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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

BriefTrends: Depression, Physical Activity (PA), and Overweight Status by Sex in U.S. Adults, 2017-2020

Peter D. Hart
Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2022, 7(1), 66-67. DOI: 10.12691/jpar-7-1-9
Received February 12, 2022; Revised March 17, 2022; Accepted March 25, 2022

Abstract

This BriefTrends highlights the sex differences in the physical activity (PA), overweight status, and depression relationship in U.S. adults.

1. Introduction

To examine the moderating effect of sex on the physical activity (PA), body weight, and depression relationship in adults.

2. Data Source

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-March to Pre-Pandemic 2020.

3. Population

United States (U.S.) adults 20+ years of age.

4. Variables

1) Meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (150+ minutes of recreational PA per week vs. < 150 minutes of recreational PA per week), 2) Overweight status (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 vs. BMI < 25 kg/m2), 3) Depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10 vs. PHQ-9 <10), and 4) Sex (male vs. female).

5. Analysis

Crosstabulations stratified by sex of PA, overweight status, and depression status with Rao-Scott chi-square test of independence (χ2RS), odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To formally test for the sex moderation effect, a multiple logistic regression model predicting depression was run with a sex-by-PA-by-overweight interaction. SAS Survey procedures were used, version 9.4.

6. Findings

Overall, prevalence of depression was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.48-9.42) with no significant differences across overweight status. Prevalence of depression was 5.2% (95% CI: 3.96-6.47) and 10.6% (95% CI: 9.45-11.66) for those meeting and not meeting PA guidelines, respectively (χ2RS = 46.0, p < .0001). Multiple logistic regression model predicting depression showed a significant (p = .0330) sex-by-PA-by-overweight interaction. Most noteworthy, PA appears to have a protective effect against depression in non-overweight females (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.47) (Figure 1) and in overweight males (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.23-0.65) (Figure 2).

References

[1]  Chen TC, Clark J, Riddles MK, Mohadjer LK, Fakhouri THI. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2015-2018: Sample design and estimation procedures. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(184). 2020.
In article      
 
[2]  Manea L, Gilbody S, McMillan D. Optimal cut-off score for diagnosing depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2012 Feb 21; 184(3): E191-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Hart, PD. Association of Joint Body Weight Profile and Physical Activity with Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Montana Adults. Journal of Physical Activity Research, vol. 6, no. 2 (2021): 101-104.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  SAS Institute Inc. 2015. SAS/STAT® 14.1 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Peter D. Hart

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Peter D. Hart. BriefTrends: Depression, Physical Activity (PA), and Overweight Status by Sex in U.S. Adults, 2017-2020. Journal of Physical Activity Research. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2022, pp 66-67. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jpar/7/1/9
MLA Style
Hart, Peter D.. "BriefTrends: Depression, Physical Activity (PA), and Overweight Status by Sex in U.S. Adults, 2017-2020." Journal of Physical Activity Research 7.1 (2022): 66-67.
APA Style
Hart, P. D. (2022). BriefTrends: Depression, Physical Activity (PA), and Overweight Status by Sex in U.S. Adults, 2017-2020. Journal of Physical Activity Research, 7(1), 66-67.
Chicago Style
Hart, Peter D.. "BriefTrends: Depression, Physical Activity (PA), and Overweight Status by Sex in U.S. Adults, 2017-2020." Journal of Physical Activity Research 7, no. 1 (2022): 66-67.
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[1]  Chen TC, Clark J, Riddles MK, Mohadjer LK, Fakhouri THI. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2015-2018: Sample design and estimation procedures. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(184). 2020.
In article      
 
[2]  Manea L, Gilbody S, McMillan D. Optimal cut-off score for diagnosing depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2012 Feb 21; 184(3): E191-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Hart, PD. Association of Joint Body Weight Profile and Physical Activity with Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Montana Adults. Journal of Physical Activity Research, vol. 6, no. 2 (2021): 101-104.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  SAS Institute Inc. 2015. SAS/STAT® 14.1 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
In article