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Paleoenvironmental Recontruction of Tertiary Sediments in F-Field, Greater Ughelli Depobelt Niger Delta Basin

Ononeme O.E, Lucas F.A, Fregene T.J
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2021, 9(1), 24-27. DOI: 10.12691/jgg-9-1-3
Received March 10, 2021; Revised April 24, 2021; Accepted May 07, 2021

Abstract

Paleoenvironmental recontruction of tertiary sediments in F- field, greater Ughellidepobelt Niger delta basin was carried out using Fifty (50) Ditch Cutting samples at different intervals between 2,010ft and 10,170ft, prepared using palynological sample processing technique and analyzed under the microscope. A total of 4,243 palynomorphs were recovered, the presence of diagnostic palynomorphs such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus, Verrucatosporites usmensis and dinocysts such as spiniferites sp, sumatradinium hispidicum, Lingulodinium machaerophorum aided in the establishment of two varying paleoenvironments which are Continental – Transitional Environment and Paralic (Inner Neritic) Environments. The Continental – Transitional settings is suggested from depths (15ft to 7,800ft) based on the abundance of miospore (pollen and spore) such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus and Verrucatosporites usmensis and the absence of dinocysts. The Paralic (Inner Neritic) Environment was defined at depths (7,830ft – 10,185ft). This environment was suggested due to the presence of dinocysts such as spiniferites sp, sumatradinium hispidicum and Lingulodinium machaerophorum.

1. Introduction

The Niger Delta Basin is economically important because of its petroliferous nature and the economy of Nigeria depends largely on the oil and gas derived from it. Geologically, it is found in the Tertiary period in the geologic column. It lies mainly in the Gulf of Guinea to the southwest of the Benue – Trough and constitutes the most important Cenozoic deltaic construction in the South Atlantic. The combination of source rock, lithologic types, structures and thermal history of the basin are favorable for the generation, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons 13, 14.

The use of lithofacie and palynology as tools and components in evaluating sedimentary pile and basin analysis has become increasingly important in recent times as seen in works by 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15.

Palynology is the study of palynomorphs and is an essential tool for dating rocks and identifying the biotic record through time. Palynological study is necessary for correlation, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, paleogeography and calculating rates of geologic processes. It is essential to the petroleum industry as a tool for defining geologic constraints on prediction of exploration risk and modeling reservoir simulation. Palynomorphs are acid resistant organic-walled Microscopic plants and animals remains preserved in rocks. These include pollen, spores, Dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts), acritarchs etc. By the term acid resistant we mean they survive the HF, HCl and HNO3 .acid treatment used to demineralized rocks samples in which these forms could be possibly contained or preserved. This study is aimed at establishing a palynological zonation and age of deposition of the sediments.

2. Materials and Method

Fifty (50) Ditch Cutting samples at different intervals between 2,010ft and 10,170ft of OG#1 Well were prepared using standard palynological sample processing technique and analyzed for further studies.

2.1. Palynological Sample Preparation

The sample preparation was carried out following the international standards given below:

10g of sample was crushed between aluminum pie dishes, collected and tested for limestone (CaC03) using HCl, while effervescence occurred, the limestone was eliminated by further addition treatment with concentrated HCl.

After two or three hours, the sample was decanted and the waste solution transferred to one special waste container bottle. The broken down mineral material and fossils were removed and centrifuged for about 1-2 minutes and decanted repeatedly until a neutral reaction was reached. Concentrated HNO3 was used for oxidization and heated over bunsen burner. KOH of 10% solution was added to the sample and transferred to styrofoam cups and HF added and let to stand overnight. The sample was then washed with water until a neutral reaction was reached and decanted. Sodium hypochlorite (Purex) as well as some drops of HCl was added, agitated and let for about 15 minutes. Two drops of Ammonium Hydroxide concentrate was added and diluted with water. At this stage, separation of the organic matter from the inorganic material (silica) was done by floatation using diluted zinc bromide (ZnBr).

The samples were transferred to a flexible plastic tubes, already prepared (cut and mount immersed into warm water); such plastic tubes are set into centrifuge tubes with water around them. Zinc bromide has a specific gravity of 2.2 thus, everything with a specific gravity of more than 2.2 will settle down. The process of centrifugation using zinc bromide took about 15 minutes. A small portion of the supernatant liquid was observed under the microscope. Then, a clip across the flexible plastic tube was inserted so that the supernatant liquid would be easy to take out by pipette decantation or eye dropper.

Microscopic view of the supernatant liquid decided how to clean, run acetolysis or stain. Add acetic anhydride and three of four drops of H2SO4 to take out the water, then immerse test tube in boiling water for about ten minutes. The sample was properly washed at each stage. Here, it was ready for cleaning and mounting; during this stage several views under the microscope accomplished with some attempt to get mainly fossil material was done.

The palynomorph counting and logging were done by straight transects across each slide and coordinates. The recovered palynomorphs species were identified with the aid of Shell palynological photo album, other relevant publications and manuals such as web-based albums. Morphological characters of the pollens and spores such as the size, exine, structure, shape, sculpture and aperture type provided the basis for the identification of the forms. Species name and their abundance were recorded in the analysis data sheets.

3. Result and Discussion

Diagnostic Palynomorphs that were important and environmentally indispensable were recovered in the analyzed samples and plotted in order to interpret the P-zones, age and paleoenvironment of deposition of sediments. A total of 4243 palynomorphs were recovered, the pollen and spores recovered are relatively moderate in abundance.

PALYNOMORPHS DISTRIBUTION CHART

A thorough distribution chart showing the stratigraphic ranges of the palynomorph in the Well was established based on the First Appearance Datum (Last Downhole Occurrence) and the Last Appearance Datum (First Downhole Occurrence) of each palynomorph recognized in the well section. The recovered palynomorphs are listed below.

The Miospore recovered are: Acrostichum aureum (smooth trilete spore,) Aletesporites sp, Arecipites exilimuratus Bombacacidites sp, Cicatricosisporites dorogenesis, Cingulatisporites ornatus, Cingulatisporites cingulatus,Cinctiperiporites mulleri, Classopollis sp, Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni, Cupaniodites reticularis, Cyperoceapollis sp, Dichtyphidiles. Harassi, Dualaidites laevigatus, Dualaidites sp, Echimonocolpites rarispimosus, Echiperiporites estelae, Echistephanoporites echinatus, Echitricolporites spinosus, Echitriletes pliocenicus, Elaeis guineenses, Ericipites sp, Filtrotriletes nigeriensis, Foveotriletes margaritae, Gemmamonocolpites gematus sp, Gemmamonoporites sp, Gematricolpites scabratus, Gemmatriporites sp, Laevigatosporites, Lycopodium sp, Marginipollis concinnus, Monoporites annulatus, Nympeapollis clarus, Omnipites africanus, Pachydermites diederixi, Perfotricolporites digitatus, Perisyncolpites pokornyi, Peregrinipollis nigericus, Poladopollenites vancampori, Polypediaceisporites sp, Praedapollis africanus, Praedapollis flexibilis, Proteacidites longispinosus, Proxapertites operculatus, Psilaheterecolpites sp, Psilatricolporites crassus, Psilatricolporites operculatus, Psilatricolporites rotundiporis, Psilatriporites sp, Psilamonocolpites marginatus, Racemonocolpites hians, Retibrevitricolporites obodoensis, Retibrevitricolporites protrudens, Retistephanocolpites williamsii, Retitricolporites crassireticulatus, Retitricolporites irregularis, Retricolpites sp, Rugulatisporite caperatus, Sapotaceae pollinites, Scabratriporites simpliformis, Spirosyncoporites brunnii, Stereisporites sp, Striatmonocolpites rectostriattus, Striatricolpites catatumbus, Striatricolporites pimulus, syncolpites marginatus, Triorites africaensis, Verrucatosporites usmensis, Verrutricolporites rotundiporis, Zonocostites ramonae.

Paleoenvironment of Deposition

Paleoenvironmental interpretations has been made by incorporating quantitative palynological data such as their occurrence and distribution . Two (2) depositional environments have been deduced: Continental - Transitional and Paralic environment.

Continental – Transitional Environment: (15ft – 8,790ft).

A Continental – Transitional settings is suggested from 15ft – 7,800ft based on the abundance of miospore (pollen and spore) such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus and Verrucatosporites usmensis which are terrestial speciesand the absence of dinocysts which are marine species as seen in the distribution chart of the well.

Paralic (Inner Neritic) Environment: (7,830ft – 10,185ft).

This environment is defined due to the presence of marine dinocysts such as spiniferites sp,sumatradinium hispidicum, Lingulodinium machaerophorum and the few occurrence of terrestial miospores such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus and Verrucatosporites usmensis within 7,830ft – 10,185ft of the studied Well section.

4. Conclusion

The Palynological analysis of the studied samples was used to determine the Paleoevironment of the sediments. The pollen and spores recovered are relatively moderate in abundance with the presence of diagnostic palynomorphs such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus and Verrucatosporites usmensis and dinocysts such as spiniferites sp, sumatradinium hispidicum, Lingulodinium machaerophorum whichaided in the establishment of the Paleoevironmen.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Nigerian Petroleum Development Company (NPDC) Benin and Earth Probe Ltd Lagos for their assistance in this research.

References

[1]  Allmon, W.D. “In Defense of Paleontology”, Geotimes November 1993, pp. 1-5.
In article      
 
[2]  Chiaghanam, O.I., Nwozor, K.K., Chiadikobi, K.C., Omoboriowo, A.O., Soronnadi- Ononiwu, C .G., Onuba, L.N. and Ofoma, A.E. “Lithofacies, Palynology and Paleoenvironmental Study of Early Campanian to Mid-Maastrichtian Deposits of Udi and Environs”. Int. Journ. of Sci. and Tech, Vol. 2, (2013).pp. 14-16.
In article      
 
[3]  IghodaroEhika, J. et al. “Sedimentological Resolution Of Hydrocarbon Play Elements Of OGE-#1 Well, Greater Ughelli Depo-Belt, Niger Delta Basin.” International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 5 (2016): 173-183.
In article      
 
[4]  Lucas, F.A. “Microphytoplankton and Geological Boundaries in Maastrichtian to Lutetian Succession of Ajire-1 well, Anambra Basin, Nigeria”. International Journal of Science and Advanced Innovative Research, Vol. 2(1), (2017).pp. 49-65.
In article      
 
[5]  Lucas, F.A.“Miospores and Geological Boundaries in Maastrichtian to Lutetian Succession of Ajire-1 well, Anambra Basin, Nigeria”. International Journal of Science and Advanced Innovative Research, Vol. 2(1), (2017). pp. 74-84.
In article      
 
[6]  Lucas, F.A and Fregene T.J .Palynological zonation of Oligocene to early Miocene sediments of Greater Ughellidepobelt, Niger Delta basin. Journal of applied sciences and environmental management (JASEM) December (2017), Vol.21 (7). pp 1341-1345.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Lucas, F.A and Fregene T.J. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Oligocene to early Miocene sediments of Greater Ughellidepobelt, Niger Delta basin. Journal of applied sciences and environmental management (JASEM) January (2018), Vol.22 (1). pp 99-102.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Lucas F.A and Omodolor Hope E. Palynofacies Analysis, Organic Thermal Maturation and Source Rock Evaluation of Sedimentary Succession from Oligocene to Early Miocene Age in X2 Well, Greater UghelliDepoBelt, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 85-93.
In article      
 
[9]  Lucas F.A and Omodolor Hope E. Lithofacies Characterization of Sedimentary Succession from Oligocene to Early Miocene Age in X2 Well, Greater Ughelli Depo Belt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 77-84.
In article      
 
[10]  Nwozor, K.R., Omudu, M.I., Ozumba, B.M., Egbuachor, C.J., Onwuemesi, A.G. and Anike, O.L. “Quantitative evidence of secondary mechanisms of overpressure generation: Insights from parts of Onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria”, petr. Techn. Dev. Jour., Vol. 3(1), (2013). pp. 64-83.
In article      
 
[11]  Oloto, I.N. “Nigerian Maastrichtian to Miocene Dinoflagellate and miosporeBiozonation-A summary”, Journal of Mining and Geoscience, Vol. 30, (1994). pp. 61-73.
In article      
 
[12]  Onyeanusi Peter Obinna, Udoh Monday Udofia, Imasuen I O, Tsaku Stephen, Omodolor Hope E and Aduomahor Benedict Oghenemaro. The Effect of Facies Changes on Hydrocarbon Production in Osisioma Field, Onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 35-40.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Stacher, P. “Present understanding of the Niger Delta hydrocarbon habitat, In: Oti, MN. and Postma, G. (Eds.), Geology of Deltas” Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, (1995). pp. 257-267.
In article      
 
[14]  Whiteman, A.J. “Nigeria: Its Petroleum Geology, Resources and Potential”. Graham and Trotman, London (1982). pp. 1-394.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Germeraad, J.H., Hopings, C.A. and Muller, J. “Palynology of Tertiary Sediments from tropical areas. Reviewof Paleobotany and Palynology”. Elsevier publishing company, Amesterdam 6, (1968), pp. 189-348.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Ononeme O.E, Lucas F.A and Fregene T.J

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Ononeme O.E, Lucas F.A, Fregene T.J. Paleoenvironmental Recontruction of Tertiary Sediments in F-Field, Greater Ughelli Depobelt Niger Delta Basin. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2021, pp 24-27. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jgg/9/1/3
MLA Style
O.E, Ononeme, Lucas F.A, and Fregene T.J. "Paleoenvironmental Recontruction of Tertiary Sediments in F-Field, Greater Ughelli Depobelt Niger Delta Basin." Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics 9.1 (2021): 24-27.
APA Style
O.E, O. , F.A, L. , & T.J, F. (2021). Paleoenvironmental Recontruction of Tertiary Sediments in F-Field, Greater Ughelli Depobelt Niger Delta Basin. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 9(1), 24-27.
Chicago Style
O.E, Ononeme, Lucas F.A, and Fregene T.J. "Paleoenvironmental Recontruction of Tertiary Sediments in F-Field, Greater Ughelli Depobelt Niger Delta Basin." Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics 9, no. 1 (2021): 24-27.
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[1]  Allmon, W.D. “In Defense of Paleontology”, Geotimes November 1993, pp. 1-5.
In article      
 
[2]  Chiaghanam, O.I., Nwozor, K.K., Chiadikobi, K.C., Omoboriowo, A.O., Soronnadi- Ononiwu, C .G., Onuba, L.N. and Ofoma, A.E. “Lithofacies, Palynology and Paleoenvironmental Study of Early Campanian to Mid-Maastrichtian Deposits of Udi and Environs”. Int. Journ. of Sci. and Tech, Vol. 2, (2013).pp. 14-16.
In article      
 
[3]  IghodaroEhika, J. et al. “Sedimentological Resolution Of Hydrocarbon Play Elements Of OGE-#1 Well, Greater Ughelli Depo-Belt, Niger Delta Basin.” International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 5 (2016): 173-183.
In article      
 
[4]  Lucas, F.A. “Microphytoplankton and Geological Boundaries in Maastrichtian to Lutetian Succession of Ajire-1 well, Anambra Basin, Nigeria”. International Journal of Science and Advanced Innovative Research, Vol. 2(1), (2017).pp. 49-65.
In article      
 
[5]  Lucas, F.A.“Miospores and Geological Boundaries in Maastrichtian to Lutetian Succession of Ajire-1 well, Anambra Basin, Nigeria”. International Journal of Science and Advanced Innovative Research, Vol. 2(1), (2017). pp. 74-84.
In article      
 
[6]  Lucas, F.A and Fregene T.J .Palynological zonation of Oligocene to early Miocene sediments of Greater Ughellidepobelt, Niger Delta basin. Journal of applied sciences and environmental management (JASEM) December (2017), Vol.21 (7). pp 1341-1345.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Lucas, F.A and Fregene T.J. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Oligocene to early Miocene sediments of Greater Ughellidepobelt, Niger Delta basin. Journal of applied sciences and environmental management (JASEM) January (2018), Vol.22 (1). pp 99-102.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Lucas F.A and Omodolor Hope E. Palynofacies Analysis, Organic Thermal Maturation and Source Rock Evaluation of Sedimentary Succession from Oligocene to Early Miocene Age in X2 Well, Greater UghelliDepoBelt, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 85-93.
In article      
 
[9]  Lucas F.A and Omodolor Hope E. Lithofacies Characterization of Sedimentary Succession from Oligocene to Early Miocene Age in X2 Well, Greater Ughelli Depo Belt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 77-84.
In article      
 
[10]  Nwozor, K.R., Omudu, M.I., Ozumba, B.M., Egbuachor, C.J., Onwuemesi, A.G. and Anike, O.L. “Quantitative evidence of secondary mechanisms of overpressure generation: Insights from parts of Onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria”, petr. Techn. Dev. Jour., Vol. 3(1), (2013). pp. 64-83.
In article      
 
[11]  Oloto, I.N. “Nigerian Maastrichtian to Miocene Dinoflagellate and miosporeBiozonation-A summary”, Journal of Mining and Geoscience, Vol. 30, (1994). pp. 61-73.
In article      
 
[12]  Onyeanusi Peter Obinna, Udoh Monday Udofia, Imasuen I O, Tsaku Stephen, Omodolor Hope E and Aduomahor Benedict Oghenemaro. The Effect of Facies Changes on Hydrocarbon Production in Osisioma Field, Onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2): 35-40.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Stacher, P. “Present understanding of the Niger Delta hydrocarbon habitat, In: Oti, MN. and Postma, G. (Eds.), Geology of Deltas” Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, (1995). pp. 257-267.
In article      
 
[14]  Whiteman, A.J. “Nigeria: Its Petroleum Geology, Resources and Potential”. Graham and Trotman, London (1982). pp. 1-394.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Germeraad, J.H., Hopings, C.A. and Muller, J. “Palynology of Tertiary Sediments from tropical areas. Reviewof Paleobotany and Palynology”. Elsevier publishing company, Amesterdam 6, (1968), pp. 189-348.
In article      View Article