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Anthropology in Medieval

Mohammadreza Shahidipak
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2018, 2(2), 55-58. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-2-2-3
Received August 03, 2018; Revised September 17, 2018; Accepted September 29, 2018

Abstract

Anthropology is one of the medieval humanities initiatives reflected in its historical and geographical texts. This story is evident in the geographic texts from 8AD to 15AD, especially in the texts of travelogues, and anthropology is the fixed part of these texts. There are in medieval a big phenomenon of truism accomplished by geographers and historians. These heritages of world truism have been remained in any books. In this context, as social researches, culture is described as the identity of humans in medieval cities. A traveler is as a anthropologist has tried to report behaviors of people and trace similarities and differences in behaviors and These works is dominant in any travelogues of medieval. The morality of the people of the capitals and their differences with the behavior of the people of other cities, culture and customs, religious rites, ceremonies including the contents of these texts. In the present paper, research, twelve major texts of the Middle Ages travelogues; as a IBN-AL-Jobayr, Ibn-e-Batutah, The Travels of Marco Poloo, Ibn Sa'id, Abdari, Biruni, Naser Khosrow, Al-Edrisi, Ibn Khaldun, Maghrizee and Leon. These studies are among the texts that constitute the flagship of anthropology in the Middle Age. The adaptive and comparative investigation at these texts to the data and studies of modern anthropology is indicative of the leadership and banner of these medieval texts in the field of anthropology. these anthropological texts have universal value and are considered human beings and heritage because these travelogues investigated the people of the world in medieval, people from Europe, Iran, China, Egypt, Hejaz, India. The problem is; if any relation between anthropology and urban planning because, there is any urban planner in modern period decided to return to medieval paradigm of cities and arrange modern cities in plan of medieval cities, if there is any close relation between behavior of citizen and urban architecture and planning ?can urban planner change the behavior of people with changing of Urban furniture and design? What is dignity of anthropology in these urban and human evolutions? Could it be control societies, cities and citizen by urban planning and by help of Anthropologist? Are medieval texts and their historical materials about the behavior of urban people useful for anthropologists? Paper as an intelligent method is used any modern sociological theory for helping urban planning. paper, finally justified the close relation between history, sociology, anthropology and urban planning.

1. Introduction: The Mental Structure of Medieval Travelogues

1.1. The Paradigm of Cultural and Social Anthropology

Naturally, every travelers know the people of other countries from the time he leave his homeland, and this is the main reason for his enthusiasm for traveling on the first level. The mind of the traveler has come up with a kind of holism and based on his specific mental structure in relation to the people of the cities, examines the custom, culture, beliefs and different faces of them 1 The mind of traveler and tourist as mind of anthropologist they are examining any societies and one of the famous contemporary sociologists says "... Anthropologists who are tourists and travelers are very surprised by the observation of the fundamental and dominant similarities found in all the nations …. “Indeed, the main work of the travelers is cultural and social anthropology of nations, In the term of sociologists, cultural and social anthropology is the same anthropology 2 The importance of the anthropological travelogues of medieval is the presenting of the spiritual character of the human societies. Travelogues are local studies and are the best raw material for anthropology. there are any travelogues and historical texts of medieval as a historical heritage of anthropology indexed in history of science as travelogues of Ibn – Batutah, Ibn-Jobayr, and works of Mosabbahi and Maghrizee, Marko polo, Abdari, Naser khosrow, biruni 3. They had been pictured and imagined the structural characteristics of any cities and people of medieval societies. and their reports remained as sociological and anthropological texts. there is in twenty-one century sociologist who states that the exploratory trips of Christopher Columbus and Vascadogama are the fields of anthropology and sociology 4.

1.2. Return to Paradigm of Medieval City by Urban Planers

The concept of Medieval city is a universal concept that has important dignity in the attitude of human. Its most important application is in resources, sociology, philosophy, anthropology and history, as well as architecture and urban programming and design. Especially in the nineteenth century and some contemporary scholars, this concept has always been a paradigm for urban designers. This mental structure in the twentieth century and in twenty- one century, including in the works of 5 Italian arichiteure and city planner, and in the works of Giddens as a sociologist, The message of this returning is a return to value. Values in the broad spectrum of theology and in accordance with ethics and the establishment of divine justice, and the conformation of the city with the cosmic order ruling. In the field of anthropology and philosophy, the study of human behavior in the medieval society and the relationship between the citizen and the medieval city leads to the mental benefits in making decisions on instruments for value changes in contemporary humans by designer artists in urban planning. therefore history, anthropology always in close relation because Cities are always in changing, and the sociology study these changes and their factors as a education, religion, environment, culture, states. Sociology determines how people behave and in relationships in which they stand with one another. To some degree it is helpful to picture the structural characteristics of societies, sociology as discipline we set aside our personal view of the world to look more carefully at the influences that the shape our lives and those of others. . paper research in functionalism theory of sociology and as a intelligent and smart method is used by comparing the mental paradigm of these individuals travelogues of medieval with the sociological paradigm of the nineteenth-century as a Gurvitch, and with the twentieth-century thinking about anthropology as Giddens and finally a paradigm has been obtained about the applicability of applied anthropology in urban planning. Upon the functionalism theory, urban planners can picture and imagine cities based on moral consensus because Social change in past, present and future, follows a steady trend and happens in the theories of social changes that is in development and it need always historical materials.

2. Materials of Anthropology in Medieval

2.1. AL –Biruni(1050.AD) the Founder of Indian Ethnology and Leader of Indology in Medieval

Sarton, George (1956) in his book, the introduction to the history of sciences, called the eleven century of medieval the century of AL- Biruni who studied very scientific research, the India upon the very Deep and wide investigation at his people.


2.1.1. AL –Biruni and Religious Anthropology of Jews, Moslems, Christian, Pagans, Zoroastrian, Buddhism

AL–Biruni traveled to India and he described and detailed religious anthropology of India. He has reported details of the rituals of Indian religions. He examined the religious behavior of Indian people and examined the great variety of sectarianisms of India; his work is the religious and cultural anthropology of India 6.


2.1.2. Cultural Anthropology in Mental Paradigm of IBN –AL – Jobayr travelogue

There are mental paradigm of travel created in medieval, contains any aspect of culture, food, cloth, marriage tradition, trades, Goods, Business, game and fun, Ceremony, agriculture, behaviors, etc. the leader of, this paradigm is Yaghubee the chief of News and information ministry of Abbasids Calif. he classified the element of cultural anthropology of cities in his book, with title cities (Al-Boldan). He lived in eight century of A.D, in Baghdad, four hundred before IBN –AL – Jobayr but he as European traveler from Spain in medieval present special paradigm of travelogue. after Yaghubee, IBN–AL Kordadbah, Msudi, Maghdesi, IBN-AL–Hoghal, Developed and expanded, and added to the quantity and quality of the anthropology in medieval. they detailed in the any aspect of anthropology 7.


2.1.3. Urban Anthropology by IBN –AL – Jobayr

IBN –AL – Jobayr, with the description of the behaviors the people of Baghdad, Alexandria, Cairo, Fustat, Damascus, Sicily, has brought a comprehensive account of several Islamic and Christian cities in the Middle Ages. These cities have an ancient, cultural, religious, and economic significance, indicating the greatness of Islamic civilization in the creation of large urban centers.


2.1.4. Special Anthropology of Baghdad’s People as Capital

Baghdad has a special place in the mental structure of the travelers of the Maghrib and Andalusia, and anthropological description of IBN –AL – Jobayr in Baghdad has a tremendous value. His description and critique of behavior of people of Baghdad has a central importance in the middle age anthropological research. because Baghdad is capital of the Islamic world, and he described Baghdad near the fall of Bagdad by Mongols, he reports on the ethics and behavior of the people of Baghdad, he separated the behaviors of the jurisprudents and scholars of Baghdad from the general public people. he says the people of Baghdad think, they are Superior of other people of another cities 8.


2.1.5. Anthropology of Cities in Model of Abdari

Abdari travel to any medieval cities and describe the moral behaviors of people. And discuses about these behaviors as Domination culture of these societies His Anthropology begins from the cities of Maghreb, as a Sousse Aqsa, Telemsan, Tunisia and cities of Egypt, as a Cairo, Alexandria and cities of Hejaz As Mecca and Medina. He compared the behavior of people of these cities from any aspect, ethic, religion, culture and intercultural relation and sociological behaviors. He analyses the essential causes of their behaviors and Abdari's work is a model for urban anthropology, he analyzed and detailed the people of medieval cities, his opinions hasnot been mentioned yet by any scholars in era of sociology but it indeed sociological studies accomplishment in medieval. He has traced and classified anatomy of human behavior in the city in a fierce wrath and affection and friendship, socialization, envy, corruption, evil, Stinginess, grudge, Misunderstanding, Ignorance, ethic, Balance and violence. he analyzed these behaviors and He has claimed and turned the roots of the abusive cultural behaviors of the people of the cities of Sousse into their destiny, and writes: "These people are Miserable and act according to their fate." Therefore His approach to the root of human behavior is a fateful destiny and it is kind of fatalism. for example he said about the behavior of the people of Tunisia, they are also blessed with socializing, One of the most important elements of cultural anthropology is the expression of folklore and the folk literature of nations and cities. And Abdari has explicitly studied and detailed the folk literature of cities from Maghreb to Hejaz 9.


2.1.6. Anthropology in Naser Khosrow Travelogue; Facialism and Anthropology of Human by Naser Khosrow

The characterization of human faces and behaviorism are of anthropological science and human geography knowledge, and Nasser Khosrow has been reporting various races on numerous occasions. Nasser khosrow, says about the Berber, of the Maghreb. And he says about relation between face and body and behaviors; the black people are bulky and strong bones, and in this kind of sex there are many soldiers in Egypt, ugly faces and huge faces. They will be called Berber of “Masamedah”, they will fight for war by sword and spear.


2.1.7. Naser Khosrow's Anthropology in Professional Ethics and Market Guides

Naser Khosrow analyze the behaviors of public people of societies as a story From the Egyptian market, he report and writes; whatever they sell, they are right, and if anyone tells a lie to a client, he will show him on camel and give him a ring to go in the city, and he will ring and he will call: "I have said the opposite, I blame, And whosoever laments, let him be blamed."


2.1.8. Anthropology of Nasser Khosrow Travelogues in Language of Speech

One of the most aspect of anthropology of city is the description about language of people, He said, people of one city of Armenia, speaks in three language and for this called; The city of Akhlat (Hybrid City) because they speak in three languages: Thai, Persian, and Armenian, 10.


2.1.9. Anthropology of Europe by AL - Edrisi: (1165).

The geographic and historical texts of medieval described the whole of Europe. There are In these writings, any reports about behaviors the people from Italy, Lombardy, Sicily, Malta, the cities of Spain and England, and France and Greece, Swiss, Germany, Normandy, Hungary, Russia 11, there are a comprehensive reports on European cities special in Portugal, including Anthropological Judgment and they classified their cultural attitude, and their interesting in clothes and foods and using weapons. One of the medieval geographers who was named by any orientalists as a George Sarton, in the twentieth century, as a world tourist for description of Europe is; AL-Edrisi (493 - 560 AH / 1100_1165 AD), who is a historian and geographer, studied in Cordoba of Spain and traveled a long journey to various parts of the world, eventually settled on Sicily in the court of Roger II, and Giumi I (1154_1166) and wrote the most geographic book that has been described cities of Europe and this book translated into French and English, Latin-German.AL- Edrissi in Sicily lived in the city of Palermo, the capital of the Normandy state. Authors of AL-Edrisi are the historical heritage of truism, every part of his reports on Europe has been investigated by one of the Orientalist 12.


2.1.10. IbSa'id(1286) Anthropology of Cities

Among the valuable and cited examples of cultural anthropology, Ibn Sa'id describes the behavior of the people of Europe, Iran, Egypt, Syria, he say about special behavior of the people of Baghdad with other nations, he writes: "The people of Baghdad do not value the people of other cities, Ibn Sa'id Attributed the same behaviors to the people of Cordoba, which shows the cultural anthropology of the people of The capitals are by geographers. Ibn Sa'id Maghrebi before Ibn Khaldun have a clear tendency toward sociological studies and have provided a detailed description of the classes of Muslim communities in Morocco, Egypt, Mecca, Medina, Iraqi cities and some Iranian cities, and indeed he Have provided one hundred before khaldun, the context of the particular views of Ibn Khaldun in the field of historical sociology 13.


2.1.11. Cultural Anthropology of Ibn Battuta Travelogue

Ibn-e Bhuttuh has a particular interest in the ethics, cultural behaviors, food, clothing of people in different cities of Iran, as cities of Persian gulf, cities of Hejaz, Egypt, India, China and the Far East 14. He has examined the social classes of people, of cities and he has described their relations widespread and partial. His social reporting aspect is very strong. While he has tried to communicate with the rulers and the sultans, he has been associated with different classes of people, and as a sociologist, he has closely studied the method of observing and examining the major social issues, including customs of dress, food, games, festivals, Apparently, the issues of marriage and kinship relations, he have been carefully reported any customs of the people in a wide range of the east of worlds 15. He writes: "The people of Mecca have good deeds and good morals and they behave with weakness and good-natured people and they are dressed in the finest clothes. Most dresses are white, they use perfume, he has described and detailed a wedding ceremony in Oman 16.


2.1.12. Leon- AL- Ifriqy (888- 957) is the Peak of Anthropology of Maghreb, Egypt and Sudan

One of the geographers and scientists of the end of the Middle Ages is Leon who belongs to two Christian and Islamic communities. He has provided a very detailed report on the human behavior of these regions by traveling to all the lands of the Maghreb and the cities of Egypt and Sudan and Italy. He describes the food and clothing, marriage ceremonies, and the language, religion, and religion of the blacks, the berberians and the Egyptian people. The description of the people of these regions is a perfect example and heritage of anthropology. He writes about the people of capital city of Carthage that they are so arrogant, Self-esteem and Presumptuous at the same misery and Poverty. He describe the behaviors of Tunisian people and writes: The people of Tunisia are very well behaved and polite and well-deserved And every class of Tunisians people as merchant, Industries Owners, Jurists wear its own special workwear 17.


2.1.13. The Travels of Marco Polo

Travelogue of Marco Polo (1324), despite the criticisms of its authenticity, it is a clear reason for the spread of cultural anthropology in the Travelogue books of med vial as necessity part of these books, Which is in the habit and tradition of people of societies. He as tourist described eight cities of Iran in 1271AD and any sixties of the silk routes. He has described the ethical attributes of people of famous Iranian cities.


2.1.14. Anthropology of Egypt by Maqrizi (1442)

Maqrizi, mentions behaviors of the Egyptian people's classes and describes the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim ceremonies and he investigated the close relation between behaviors and climate in the different place of Egyptian community 18. He analyzed the Physical causes of the behavior of Egyptian people 19.


2.1.15. IBN- Khaldun the Founder Urban Anthropology

IBN- Khaldun (1406) divided the societies to rural and urban, 20 he begins anthropology by ethnology of Arab and Berber societies 21 and he analyze as a case study, both Bedouins and sedentary people, “the Arab are a natural group in the world and Bedouins are prior to sedentary people, the desert is the basis and reservoir of civilization and cities and Bedouins people are closer to being good behavior than sedentary people and Bedouins are more disposed to courage than sedentary people, the reliance of sedentary people upon laws destroys their fortitude power of resistance, he described the behavior of Arab by blood relation 22.

3. As a Result

There are in the medieval texts described ; Religion, culture, states, government and blood relation as a factor for any discipline for shaping cities, these texts created by any travelers by their Ethnology tendency to societies, there is in modern applied anthropology, any historical paradigm in history of cities about close relation between history and anthropology and urban planning that is historical material for anthropologist for recognizing of any behavior of the human of medieval and for urban planner for successful urban planning.

References

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In article      
 
[2]  Georges Gurvitch, Treaty of sociology, 2004, translated by Parham, Amir Kabir publisher, Teran., p. 74.
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[3]  Sarton, George in his book, the introduction to the history of sciences, 2003, translated by Afshar, Tehran, elmi publisher, p.693, 694, 677.
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[4]  Giddense, Anthony, 1994, sociology, cabbridge, p, 7, 811, 1824, 251, 305, 389, 455, 424, 564, 651, 655.
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[5]  Louise Mamford, The culture of cities, translated by Aghvami, center of architecture studies publisher, Tehran, 1990. p, 50, 63, 115.
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[6]  AL- Biruni, Travelogue, للهند. تحقیق ما - AL –Tohfa to mallhad, 1376/1996, bidar publisher, Qom. p,p,p,.
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[7]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, Analytic history of Andalusia, 2009, Almostafa publisher, Qom, p, p,p,
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[8]  IBN –AL – Jobayr, Travelogue, 1964, DarSader. p, 252, 297, 273, 206, 25, 193.
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[9]  Abdari, Travelogue, 1999, Tunisia, p, 575, 431, 148, 150, 48.
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[10]  Naser Khosro, Travelogue, 2001, Zavar publisher, Tehran, p,p,p,p.
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[11]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017what is local history , the case Sicily and Qom, Saray ketab publisher, Qom. P,p,p.
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[12]  AL-Edrisi, Nozhat –Al-Moshtagh, Travelogue of AL-Edrisi to Europe, Dar AL Manahel publisher, cairo, p.726, 861, 908.
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[13]  Ibn Sa'id, Al- geography, 1997, p,p,p,p,p.
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[14]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, Analytic history of Maghreb, 2009, Almostafa publisher, Qom.
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[15]  IBN –AL- Batuttah, Travelogue, 2002.
In article      
 
[16]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017, critical investigation at the references of historiography in the west of Islamic world. Andalusia, Maghreb, Ifriqyeh, Institute Of university publisher, Qom, Iran.
In article      
 
[17]  Leon AL- Ifriqy, Travelogue, 1983, Description of Afrique, Dar algharb publisher, bayrut. P,53, 70, 102, 208, 222, 253, 333.
In article      
 
[18]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017, Analytic history of Egypt, levant, Syria, methpotima, Saray ketab publisher, Qom.
In article      
 
[19]  Maghrizi, 1988, Madbuli publisher, Cairo. P, 138, 140.
In article      
 
[20]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, historical sociology of Ibn – Khaldun, October 2009, geography and history magazine, no150, p, 16, 17, 18, 19.
In article      
 
[21]  Ibn –Khaldun, Travelogue, 2003.
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[22]  Ibn –Khaldun, Al-Moghdemah, 1999, translated by Rosental, p, 236, 234, 233, 230.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Mohammadreza Shahidipak

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Mohammadreza Shahidipak. Anthropology in Medieval. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp 55-58. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/2/2/3
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Shahidipak, Mohammadreza. "Anthropology in Medieval." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2.2 (2018): 55-58.
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Shahidipak, M. (2018). Anthropology in Medieval. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2(2), 55-58.
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Shahidipak, Mohammadreza. "Anthropology in Medieval." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2, no. 2 (2018): 55-58.
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[1]  Conrad Philip, Kottak, 1997, university of Michigan,The McGraw companies. INC, p, 35, 409.
In article      
 
[2]  Georges Gurvitch, Treaty of sociology, 2004, translated by Parham, Amir Kabir publisher, Teran., p. 74.
In article      
 
[3]  Sarton, George in his book, the introduction to the history of sciences, 2003, translated by Afshar, Tehran, elmi publisher, p.693, 694, 677.
In article      
 
[4]  Giddense, Anthony, 1994, sociology, cabbridge, p, 7, 811, 1824, 251, 305, 389, 455, 424, 564, 651, 655.
In article      
 
[5]  Louise Mamford, The culture of cities, translated by Aghvami, center of architecture studies publisher, Tehran, 1990. p, 50, 63, 115.
In article      
 
[6]  AL- Biruni, Travelogue, للهند. تحقیق ما - AL –Tohfa to mallhad, 1376/1996, bidar publisher, Qom. p,p,p,.
In article      
 
[7]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, Analytic history of Andalusia, 2009, Almostafa publisher, Qom, p, p,p,
In article      
 
[8]  IBN –AL – Jobayr, Travelogue, 1964, DarSader. p, 252, 297, 273, 206, 25, 193.
In article      
 
[9]  Abdari, Travelogue, 1999, Tunisia, p, 575, 431, 148, 150, 48.
In article      
 
[10]  Naser Khosro, Travelogue, 2001, Zavar publisher, Tehran, p,p,p,p.
In article      
 
[11]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017what is local history , the case Sicily and Qom, Saray ketab publisher, Qom. P,p,p.
In article      
 
[12]  AL-Edrisi, Nozhat –Al-Moshtagh, Travelogue of AL-Edrisi to Europe, Dar AL Manahel publisher, cairo, p.726, 861, 908.
In article      
 
[13]  Ibn Sa'id, Al- geography, 1997, p,p,p,p,p.
In article      
 
[14]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, Analytic history of Maghreb, 2009, Almostafa publisher, Qom.
In article      
 
[15]  IBN –AL- Batuttah, Travelogue, 2002.
In article      
 
[16]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017, critical investigation at the references of historiography in the west of Islamic world. Andalusia, Maghreb, Ifriqyeh, Institute Of university publisher, Qom, Iran.
In article      
 
[17]  Leon AL- Ifriqy, Travelogue, 1983, Description of Afrique, Dar algharb publisher, bayrut. P,53, 70, 102, 208, 222, 253, 333.
In article      
 
[18]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, 2017, Analytic history of Egypt, levant, Syria, methpotima, Saray ketab publisher, Qom.
In article      
 
[19]  Maghrizi, 1988, Madbuli publisher, Cairo. P, 138, 140.
In article      
 
[20]  Shahidipak, Mohammadreza, historical sociology of Ibn – Khaldun, October 2009, geography and history magazine, no150, p, 16, 17, 18, 19.
In article      
 
[21]  Ibn –Khaldun, Travelogue, 2003.
In article      
 
[22]  Ibn –Khaldun, Al-Moghdemah, 1999, translated by Rosental, p, 236, 234, 233, 230.
In article