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Cultivation Techniques of Secamone afzelii and Effect of its Ashes on Rats Prolactin Contains

Adepo Yapo Prosper , Kouassi Konan Armand Marcelin, Atto Virginie, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Biego Godi Henri, Koffi Kouadio Ernest, Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2022, 10(1), 35-38. DOI: 10.12691/jnh-10-1-5
Received April 22, 2022; Revised May 29, 2022; Accepted June 10, 2022

Abstract

Objectives: This study was carried out to assess effect of Secamone afzelii on lactation and perpetuate availability. Methodology: Sections of Secamone afzelii plants were cultured under natural conditions in the immediate environment and then observed for 7 days. The ethanol extract with or without ash of plant was administered orally to female rats at a dose of 225 mg/mL/kg bw, twice a day for 4 days. Then, the level of prolactin was measured in these animals. Results: The results of the cultivation technique of Secamone afzelii indicate a significant difference between stems with armpits and those without. The first mentioned produce buds unlike those without armpits. In addition, Secamone afzelii extract significantly increases the prolactin content in treated rats. The effect of the extract is potentiated by the ash of the same plant: the prolactin content in the rats treated with the extract + ash mixture is significantly higher than that of the rats treated only with the extract. Conclusion: It appears that the extract of Secamone afzelii (enriched or not in ash), would stimulate milk secretion in female rats. In addition, the cultivation techniques applied to this plant could promote its durability, availability and easy access.

1. Introduction

Exclusive breastfeeding is the act of feeding the newborn only with breast milk without the addition of water, decoctions, fruit juices, milk, herbal tea or other foods except prescribed drugs 1. The beneficial effect of colostrum is widely recognized for the health of young children. Colostrum, which is yellowish in color, is primary breast milk, very rich in antibodies essential for the development of infant immunity and for the effective fight against infections and/or conditions. Breast milk plays a key role in the protection of newborns against allergies 2, as well as in growth and physiology. Also, breast milk is a complete food and satisfies the nutritional needs of the newborn during its first months 3. Breast milk also increases psycho-emotional development in children 4.

However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 2.289 million children die in the first year of life worldwide. This is due to malnutrition, linked to improper feeding practices to which children are subjected 5. Faced the decisive role of appropriate nutrition, especially in infants, the WHO General Assembly recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of the child's life, followed by a weaning period that results in the addition of appropriate complementary foods, until around two years of age 2. The United Nations of International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) estimated in 2010 that the lives of 1.2 million children around the world could be saved each year if the practice were to become widespread 6.

In West and Central Africa, only 20% of young children under six months of age are exclusively breastfed 7. In rural areas, in most developing countries, malnutrition remains a major nutritional problem in infants and young children 8. In Côte d'Ivoire, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the child's age is 33.51% 9. This rate generally decreases gradually, going from 46.67% in the first month to 16.67% at the end of the first six months. The decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is linked to the decline in interest in this nutritional practice or may be related to socio-professional factors 9. Added to this is the increasingly growing inability to produce milk in particular in nursing women. This incapacity can be caused by insomnia, stress 10. Durable solutions for the stimulation of milk secretion remain very unlikely to this day.

Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) is a plant traditionally used to stimulate breast milk production in lactating women 11. This plant is widespread in West Africa including Côte d'Ivoire and has a wide ecological adaptation 12. However, its availability is currently difficult in dry seasons 13. This study is part of the vast program of mother-child health and nutrition-child health, initiated jointly by UNICEF and the Ministry of Public Health of Côte d'Ivoire. It aims to sustain the production of Secamone afzelii through cultivation techniques and optimize milk secretion by determining the effect of the ash of this plant on lactation in the spleen.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Plant Material

The plant material, identified at the National Floristic Center of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University in Abidjan, consists of the plant Secamone afzelii (Schult) K. Schum (Asclepiadaceae) with specimen number 120801. Samples of this plant were collected in Bingerville in the District of Abidjan.

2.2. Animal Material

Animal are adult female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), 14 weeks aged and weighing on average 255 ± 5 g. These rats were pre-screened at week 4 to avoid mating. The upkeep and feeding conditions were carried out according to standards. Animals were housed in groups of 6 in metabolic and metal cages. They were placed in conditions to isolate them from stress. In addition, solid and liquid metabolic wastes were removed daily to avoid microbial contamination.

2.3. Cultivation of Secamone afzelii Plant

Nine (9) plots, each containing five (5) Secamone afzelii plants were used. On each plot, all the plants were sectioned at the level of the stems. The severed part attached to the floor contained armpits. Another plot also containing seedlings cut at the stem level with the part fixed to the ground devoid of armpits served as a control. All the plots were assessed under the natural conditions of the immediate environment.

2.4. Preparation of Secamone afzelii Extract

Samples of Secamone afzelii (aerial part) were collected, washed, dried and then powdered. One hundred (100) grams of this powder was dissolved in 1.5 L of distilled water. The whole was heated at 80 to 90°C for 45 min. The resulting homogenate was cooled for 5 min and then filtered through a small mesh poplin cloth. To the residue obtained, one (1) L of distilled water was added. The whole was heated at 80 ° C for 30 min then filtered again. The collected filtrate was subjected to partial purification by adding an equal volume of ethanol to it. After stirring for 3 min, the mixture was stored in a cold room for 24 h and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The resulting pellet was dissolved in a small volume of water and then lyophilized. The powder obtained was the ethanol extract.

2.5. Ash Preparation

The ash content of Secamone afzeliia determined according to the A.O.A.C method 14. The ash was obtained by total incineration of the organic matter. To do this, one (1) g of sample was weighed and placed in porcelain crucibles previously weighed under vacuum. The whole was then placed in a muffle furnace (J.P SELECTA / Spain) at 520°C for 48 hours. The crucibles containing the ash were subsequently removed from the furnace and placed in a desiccator (GLASWERKWERTNEIM, 2 bars / Germany) for 5 min before being weighed.

2.6. Animal Experimentation

Four (4) groups of female rats were orally given different solutions (255 mg/mL/Kg bw) twice a day for 4 days: in the morning at 8 a.m. and in the evening at 4 p.m 15. Group 1 (control) received distilled water. Group 2 (reference) received galactogil. Group 3 received the ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii. Group 4 received the ethanol extract supplemented with the ash of Secamone afzelii. On the 5th day, blood was collected from all the rats and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min using a JOUAN centrifuge. The serum obtained was used for the determination of prolactin.

2.7. Determination of Prolactin in Serum

Prolactin was determined according to the method of Djiane et al. 16. The assay principle combines the Sandwich enzyme immunoassay method with a final fluorescence detection. Prolactin concentrations were calculated automatically using a VIDAS-type immunoanalyzer.

2.8. Statistical Analysis

Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance and differences between the means were determined by Neuwman-Keuls test using Statisticat 7.1 software. The difference between the values was significant when P <0.05.

3. Results

3.1. Domestication of Secamone afzelii

The results were obtained 7 days after sectioning the stems (Table 1), and indicate that the onset of growth of the stem sections results in the appearance of buds in the armpits. The growth by budding is observed in the plots containing the stems of Secamone afzelii with armpits. On the control plot, the stems without armpits present an absence of budding.

3.2. Ash Content

The ash content of Secamone afzelii is 2.44 ± 0.45%.

3.3. Effect of Secamone afzelii Extract on Prolactin Contents

For each substance administered, the plasma prolactin contents observed on all the groups of rats are presented in Table 2. The results show that the prolactin contents in the rats treated with the ethanol extract of S. afzelii and galactogil are significantly different than that of control rats (10.41 ± 0.11 ng/mL). The results also show that the ethanol extract of S. afzelii supplemented with ash significantly increased the prolactin content in the rats compared to that of the rats treated only with the ethanol extract.

4. Discussion

The cultivation technique applied to Secamone afzelii indicates that the growth results in the appearance of buds in the armpits of the stem sections in contact with the soil. The absence of armpits in control stems where any bud did not appear, shows that growth begins at the armpits level. The appearance of buds in the stem sections with armpits is a new growth or vegetative development observed. The application of this cultivation technique results in new plants of S. afzelii. Regeneration in S. afzelii by cultivation techniques that involve harvesting procedures was possible in view of the results by the application of a prior harvesting system. They could promote the sustainability of S. afzelii. Control of production for a significant yield would ensure that the plant can be recycled.

Concerning the ash of S. afzelii, the content (2.44 ± 0.45%) is comparable to those found in other plants (2.5%), reported by Heller 17. However, this value is low when compared to the total ash content reported by Kandalkar et al. 18 which is 5.5 ± 0.3%. Ash contents of the order of 5.5 ± 0.3% could be explained by the collection of plant samples, in arid and dry seasons.

The serum prolactin contents in the female rats treated with S. afzelii extract is significantly higher to that of the control rats (10.41 mg / mL). However, this value (11.35 ± 0.5 ng / mL) is significantly lower than that of rats treated with galactogil (15.26 ± 0.84 ng / mL). This result suggests the presence of an active lactogenic principle in the plant S. afzelii which would be pectins, acid polysaccharides 19. In fact, studies showed that pectins induce the production of prolactin 20, a hormone that stimulates breast development 21 and the secretion of β-casein 22. Normal values of this hormone in rat Rattus norvegicus are in the range 8.31-10.44 ng/mL 23. Beyond these values, prolactin induces milk secretion 23.

Regarding the prolactin content obtained in female rats treated with ethanol extract of S. afzelii supplemented with ash, it is significantly higher than that of the rats treated only with the ethanol extract. This could be explained by an additional supply of the extract of S. afzelii in minerals which would stimulate the production of prolactin. In fact, minerals constitute metal cofactors which would activate the enzymes involved in the induction of the production of prolactin. It should be noted that a mineral fraction composed of phosphorus and calcium is used in the manufacture of galactogil 24. This could justify the role of ashes sought in the milk secretion. The ash contained in the nutritional intake enhances the effectiveness of the active fractions on lactation 15.

5. Conclusion

This experimental study initiated a reproductive pathway for Secamone afzelii which can guarantee its sustainability throughout the year. It also shows that this plant contains substances with lactogenic power. The lactogenic potential would be enhanced by the presence of minerals in concerted action with the active principle. Easy access to the plant, in addition to its lactogenic potential, could constitute a lasting solution relating to milk secretion in lactating women.

Authors’ Contributions

KKE and KCS: designed and coordinated the study.

AYP: carried out the laboratory experiments.

KCO: provided analytical help and chemicals for the assays.

BGH: helped in analysis and interpretation of data

KKAM and AV: participated in the drafting the work or the revising.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the National Floristic Center of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny for botanical identification of the plant.

References

[1]  Kramer, M.S. and Kakuma, R., The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review. Adv Exp Med Biol., 554: 63-77, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  World Health Organization (WHO), breastfeeding, [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/nutrition/breastfeeding/fr/.[Accessed Sept. 2, 2020].
In article      
 
[3]  Triaa, B.I., Les déterminants du choix du mode d’allaitement: étude prospective auprès de 111 femmes à la maternité de Max Fourestier de Nanterre, Thèse de Doctorat de Médecine, Université Paris Diderot, 173 p, 2009, [Online]. Available: http://www.bichat-larib.com/publications.documents/3423_THESE_TRIAA.pdf. [Accessed July 9, 2020].
In article      
 
[4]  Siksou, J., Allaitement. In : Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. Vol 1, De Mijolla A, Ed. Calmann-Levy. Paris, 41-43, 2002.
In article      
 
[5]  Ministère de la santé publique et de la population, Unité de coordination du programme national d’alimentation et de nutrition (UCPNANU). Normes nationales relatives à l’alimentation du nourrisson, du jeune enfant sains et de ceux nés de mères, 2008.
In article      
 
[6]  United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), Un bon départ dans la vie: Améliorer l’allaitement maternel en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 20 p, 2010. [Visité le 09/07/2014]. [Online]. Available: http://www.unicef.org/cotedivoire/french/WCAR_Ameliorer-l-allaitement-en-Afrique-ouest-centre_FR.pdf. [Accessed Nov. 7, 2014].
In article      
 
[7]  Sokol, E., Aguayo, V.M. and Clark, D., Protéger l’allaitement maternel en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 25 années d’application du Code International sur la Commercialisation des Substituts du lait Maternel. Dakar: Unicef - Bureau Régional pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 44 p, 2007, [Online]. Available: http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/WCAR_Proteger_allaitement_maternel__Code_commercialisation_Fr.pdf. [Accessed July 9, 2020].
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[8]  Jelliffe, D.B. and Jelliffe, E.F., Community nutritional assessment. With special reference to less developed countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, e633, 1989.
In article      
 
[9]  Coulibaly, A., Ake, T. O., Benie, B. V. J., Traore, Y. and Dagnan, N., Facteurs socioprofessionnels et pratique de l'allaitement exclusif par les primipares à Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Santé Publique, 26(4), 555-562, Oct 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), Allaitement de nourrisson : les bases psychologiques. Bull. OMS, supplément au volume 67, 1989.
In article      
 
[11]  Adepo, Y.P, Evaluation du pouvoir lactogène de deux plantes Euphorbia hirta et Secamone afzelii du Sud de la Côte d’Ivoire sur les rates. Thèse de Doctorat de Biochimie et Sciences des Aliments, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, 147 p, 2013.
In article      
 
[12]  Kemeuze, V. A., Secamone afzelii (Schult.) K. Schum, In: Schmelzer, G. H and Gurib-Fakim, A, Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 2, Editors. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands, 11(2), 2010.
In article      
 
[13]  Le Bourgeois, T. H., Les mauvaises herbes dans la rotation cotonnière au Nord Cameroun (Afrique), Amplitude d'habitat et degré d'infestation - Cycle de développement, Thèse USTL Montpellier II, Montpellier, France, 241 p, 1993.
In article      
 
[14]  A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Agricult. Chem. 12ème Ed., Washington DC, USA.pp.75-80, 1975.
In article      
 
[15]  Houdebine, L.M., Sawadogo, L. and Sepehri, H., Etude de l’action lactogène de la bière. Exp. Sci. Française, 147: 1-4, 1990.
In article      
 
[16]  Djiane, J. and Kelly, P.A., Prolactine. "Médecine de la reproduction masculine" édité par Schaison, G., Bouchard ; P., Machoudeaux, J. and Labrie, F., Flammarion Médecine-Sciences - Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 141-146, 1984.
In article      
 
[17]  Heller, R., Recherche sur la nutrition minérale des tissus végétaux cultivés ″in vitro″. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Biol. Vég., 14:1-223, 1953.
In article      
 
[18]  Kandalkar, A.M., Manjunath, K.P., Sholapur H.P., Patel, A.M., and Darade S.S., Photochemical and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Euphorbia hirta Linn. Leaves, J. Pharm. Res., 2 (3): 349-352, March 2009.
In article      
 
[19]  Terry, M.E., Jones, R.L. and Bonner, B. A, Soluble cell wall polysaccharides released from pea stems by centrifugation: I. Effect of auxin, Plant Physiol., 68: 531-537, Sept 1981.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Carlson, H.E., Wasser, H.L. and Reidelberger, R.D., Beer-induced prolactin secretion: a clinical and laboratory study of the role of salsolinol, J. Clinic. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 60, 677-701, Apr 1985.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Delaram, E., Houri, S., Yasaman, R., Samideh, K. and Bahram, G., Pectic acid Effect on Prolactin Secretion in GH3/B6 Rat Pituitary Coll Line, Iran. Biomed. J., 12(3):167-172, July 2008.
In article      
 
[22]  Sawadogo L., Houdebine, L.M., Thibault, J.F., Rouau X., Ollivier-Bousquet, M., Effect of peptic on prolactin and growth hormone secretion in the ewe and on the induction of casein synthesis in the rat. Reprod. Nutr. Develop., 28: 293-301, 1988.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Genaro, G. and Shmidek, W. R., Social condition affects hormone secretion and exploratory behavior in rats (Rattus norvegicus), Braz. J. Med. Biol., 37(6), 833-840, June 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Vidal, Information de l’Afssaps imprimé par MAURY-Imprimeur-S. A.I 45330 MALESHERBES France. Dépôt légal 4ème trimestre, 80ème éd., 815 p, 2003.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Adepo Yapo Prosper, Kouassi Konan Armand Marcelin, Atto Virginie, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Biego Godi Henri, Koffi Kouadio Ernest and Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Adepo Yapo Prosper, Kouassi Konan Armand Marcelin, Atto Virginie, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Biego Godi Henri, Koffi Kouadio Ernest, Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin. Cultivation Techniques of Secamone afzelii and Effect of its Ashes on Rats Prolactin Contains. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. Vol. 10, No. 1, 2022, pp 35-38. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jnh/10/1/5
MLA Style
Prosper, Adepo Yapo, et al. "Cultivation Techniques of Secamone afzelii and Effect of its Ashes on Rats Prolactin Contains." World Journal of Nutrition and Health 10.1 (2022): 35-38.
APA Style
Prosper, A. Y. , Marcelin, K. K. A. , Virginie, A. , Olivier, C. K. , Henri, B. G. , Ernest, K. K. , & Séraphin, K. (2022). Cultivation Techniques of Secamone afzelii and Effect of its Ashes on Rats Prolactin Contains. World Journal of Nutrition and Health, 10(1), 35-38.
Chicago Style
Prosper, Adepo Yapo, Kouassi Konan Armand Marcelin, Atto Virginie, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Biego Godi Henri, Koffi Kouadio Ernest, and Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin. "Cultivation Techniques of Secamone afzelii and Effect of its Ashes on Rats Prolactin Contains." World Journal of Nutrition and Health 10, no. 1 (2022): 35-38.
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[1]  Kramer, M.S. and Kakuma, R., The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review. Adv Exp Med Biol., 554: 63-77, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  World Health Organization (WHO), breastfeeding, [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/nutrition/breastfeeding/fr/.[Accessed Sept. 2, 2020].
In article      
 
[3]  Triaa, B.I., Les déterminants du choix du mode d’allaitement: étude prospective auprès de 111 femmes à la maternité de Max Fourestier de Nanterre, Thèse de Doctorat de Médecine, Université Paris Diderot, 173 p, 2009, [Online]. Available: http://www.bichat-larib.com/publications.documents/3423_THESE_TRIAA.pdf. [Accessed July 9, 2020].
In article      
 
[4]  Siksou, J., Allaitement. In : Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. Vol 1, De Mijolla A, Ed. Calmann-Levy. Paris, 41-43, 2002.
In article      
 
[5]  Ministère de la santé publique et de la population, Unité de coordination du programme national d’alimentation et de nutrition (UCPNANU). Normes nationales relatives à l’alimentation du nourrisson, du jeune enfant sains et de ceux nés de mères, 2008.
In article      
 
[6]  United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), Un bon départ dans la vie: Améliorer l’allaitement maternel en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 20 p, 2010. [Visité le 09/07/2014]. [Online]. Available: http://www.unicef.org/cotedivoire/french/WCAR_Ameliorer-l-allaitement-en-Afrique-ouest-centre_FR.pdf. [Accessed Nov. 7, 2014].
In article      
 
[7]  Sokol, E., Aguayo, V.M. and Clark, D., Protéger l’allaitement maternel en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 25 années d’application du Code International sur la Commercialisation des Substituts du lait Maternel. Dakar: Unicef - Bureau Régional pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. 44 p, 2007, [Online]. Available: http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/WCAR_Proteger_allaitement_maternel__Code_commercialisation_Fr.pdf. [Accessed July 9, 2020].
In article      
 
[8]  Jelliffe, D.B. and Jelliffe, E.F., Community nutritional assessment. With special reference to less developed countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, e633, 1989.
In article      
 
[9]  Coulibaly, A., Ake, T. O., Benie, B. V. J., Traore, Y. and Dagnan, N., Facteurs socioprofessionnels et pratique de l'allaitement exclusif par les primipares à Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Santé Publique, 26(4), 555-562, Oct 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), Allaitement de nourrisson : les bases psychologiques. Bull. OMS, supplément au volume 67, 1989.
In article      
 
[11]  Adepo, Y.P, Evaluation du pouvoir lactogène de deux plantes Euphorbia hirta et Secamone afzelii du Sud de la Côte d’Ivoire sur les rates. Thèse de Doctorat de Biochimie et Sciences des Aliments, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, 147 p, 2013.
In article      
 
[12]  Kemeuze, V. A., Secamone afzelii (Schult.) K. Schum, In: Schmelzer, G. H and Gurib-Fakim, A, Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 2, Editors. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands, 11(2), 2010.
In article      
 
[13]  Le Bourgeois, T. H., Les mauvaises herbes dans la rotation cotonnière au Nord Cameroun (Afrique), Amplitude d'habitat et degré d'infestation - Cycle de développement, Thèse USTL Montpellier II, Montpellier, France, 241 p, 1993.
In article      
 
[14]  A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Agricult. Chem. 12ème Ed., Washington DC, USA.pp.75-80, 1975.
In article      
 
[15]  Houdebine, L.M., Sawadogo, L. and Sepehri, H., Etude de l’action lactogène de la bière. Exp. Sci. Française, 147: 1-4, 1990.
In article      
 
[16]  Djiane, J. and Kelly, P.A., Prolactine. "Médecine de la reproduction masculine" édité par Schaison, G., Bouchard ; P., Machoudeaux, J. and Labrie, F., Flammarion Médecine-Sciences - Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 141-146, 1984.
In article      
 
[17]  Heller, R., Recherche sur la nutrition minérale des tissus végétaux cultivés ″in vitro″. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Biol. Vég., 14:1-223, 1953.
In article      
 
[18]  Kandalkar, A.M., Manjunath, K.P., Sholapur H.P., Patel, A.M., and Darade S.S., Photochemical and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Euphorbia hirta Linn. Leaves, J. Pharm. Res., 2 (3): 349-352, March 2009.
In article      
 
[19]  Terry, M.E., Jones, R.L. and Bonner, B. A, Soluble cell wall polysaccharides released from pea stems by centrifugation: I. Effect of auxin, Plant Physiol., 68: 531-537, Sept 1981.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Carlson, H.E., Wasser, H.L. and Reidelberger, R.D., Beer-induced prolactin secretion: a clinical and laboratory study of the role of salsolinol, J. Clinic. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 60, 677-701, Apr 1985.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Delaram, E., Houri, S., Yasaman, R., Samideh, K. and Bahram, G., Pectic acid Effect on Prolactin Secretion in GH3/B6 Rat Pituitary Coll Line, Iran. Biomed. J., 12(3):167-172, July 2008.
In article      
 
[22]  Sawadogo L., Houdebine, L.M., Thibault, J.F., Rouau X., Ollivier-Bousquet, M., Effect of peptic on prolactin and growth hormone secretion in the ewe and on the induction of casein synthesis in the rat. Reprod. Nutr. Develop., 28: 293-301, 1988.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Genaro, G. and Shmidek, W. R., Social condition affects hormone secretion and exploratory behavior in rats (Rattus norvegicus), Braz. J. Med. Biol., 37(6), 833-840, June 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Vidal, Information de l’Afssaps imprimé par MAURY-Imprimeur-S. A.I 45330 MALESHERBES France. Dépôt légal 4ème trimestre, 80ème éd., 815 p, 2003.
In article