Saheed, S.M. and Egushir, K. Mineralogical approach to alternation of deferent river sediments in Meghna floodplains soils of Bangladesh. Clay. Sci., 1998, 10: 375-384.
In article      
 
[25]  Sattar, M.A. Saving Sundarbon for millions of years as world heritage. Bangladesh. J. Environ. Sci., 2010, 19: 13-24.
In article      
 
[26]  Sattar, M.A., and Blume, H.P. Trace metal contamination in Bangladesh Soils. Bangladesh, J. Soil Sci., 2000, 26: 15-21.
In article      
 
[27]  Haque, Arsenic in drinking water and skin lesion: Dose-response data from west Bengal, India, 2003, 14(2): 174-182.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[28]  Canadian Council of Ministers for Environment Winnipeg, Canadian soil quality guideline for the protection of environmental and human health, 1991, webs http://ceqg-requ.ecmeca.
In article      
 
[29]  Nalawade, P.M., Bholy, A.D. and Mule, M.B. Studies on assessment of heavy metal in sample collection from surrounding area of fly ash dumping ground. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 2015, 5(3): 131-140.
In article      
 
[30]  Alam, M.J.B., Ahmed, A.A.M., Khan, M.J.H. and Ahmed, B. Evaluation of possible environmental impacts for Barapukuria thermal power plant and coal mine. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 2011, 2(5): 126-131.
In article      
 
[31]  Masud, M.H. Nazmus, M. and Roknuzzaman, S.M. Study of Environmental Impacts of the Barapukuria Thermal Power Plant of Bangladesh, Global Journal of Research in Engineering Mechanical and Machinics Engineering, 2014, 14(1): version 1.0.
In article      
 
[32]  Wei, D. High resolution three dimensional reconstruction of whole yeast, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Tripathi, R.D., Vajpayee, P., Singh, N., Rai, U.N., Kumar, A., Ali, M.B., Kumar, B. and Yanus, M. Efficacy of various amendments for amelioration of fly ash toxicity: growth performance and metal composition of Cassia siamea lamk. chemosphene, 2004, 54: 1580-1588.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  Gupta, A.K. and Sinha, S. Decontamination and/or vegetation of fly ash dykes through naturally growing plants. J. Hazard meter, 2008, 153: 1078-1087.
In article      View Article  PubMed