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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Socio-economic Impact of Tobacco Farming in Bangladesh

Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Fakrul Islam, Md. Redwanur Rahman , Mst. Rupali Akhtar, Iffat Ara, Arook Toppo, Akib Javed, Shobhan Das
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2018, 2(1), 31-35. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-2-1-6
Published online: July 11, 2018

Abstract

The study aims to understand the socio-economic condition of tobacco farming people in Bangladesh. The study is explorative and to some extent descriptive in nature that enforces to adopt mixed with qualitative and quantitative data as well as secondary and primary data. The primary data were collected from a structured questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and observation. It is found that among the tobacco labor most of them 30-39 years and among the tobacco businessman, 33.3% of the respondents aged 30-39 years while most of the farmer 40-49 years. More importantly, business related people own most of the terraced building and most of the businessman and fewest of the labors have electricity connection to their houses. Businessman respondents have the most income among all three groups and two third of them earn more than BDT 16000 per month. On the contrary, labors have the least income per month. Every two out of three labor earn less than BDT 6000 per month. It is cleared that economic development was achieved in all peoples’ life. But social condition became worsen in the study area and among this addiction is most common in the study area.

1. Introduction

Tobacco farming is not unfamiliar phenomenon in Bangladesh and it has been cultivating from the ancient time but nowadays commercial tobacco farming is matter is thinking. Tobacco (Nicotiana species) is an ancient and the most important and widely grown commercial non-food plant in the world 1. The plant tobacco belongs to the genus Nicotiana under the large family Solanaceae, the nightshade family 2. Sir Walter Raleigh is usually given the credit for having introduced tobacco into England 3.

Tobacco sickness is potentially preventable through the use of protective clothing, which reduces nicotine absorption in tobacco workers 4.

Tobacco has been introduced since mid-sixties of the last century into the fields where food crops were grown, and more widely after liberation in 1971 by the British American Tobacco Company in Teesta silt in Rangpur area 5.

Although Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) has conducted research and development activities of tobacco and abandoned in 1995, tobacco production has mainly been pushed by big multinational companies such as British American Tobacco Company through contract growers 6. Bangladesh is one of the largest tobacco consuming countries among South Asian countries 7. Bangladesh has become a net exporter in recent years, exporting about one-third of the tobacco grown 8.

It has no biomass that feeds back to the soil. The company purchases only the leaves that are grown. The rest of the plant remains on the ground and does more harm to the soil 9.

For decades tobacco production has moved from one location to another, due to the loss of soil fertility and destruction of sources of fuel wood in this area 10. In 2011, tobacco use killed almost 6 million people worldwide. If trends continue, 1 billion people will reportedly die from tobacco use and exposure during the 21st century one person every 10 seconds 11. Tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use impose a large and growing public health burden globally and in Bangladesh. Globally, tobacco use currently causes 5.4 million premature deaths each year, and current trends predict that one billion people will die from tobacco use in the 21st century 12.

About 70% of current tobacco-attributable deaths occur in low and middle-income countries 13. Tobacco use is estimated to kill approximately 57,000 people in Bangladesh each year about one in six of all deaths among people ages 30 years and older. As in other countries, the majority of these deaths result from lung and other cancers, strokes, ischemic heart and other cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. Estimates for 2004 indicate that the annual health care costs attributable to tobacco-related illnesses in Bangladesh were 50.9 billion takas (US$ 856 million), including 5.8 billion takas (US$ 9million) to treat the diseases caused by exposure to second hand tobacco smoke 14.

Tobacco sickness is frequently defined as a disease characterized by vomiting or nausea and dizziness or headache during or after exposure to the agent Nicotiana tabacumin tobacco leaves. However, GTS may also result in severe conditions such as dehydration and consequently in the need for emergency medical care 15.

Nicotine is water and lipid soluble alkaloid found in tobacco leaves 16 and harvesters who manually collect tobacco leaves absorb nicotine through the skin due to failure contact. During the tobacco harvesting process, a folk peasant’s hand and forearms receive the most exposure 17.

Environmental degradation is also caused by the tobacco plant, which leaches nutrients from the soil, as well as pollution from pesticides and fertilizers applied to tobacco fields 18. In the study area, people are cultivating tobacco more than 30 years but tobacco farming is spreading more firstly in last decade.

The researcher aim is to understand the socio-economic impact of tobacco farming on the community people of Rangpur region in Bangladesh.

2. Methods and Materials

The study is explorative and to some extent descriptive in nature that enforces to adopt mixed with qualitative and quantitative data as well as secondary and primary data. The primary data were collected from a structured questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and observation. The secondary data were collected from different sources such books and journals. The questionnaire survey was conducted based on purposive sampling which includes 384 respondents. The primary data were analyzed using various statistical software, such as, SPSS, MS Excel. Researcher used spatial software ARCGIS to produce map.

2.1. Study Area

For any type of research, it is necessary to select a study area for fulfillment of the objectives of the research, acceptability of the data is another reasons behind the selection to study area. In this study researcher observed the socio-economic status of tobacco farming people in Rangpur region. Because this area represents the tobacco cultivation and it impact in the northern part of Bangladesh. The people of Rangpur region is very much affected by tobacco cultivation. The present study was carried out in Rangpur region of Bangladesh. The researcher selected the area because it is one of the largest area covered by tobacco cultivation.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Residential Status and Living Facilities of the Respondents

From the beginning of the human civilization, houses of the inhabitant in an area were made of bamboo, straw, woods, tin, and so on. At present by analyzing the data of the respondents, it was seen around 56% respondents lived tin shaded and wooden building.

Most of the respondents have tin shaded residential building. Almost all of them are owned by them except a few live in demesne land. Electricity connection is only 40.9%. Except 12% all the respondents are local residence. In response to the question whether they have or haven’t place for recreation, 82.8% respondents replied to “no”.

3.2. Background and Household Possessions of Different Groups of People in the Sample

The table above shows, most of the respondents are in-between 30 to 49 age category. Most of the educated respondents are involved in business. Bamboo and straw made building are mostly seen among the labors. Business people own most of the terraced building. Most of the businessman and lest of the labors have electricity connection to their houses. Each one in four labor comes from outside the locality.

The table above shows, most of the respondents is in-between 30 to 49 age category. Most educated respondents are involved in business. Bamboo and straw made building are mostly seen among the labors. Business people own most of the terraced building. Most of the businessman and lest of the labor have electricity connection to their houses. Each one in four labor comes from outside the locality.

Tin shaded buildings are popular among all the respondents. But bamboo and straw made buildings mostly visible in labor community. Terraced buildings are mainly visible in business peoples.

Business peoples are enjoying more electricity in ratio than farmers and labors whereas labors have the least electricity connections.

3.3. Economic Impact of Tobacco Farming

The economic impact of tobacco cultivation has been analyzed from multi-dimensional perspective. The economic condition of the people of those districts situated in the most remote north of the Bangladesh is not so good in comparison to other parts of Bangladesh. Employment opportunity is so limited here. Due to tobacco cultivation a new gateway of employment was developed for of this region.

The farmers those who involve in tobacco farming many of them came to tobacco farming recent years. Within last 6-10 years 34.4% of current tobacco farmer came in to farming. Within last 5 years even more people engaged in tobacco farming. Most of the tobacco producers previously were a cereal crop producer. Total 85.4% respondents said it has changed their income in positive direction.

Only 14 percent of the tobacco farmer starts their profession as tobacco farmer. Other 86% of tobacco farmer actually changed their profession as tobacco producer. Most of them were farmer but use to produce cereal crops, vegetables or other food items. Only 11% people changed profession from day laboring.

Interestingly, 26.82% respondents said that their previous economic condition was bad and 3.13% said it was very bad. On the other hand, 7.03% said they were well previously and 5.21% said they were very good.

3.4. Social Problems due to Tobacco Cultivation

The respondents were asked about related problems regarding tobacco cultivation. In the following table, researcher has presented the problem related tobacco cultivation.

Around 46.35% of respondents said that conflicts broke out related to tobacco farming while 53.65% said it didn’t occur. Another, 15.36% respondents said movement formed regarding tobacco farming in their region. Total, 27.6% said fighting happens over tobacco cultivation. Similarly, 10 respondents report that extortion in transport and business sector happens in their region. Surprisingly, 20.31% respondents said forced tobacco farming happened in their locality and 5 respondents said they are forced to sell their land for tobacco farming.

Businessman respondents have the most income among all three groups. Two third of them earn more than 16000 BDT per month. On the contrary, labors have the least income per month. Every two out of three labor earn less than 6000 BDT per month.

The histogram shows the number of years farmers are involved in tobacco cultivation. Highest numbers of people engaged with tobacco cultivation are involved less than eight years. Which is clearly indicates that many new farmers are involving with tobacco farming.

3.5. Chi-square Test Between Category of Year of Cultivation and Increase in Income

To understand economic condition of the tobacco farming people is one of the major objective of this research. That is why researcher tried to find out relation between year of cultivation and economic development of the respondents.

Researcher has found that observed counts are different than expected count in the above crosstab. There are two expected count is less than 5 which is not exceeded the minimum assumption of chi-square test.

The Chi-square test table shows that the test is significant in 0.01 levels. The Pearson Chi-square test value is 20.446. From the Chi-square distribution table researcher found that the minimum value should be 13.277, whereas the degree of freedom is 4 and the p value is 0.01. So the Chi-square value is clearly exceeded the minimum value. Its mean the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.

From the symmetric measures table, researcher can see the Phi and Cramer’s V test results. The value 0.231 meaning is that the category of the year of cultivation has small to moderate effect on increase of income.

Results: With regard to the increase of income there is a significant difference among the category of years of cultivation. The chi-square (χ2) value shows the difference at 0.01 levels. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded that there exists a significant difference in increase of income among the respondents.

In context of Bangladesh, study on socio-economic condition of tobacco farming is not available, only one study done regarding food security 19 and another related to health and environmental impact of tobacco farming among the folk people 20.

4. Conclusion

Analyzing the overall scenario of this part it is found that economic development was achieved in all peoples’ life. But social condition became worsen in the study area. Among this addiction is most common in the study area.

References

[1]  Akehurst, B. C. Tobacco, Longman, Green and Co. Ltd. London & Harlow. 1968. 551 p.
In article      
 
[2]  Garner, W. W, “The Production of Tobacco. First Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York. 1951. 3-4.
In article      
 
[3]  Kipps, M.S, Wolfe, T. K., Production of Field Crops- A text book of Agronomy 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. 1970.
In article      PubMed
 
[4]  Ballard, T., Ehlers, J., Freund, E., Auslander, M., Brandt, V., & Halperin, W, “Green tobacco sickness: occupational nicotine poisoning in tobacco workers”. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 50(5). 1995.384-389.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Hossain, M. M., & Rahman, M. M, “A socioeconomic analysis on tobacco cultivation in Kushtia District of Bangladesh”. Social Sciences, 2(3). 2013. 128-134.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Beintema, N. M., Kabir, W., “Bangladesh”. Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators. ASTI Country Brief No. 34. July 2006. [Online]. Available: https://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Bangladesh_CB34.pdf [Accessed April. 29, 2018].
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Mackay, J., & Eriksen, M. P, The Tobacco Atlas”. World Health Organization, 2006.
In article      
 
[8]  Barkat, A., Chowdhury, A. U., Nargis, N., Rahman, M., Khan, M. S., & Kumar, A, “The economics of tobacco and tobacco taxation in Bangladesh,” in International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris. 2006.
In article      PubMed
 
[9]  Akhter, F, “Tobacco cultivation is harmful”. Daily New Age, Sunday, March, 27. 2011.
In article      
 
[10]  Das, B., Nusrat J. K., & Sardar A. U., “Environmental Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh: A Review of the Literature”. Social Change 5(1), 2015. 104p. [Online] Available: http://ypsa.org/ypsa/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Social_Change_Vol_5.pdf [Accessed April 29, 2018]
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Mackay, J., & Eriksen, M. P, “The Tobacco Atlas”. World Health Organization, 2002.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  World Health Organization, & Research for International Tobacco Control, WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package. World Health Organization. 2008.
In article      
 
[13]  The, W., “Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control”. Tobacco Control, 8(2). 1999. 196p.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  World Health Organization, Impact of Tobacco-related Illnesses in Bangladesh, New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia. 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Arcury, T. A., Quandt, S. A., & Preisser, J. S., “Predictors of incidence and prevalence of green tobacco sickness among Latino farmworkers in North Carolina, USA”. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 55(11). 2006. 818-824.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Dawson, R. F., Solt, M. L., & Christman, D. R., “Nicotine and its botanical sources”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 90(1), 2006. 7-12.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Green tobacco sickness in tobacco harvesters-Kentucky, 1992. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 42(13). 1993. 237p.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Geist, H. J., “Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming”. Tobacco control, 8(1). 1999. 18-28.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  Akhter, F, “Tobacco cultivation is harmful”. Daily New Age, Sunday, March, 27. 2011.
In article      
 
[20]  Mamun, AL A., Haque, B., Alam, A., & Sultana, R. “Minimization of Health and Environmental Hazards of Tobacco Among the Folk Community In Rural Bangladesh”. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, 1(2). 2013. 69-76.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Fakrul Islam, Md. Redwanur Rahman, Mst. Rupali Akhtar, Iffat Ara, Arook Toppo, Akib Javed and Shobhan Das

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Fakrul Islam, Md. Redwanur Rahman, Mst. Rupali Akhtar, Iffat Ara, Arook Toppo, Akib Javed, Shobhan Das. Socio-economic Impact of Tobacco Farming in Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp 31-35. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/2/1/6
MLA Style
Ali, Md. Yeamin, et al. "Socio-economic Impact of Tobacco Farming in Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2.1 (2018): 31-35.
APA Style
Ali, M. Y. , Islam, M. F. , Rahman, M. R. , Akhtar, M. R. , Ara, I. , Toppo, A. , Javed, A. , & Das, S. (2018). Socio-economic Impact of Tobacco Farming in Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2(1), 31-35.
Chicago Style
Ali, Md. Yeamin, Md. Fakrul Islam, Md. Redwanur Rahman, Mst. Rupali Akhtar, Iffat Ara, Arook Toppo, Akib Javed, and Shobhan Das. "Socio-economic Impact of Tobacco Farming in Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2, no. 1 (2018): 31-35.
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[1]  Akehurst, B. C. Tobacco, Longman, Green and Co. Ltd. London & Harlow. 1968. 551 p.
In article      
 
[2]  Garner, W. W, “The Production of Tobacco. First Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York. 1951. 3-4.
In article      
 
[3]  Kipps, M.S, Wolfe, T. K., Production of Field Crops- A text book of Agronomy 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. 1970.
In article      PubMed
 
[4]  Ballard, T., Ehlers, J., Freund, E., Auslander, M., Brandt, V., & Halperin, W, “Green tobacco sickness: occupational nicotine poisoning in tobacco workers”. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 50(5). 1995.384-389.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Hossain, M. M., & Rahman, M. M, “A socioeconomic analysis on tobacco cultivation in Kushtia District of Bangladesh”. Social Sciences, 2(3). 2013. 128-134.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Beintema, N. M., Kabir, W., “Bangladesh”. Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators. ASTI Country Brief No. 34. July 2006. [Online]. Available: https://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Bangladesh_CB34.pdf [Accessed April. 29, 2018].
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Mackay, J., & Eriksen, M. P, The Tobacco Atlas”. World Health Organization, 2006.
In article      
 
[8]  Barkat, A., Chowdhury, A. U., Nargis, N., Rahman, M., Khan, M. S., & Kumar, A, “The economics of tobacco and tobacco taxation in Bangladesh,” in International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris. 2006.
In article      PubMed
 
[9]  Akhter, F, “Tobacco cultivation is harmful”. Daily New Age, Sunday, March, 27. 2011.
In article      
 
[10]  Das, B., Nusrat J. K., & Sardar A. U., “Environmental Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh: A Review of the Literature”. Social Change 5(1), 2015. 104p. [Online] Available: http://ypsa.org/ypsa/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Social_Change_Vol_5.pdf [Accessed April 29, 2018]
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Mackay, J., & Eriksen, M. P, “The Tobacco Atlas”. World Health Organization, 2002.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  World Health Organization, & Research for International Tobacco Control, WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package. World Health Organization. 2008.
In article      
 
[13]  The, W., “Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control”. Tobacco Control, 8(2). 1999. 196p.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  World Health Organization, Impact of Tobacco-related Illnesses in Bangladesh, New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia. 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Arcury, T. A., Quandt, S. A., & Preisser, J. S., “Predictors of incidence and prevalence of green tobacco sickness among Latino farmworkers in North Carolina, USA”. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 55(11). 2006. 818-824.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Dawson, R. F., Solt, M. L., & Christman, D. R., “Nicotine and its botanical sources”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 90(1), 2006. 7-12.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Green tobacco sickness in tobacco harvesters-Kentucky, 1992. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 42(13). 1993. 237p.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Geist, H. J., “Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming”. Tobacco control, 8(1). 1999. 18-28.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  Akhter, F, “Tobacco cultivation is harmful”. Daily New Age, Sunday, March, 27. 2011.
In article      
 
[20]  Mamun, AL A., Haque, B., Alam, A., & Sultana, R. “Minimization of Health and Environmental Hazards of Tobacco Among the Folk Community In Rural Bangladesh”. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, 1(2). 2013. 69-76.
In article      View Article