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Gender Dimension of Social Inequalities

Mušić Lejla
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2019, 3(1), 29-33. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-3-1-5
Received April 04, 2019; Revised May 17, 2019; Accepted Juen 05, 2019

Abstract

Social Inequalities represent, globally, most developed obstacles to the practicing the Human rights and equality. Amnesty International Reports, WUNRN [1] reports, Global risks reports show that there are complex forms of human debris, in the contemporary. Social inequalities represent unequal opportunities inside the society, based on the race, gender, and class. Women Human rights [2] activists, jointly with the ecological rights activists, and the activists for the rights of the minorities, (colored, migrants, and war veterans, 1970-ties had started campaign, globally, against the oppression and the discrimination. Giddens in Sociology, emphasizes the deconstruction of gender based inequalities that permeate private and public sphere, equally. Haraway in Manifesto for Cyborg [3], offers the understanding of binary opposites, necessary for the understanding of the social inequalities, in comparison to postmodern futuristic vision of egalitarian society. World Health Organization, defines the socioeconomic inequalities as the most complex and problematic, for the future: “Socioeconomic inequalities, related to income, employment, education, as well as demographic differences, such as age or gender, are associated with unequal exposure to environmental risk factors. They contribute to the health inequities and most often put disadvantaged groups at significantly higher risk for the environmental health effects” [4]. Even though, there is a pleyad of multi perspective, multidisciplinary , and practical knowledge that is learned inside the academia, there is not enough implementation, and use of the potentials for fighting the discrimination, that is result of the social inequalities. The main hypothesis of this investigation is that the social inequalities are rising every day, and that the better joint strategy of different science networks, especially sociologists, NGO-s, Women’s groups for help, students, can help in their diminishment. Empirical part of this investigation includes the analyses of the opinion of students on how to diminish the social inequality.

1. Introduction: Social Inequalities and Postmodern Perspective

The investigation of social inequalities, in sociology, was influenced by the empirical work of Jane Addams, and Hull House project. She was in contact with members of the Chicago sociological school, and is known for the establishment of a kind of commune for the life of person, who are homeless and in which there are all forms of life, from the coffee shop, the library, the stores, and where she wanted to, in an empirical way, to examine the relationship of the individual with his environment, always emphasizing that the way of organizing social relations inside the society, structures the personality. Hull House, however, was not only that, in the framework of this multifunctional house. It had a strong academic activity, and there lived the professional sociologists, and social workers who have studied the ways of life in this well-organized community (how adolescent with poor financial conditions act in the busiest shipping lanes circumstances). Hunger is one of the elementary problems of the modern world, and Giddens examines this in a specific way. Hunger occurs as a result of the uneven distribution of resources in society. Chapter 11, in Giddens’s work Sociology 5 entitled Poverty, social protection and social exclusion, writes about the global problems of the modern age, emphasizing the one of the rarely known social facts, which are focusing on poverty rates in the developed countries, and found that poverty rates are the highest, in Great Britain. Why is the poverty one of the key contemporary social environmental problems. Before I discuss Giddens’s designation of such a definition, I'll try to analyse the problem of poverty, in general. Poverty shows the standard of living, of the population of some countries. And therefore through the poverty , Giddens creates an opinion about the manner of regulating the state, where usually a big differences between the layers in economic status and in power, exist. There are two concepts, absolute and relative poverty. According to Giddens 5, the phenomenon of absolute poverty implies a struggle for mere survival, and the life on the margins of social life, and for people that don't have enough food, natural resources for life, just saying that the poor, relative poverty is determined in relation to the overall standard of living of a country and includes the survival, and property of some basic needs, which are minimal compared to the social status, and standards. Poverty is questioned on some of so that in the global sense the poor man of the modern age, represents completely different concept, than a poor man that once had existed. Measurement of poverty is a reflection of the modern statistical analysis, that shows how to demonstrate social assistance. What are the poorest countries, according to Giddens the Pakistani, Bangladesh family and a British family, in recent times, have experienced feeling of poverty. Giddens mentions statement “culture of poverty” which pointed out sociologist Meyer, who points out that in some cases, dependence on social welfare, destroys people in a way that they are demotivated, and they stop looking for a job, and on the other hand, they feel inadequate, because they depend on welfare, and are therefore unequal to other citizens. The key term in the context of its social exclusion, where marginalized people avoid the concepts such as fridge, TV, dishwasher, a washing machine, and some of the elementary devices which are a reflection of progress, in modern society. It was found that a large number of the population has an exceptionally high standard of living, because almost all households have these natural supplies, 5. There are a lot of factors, and reasons for the emergence of the problem of poverty, in the global sense, it's a race, class, gender, occupation, education level, and many others. If the problem of poverty, is investigated in the context of Bosnian and Herzegovinian society, there are a number of parameters, that can cause the problems. Post conflict BH society, under the influence of the transition, as a system that involves the transition from socialism, in the center of collective ownership, toward capitalism, in which it is property of private, and individual ownership of the capitalists, with ownership of the means over the production and of money. Given the fact that the transition process is still going on, conditioned emergence of the economic crisis, in which it is in the center of unemployment, which is a key factor in measuring the poverty of a country. There are a series of parameters, which caused a transition such as retradicionalisation, repatriarchalisation, ethno political, bio politics, as well as increased rates of violence, then the consideration of family violence, and juvenile delinquency, where it is an established fact. The increasing number of juvenile, and peer violence, that sometimes results in the murders. Giddens mentioned a very important term, social exclusion. The question is what is the relationship to the poor people in society, so the specified term suggests developing mechanisms of individual social instances, that affect individuals, and organizations, from the exclusion from society. Exclusion occurs as a result of not having enough of the high living standards, that produces different relationships between individuals. In more recent times, as Giddens sociology suggests, there is the phenomenon of civil rights, in the theories of Marshal and Andersen, which will affect the formation of social assistance, as contemporary efforts to those to whom it is necessary to provide adequate help. There are three models 5 and ways of providing social assistance: "social-democratic, conservative and liberal corporate model". Social-democratic model provides social assistance, under the strict control of the State, and conservative corporate provides social assistance, depending on the class to which the person belongs, or of their social status, while

last involves a liberal use of the assets, that provide the poorest of the poor 5. Poverty is one of the global problems of modern times, that it is necessary to analyze adequately, as well as to develop adequate measures for the prevention of such problems. How was the nation's difficult just bh socio- economic crises, and unemployment, poverty and the creation of the capitalist system, i.e. the absence of middle class, creates polarization in the two classes, an extremely rich, and extremely poor inhabitants. However, the fundamental problem is the fact that the class of the poor increases, and enormously rich are reduced, while their wealth is intensifying, and a bunch of. In the context that it is significant to note one of the interesting lectures of Blagojević Marina 6, that deals with the sociological dimension of the analysis of the losers in transition, and the problem of poverty. and feminization, where it shows that women are the biggest losers in the transition process. If we look at the territory of the Balkans, it is possible to determine, that in socialism the pseudo emancipation was raised, thinks Nada Ler Sofronić, when women are given certain positions, that were not high, but provided a certain level of profit, but they had lost them again, after the occurrence of conflicts, in these areas. Precisely for these reasons the term poverty becomes a category, that binds with the female sex so the term feminization of poverty, which is the indicative of the fact that the majority of the poor population is female, is formed. An interesting segment of that analyzes Giddens, that binds with ready mentioned problems, is the phenomenon of urban planning or occurrence of large cities and urban areas. In chapter 19 of his work, Giddens focuses on analysis of the Increase of the population, and the environmental crisis, which directly indicates the most important elements, and moments in the crisis, caused by the environmental problems of the modern age. The most significant environmental issues according to Giddens 5 are a population, that results in a overpopulation as far as leads to wasteful of resources, and in the end results in poverty and hunger. Then lists the environmental pollution as a result of the negative ways of waste disposal and waste from the water, then the phenomenon of global warming and genetically engineered foods 5. Giddens discusses the link relationships of sociology and ecology, in a continuous connection of modern technological advancement, that is the result of human centric culture, and civilization and its progress, and the destruction of the natural world. One of the prerequisites for progress in the world and suggestions that Giddens 5 points out that he reads, are following: "ecological modernization is the assumption that the industrial development, and ecological modernization are not mutually exclusive". In its third road, the politics of the third way in restoring the social democracy was just geared toward providing: "help to citizens what to do in the circumstances of the great revolution of our times, namely in globalization, changes in personal life, and our trash for nature" 7. In this sense, it is necessary to understand that there is a connection between politics, and ecology that can be productive for understanding, and developing the environmental awareness of the modern age. One of the ideas of the third way, is also the social justice that includes the specific relationship to all categories of the society, which later includes the phenomenon of social policy. What are the basic values of the third times? Giddens 7 lists them in order of ' equality as one of the fundamental principles and assumptions of modern times, through the protection of the weak, freedom, and rights with responsibility, authoritarian trappings of democracy, pluralism and the philosophical conservatism". Cosmopolitan pluralism implies a series of ideas that imply a multiplicity of in understanding, and relation to the reality which surrounds us, and the principle of conservatism of philosophy as scepticism in relation to the speed up of the progress of technique, technology, and other phenomena of modern times. Manifesto for Cyborgs is a remarkable contribution, to the contemporary critical theory of sociology, because it gives us the ability to observe the true change, in the world that surrounds us. In modern Western patriarchal ideologies, were the ruling principle, while in postmodern, the only principle is the information process. Haraway in her manifesto, considers that it is necessary to take responsibility for the connection between the social relations, that are located between science and technology, where the need to avoid a negative attitude towards technology, and develop access to the reality, that will make it easier to carry with virtual realities, and in a peculiar way to deconstruct gender categories, gender relations, which is a synonym of cybernetic organism, that sets the world on the boundaries of the real, and self understood. Manifesto for Cyborgs provides a multiplicity of visions of reality, and the ability to recognize the deconstruction as a reconstruction of identity, and the ability for the identity, in the age of the global environmental crisis, in a proper way, affirms 3.

2. Empirical Investigation

This investigation was conducted among the the students of Faculty of Political Sciences, Department of Social Work. It was anonymous, and the sample was random.

2.1. Which Social Groups are Mostly Oppressed by Social Inequalities, According to Your Opinion?

The most oppressed group, according to this survey are migrants with 42, 85% responses, then LGBTQ 28, 57%, after them Women with 14,28% responses . 7,14 % of the students responded that students, and colored are mostly oppressed group, in the Bosnian and Herzegovinian society.

2.2. Do You Think that There Are Educational Inequalities, in Bosnia and Herzegovina?

78,57% of the students, in regards to the educational inequalities, stated that they exist in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the 21,42% thinks that there are no educational inequalities.

2.3. Is the Xenophobia (Fear of the Strangers) Existent in the Your Community?

21, 42% students believe that the Xenophobia exists in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the rest of them 78,57% students believe that it does not exist.

2.4. Are There Any Cases of Violence over the Women in Your Community?

Students mainly responded that the violence over the Women still exist 64,28% of them. There is no violence over the women, stated even 35,71%.

2.5. Do You Think that Your Personal Educational Conditions Are Insufficient?

If the educational conditions are to be considered, the students mainly think that their educational system is not insufficient, in almost 65%, while as the rest (35,71%) of the students hold that the educational conditions are insufficient.

2.6. Can the Sociologists Help in the Fight against the Social Inequalities?

Students mainly think that Sociologist can help in the fight against the social inequalities responded 85,71% of the students.

2.7. Do You, as a Student, belong to Different Groups for Help that Are Influenced by Social Inequalities?

Student rarely belong to the groups for the Help, of the discriminated according to this sample.

Only less than ¼, exactly 24% of them belong to different groups for Help.

2.8. What kind of the individual level of help students offer?

If You do anything, on the individual level, to help discriminated (migrants, women, students, LGBTQ people, colored people, or some other groups), please, give the explanation? The given responses mainly involved following: upbringing of the consciousness in all of the communities, implementing the Law that would protect the discriminated in the proper way, school education, education through the interactive content on YouTube, the promotion of the active citizenship, consulting the different institutions. There were individual responses to the questions, in which students themselves would like to create group that would potentially gathered, created and implemented, certain decisions and rules that would be useful to the discriminated, and the collective as a whole. Since recently, the migration problem occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the mass demonstrations; there is a strong empathy among the students, who prospectively would like to be agents of help, for the discriminated groups. This is especially present, inside the group of the Social work students.

2.9. Which Institutions Are Officially in Charge for the Help to the Discriminated?

In the responses given by the students, on the question what institutions are responsible for diminishment of the Discrimination, 42,8% students responded that all of the mentioned institutions, (Police, different Centers: Social Work, Educational, Women, Student, LGBTQ, Court of Law, Migration Camps). 21,42% student responded that police should be responsible for helping the discriminated, and 35,71% of the Students think that the Social Work Centers are in charge to help the discriminated.

3. Conclusions and Recommendations

This investigation had shown that main hypothesis of the work, is right. The socio-economic problems are complex, and even though the educational system in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not insufficient, violence over the Women still exist. Even though there are educational inequalities, the most oppressed groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, are migrants, LGBTQ, and Women. Xenophobia does not exist, represents the prevailing opinion of the students. In regards to the pragmatic solutions of social inequality, students think the combined help of the Police, Centers( Social Work, Student, LGBTQ, Educational), Court of Law, and Migrant Camps, can offer help to the discriminated. On the individual level, students believe, that it is necessary to have the implementations of the already learned theoretical knowledge in the praxis, through the online forums, discussions, Zoom meetings, Slack, Google classrooms, in order to offer the necessary information for those that need help. Feminization of the poverty, and global rise of the rates on Violence over the Women, should be diminished by forcing the implementation of the Laws, with the involvement of the activists in different fields in demonstrating the global need to stop the violence over the Women, as one of the biggest problems, in regards to socio-economic inequalities, by practising the global idea that Human rights are Women's rights as well, in campaigns such as 16 days of Campaign against Violence over the Women, opening the web pages such as WUNRN, 1 that can provide the necessary education, and recent information on state of Women Human rights. Amnesty reports offer concrete perspective on femicide in Latin America, and world as a result of the feminization of poverty. Sociologists can help in diminishing the inequalities, was the students respond in almost 86% of chosen sample. Therefore, the Giddens’s sociological approach, and examples of social exclusion, offer a good theoretical ground for understanding the necessity of taking the egalitarian perspective in gender relations 8, state organization, and the ecological problems that can cause global debris, epidemies, and urbicides. Manifesto for Cyber, from 1980-ties had shown strong belief in transcending the boundaries of female/male, nation/state, pain/pleasure, nature/ratio, offering transgender, multinational and cosmopolitan, artificial cyber intelligence. From that perspective, every oppression, marginalization and segregation, is outmoded process that should have already been, put aside, lawfully seized and overcomed, offering a pleyad of tools for practising the global human rights, as a rights of Women, colored, migrants, students, war veterans, eco-activists, and LGBTQ people, in the contemporary sociology, and society in general.

References

[1]  www.who.comwww.wunrn.com www.globalrisksreport.com, accessed in January 2019.
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[2]  Bakšić, Muftić, J., Women's rights in Human rights system, Law Centre and Magistrat, Sarajevo, 2006.
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[3]  Haraway, D., “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century”, In Feminist Theory: A Reader, 2nd Ed., Wendy K.Kolmar, & Frances Bartkowski. McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2005, 384-393.
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[4]  http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/social-inequalities-in-environment-and-h ealth, accessed in December 2018.
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[5]  Giddens, A., Sociology, Faculty of Economy, Belgrade, 2003.
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[6]  Blagojevich, M., Winners/Losers of the Transition, Lecture for MA students, Gender studies, Centre for Interdisciplinary After Graduate studies Sarajevo, 2007.
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[7]  Giddens, A., Third way, Political culture, Zagreb, 1999.
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[8]  Kimmel, M., & Aronson, A., The Gendered Society reader, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2014. Internet sources.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Mušić Lejla

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Mušić Lejla. Gender Dimension of Social Inequalities. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp 29-33. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/3/1/5
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Lejla, Mušić. "Gender Dimension of Social Inequalities." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3.1 (2019): 29-33.
APA Style
Lejla, M. (2019). Gender Dimension of Social Inequalities. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(1), 29-33.
Chicago Style
Lejla, Mušić. "Gender Dimension of Social Inequalities." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3, no. 1 (2019): 29-33.
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[1]  www.who.comwww.wunrn.com www.globalrisksreport.com, accessed in January 2019.
In article      
 
[2]  Bakšić, Muftić, J., Women's rights in Human rights system, Law Centre and Magistrat, Sarajevo, 2006.
In article      
 
[3]  Haraway, D., “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century”, In Feminist Theory: A Reader, 2nd Ed., Wendy K.Kolmar, & Frances Bartkowski. McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2005, 384-393.
In article      
 
[4]  http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/social-inequalities-in-environment-and-h ealth, accessed in December 2018.
In article      
 
[5]  Giddens, A., Sociology, Faculty of Economy, Belgrade, 2003.
In article      
 
[6]  Blagojevich, M., Winners/Losers of the Transition, Lecture for MA students, Gender studies, Centre for Interdisciplinary After Graduate studies Sarajevo, 2007.
In article      
 
[7]  Giddens, A., Third way, Political culture, Zagreb, 1999.
In article      
 
[8]  Kimmel, M., & Aronson, A., The Gendered Society reader, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2014. Internet sources.
In article