Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Review Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Potential Effects of Pigmented rice on Immunity: A Review Focusing on Anthocyanins, Gamma-oryzanol, and Arabinoxylan

Ayoung Lee , Juyeon Ko, Su-Jin Ahn, Hyung Joo Kim, Seung-Sik Min, Eunmi Kim
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(1), 26-31. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-1-4
Received November 16, 2020; Revised December 21, 2020; Accepted January 04, 2021

Abstract

Functional food ingredients from natural sources are gaining popularity for treating chronic inflammation associated with metabolic diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, and obesity) due to their lower toxicity and no severe side effects. Pigmented rice is a natural food source in Korea commonly consumed in the whole grain form to improve the immune system. In particular, pigmented rice bran contains various nutritional components involved in the immune benefits. Of many nutrients in pigmented rice bran, anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, and arabinoxylan have notably shown to enhance natural killer cell activity and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Especially, pigmented rice has higher amounts of anthocyanins and gamma-oryzanol than white rice. In this review, to provide further insight into the immune effects of the pigmented rice, we have focused on the immune benefits of bioactive substances (e.g., anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, and arabinoxylan) from pigmented rice compared to white rice. The pigmented rice has potential effects on immunity, and it can be used as a functional food.

1. Introduction

Aging is associated with an increase in oxidative stress that declines an immune system. Progress of aging and chronic inflammation with increased oxidative stress has negatively influenced cell function 1. Inflammation is highly associated with immune reactions, which act as a body defense against infection 2. Chronic inflammation is prolonged inflammation contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity 3. Thus, it is important to treat chronic inflammation to reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders. Meanwhile, functional food has gained attention that they play a crucial role in providing health benefits and reducing health risks. Consumers are also interested in the immunomodulatory properties of functional food ingredients, having a relatively low toxicity.

Pigmented rice mainly shows three colors, such as black, purple, and red 4. They are accumulated in the pericarp and bran layer of the rice 4. Pigmented rice has been widely consumed in Korea, China, and Japan for a long time due to its unique color, flavor, and health benefits 5. Asian countries account for more than 60 % of the global production of black rice 6. Interestingly, the demand for pigmented rice intake has also increased in European countries and the U. S. Pigmented rice is a great food source for health-improving properties such as anti-oxidant and anticancer activities enhancing immune function 7. It contains a high level of several bioactive components, e.g., anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, phenolic acid, phytic acid, tocols, amino acids, and essential oils 5, 8. Previous studies reported that pigmented rice has two to three times higher content of anthocyanins and gamma-oryzanol than non-pigmented rice 9, 10. Of several bioactive components in the pigmented rice, anthocyanins act as the most powerful anti-oxidants that directly scavenge free radicals, repair DNA and damaged cells, and augment immunocompetent cells 2. Gamma-oryzanol also exhibits a higher level of anti-oxidant activity compared to vitamin E components such as tocopherols and tocotrienols 11. In the animal study, gamma-oryzanol isolated from black rice has stimulated the innate response 12 and induced natural killer (NK) cell activity 13. Moreover, arabinoxylan processed by hemicellulose from rice bran has been shown to induce NK cell activity associated with enhancing innate immunity 14, 15. Arabinoxylan isolated from black-pigmented rice bran reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, which are associated with lowering inflammation 16, 17. The soluble fiber in the pigmented rice bran showed to inhibit inflammatory cytokine expression 18.

Compared with non-pigmented rice, the effects of bioactive substances (e.g., anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, and arabinoxylan) from pigmented rice on immunity have summarized poorly. In this current study, we investigated the potential effects of pigmented rice on immunity.

2. Major Bioactive Compounds that Involve in the Immune System

2.1. Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins are edible and water-soluble plant pigments belonging to the flavonoid group, a subclass of the polyphenols 19, 20. Because of its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-allergic activities, anthocyanins have been considered a key bioactive compound 21, 22. Anthocyanins also improve immunocompetent cell activity, scavenge free radicals, repair DNA and damaged cells 2. The high level of anti-oxidant capacity particularly has been influenced by the phenolic structure of anthocyanins resulting in a significant effect of scavenging free radicals 23, 24. Anthocyanins are mostly located within the pericarp and bran layer of rice 4. Cyanidin 3-glucoside (95%) and peonidin 3-glucoside (5%) are dominant in pigmented rice such as black rice and red rice 25, 26, 27. The major anthocyanins of pigmented rice bred in Korea (Heugjinjubyeo, Suwon 425, and Iksan 440) are cyanidin 3-glucoside (95.1-97.4%) and peonidin 3-glucoside (2.6-4.9%) 28. Similarly, the major anthocyanins cultivars in China (Cheng-Chang, Kilimheugmi, Yongjung 4, and Hong-Shei-Lo) are cyanidin 3-glucoside (87.4-97.0%) and peonidin 3-glucoside (3.0-12.6%) 28. The anti-oxidant activity of pigmented rice cultivars has been higher than that of non-pigmented rice cultivar 28, 29. The total anthocyanin contents of the pigmented rice extracts have been associated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity 28. However, the various conditions such as changes in temperature, pH, light, oxygen, and metal ions have negatively impacted the activities of anthocyanins 30, 31.

Consumption of anthocyanins in the pigmented rice has a potential for enhancing immunity (Table 1). Anthocyanins and their metabolites (e.g., syringic, p-coumaric, 4-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids) have been associated with a favorable bacterial population that modulates inflammatory markers 3. For example, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown an elevated growth of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp. after administration of anthocyanin-rich products 32. Wang et al. (2015) observed that two beneficial bacteria strains, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have been associated with attenuating the inflammation in rodent intestinal microbiota 33. D’Argenio G et al. (2013) also unveiled that Lactobacillus paracasei alleviated the inflammation in rodents 34. Rodes et al. (2013) reported that Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains had been involved with the ability to reduce TNF-alpha 35. Further, a 2018 study investigating the modulatory effects of anthocyanins from black-colored rice in vitro found that anthocyanins were metabolized into smaller molecules by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus, suggesting a prebiotic potential 36. In terms of modulating inflammatory markers, anthocyanins downregulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathway (the initiator of the pro-inflammatory pathway 37, 38, 39 via decreasing plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines 37. According to the 8-week open-label clinical trial, the daily consumption of 215 mg anthocyanins (extracted from black rice, blueberry, and black currant) and 2.7 g prebiotic fibers modulated intestinal microbiota and inflammation positively 40. Anthocyanins from black rice have been shown to be related to an increase in the immune response by enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages in vivo 41 and a decrease in activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-6 2. Black rice, its major anthocyanin (cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites of cyanidin 3-glucoside also have significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta 21. Black rice extract inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice related to immune system 42. Cyanidin 3-glucoside extracted from black rice suppressed type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-related cytokines (e.g., IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in a murine asthma model, indicating alleviating allergic inflammation 43. A recent study investigating the immunostimulatory effect of black-colored rice found that black-colored rice bran extracts exerted activity of NK cells, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and immunoglobulins (Ig) A and G 44.

2.2. Gamma-oryzanol

Gamma-oryzanol is a bioactive phytochemical compound found in rice bran oil, comprising of ferulic acid esters (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-cytosterol) and triterpene alcohols (cycloartenol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, and cyclogranol) 12, 48, 49. Gamma-oryzanol has several nutritional benefits (e.g., anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities) 12, 50 that are directly related to improvement in the immune system 51. A previous study found that 11 gamma-oryzanol in rice bran oil has shown a six-fold higher anti-oxidant activity than vitamin E. Several studies have agreed that gamma-oryzanol in rice bran oil exhibited higher anti-oxidant capacities when comparing with the other investigated vitamin E components (alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol) 11, 52, 53, 54, 55. Further, the pigmented rice such as black (63 µg/g) and red rice (79 µg/g) has contained a higher level of gamma-oryzanol than white rice (8.2 µg/g) 56. The gamma-oryzanol contents in pigmented and non-pigmented Thai rice cultivars, pigmented rice showed statistically higher gamma-oryzanol contents than non-pigmented rice 8.

Gamma-oryzanol isolated from rice bran oil may exhibit the potential of improving innate immunity, the first line of defense against pathogens. Gamma-oryzanol augmented the innate response by secreting the innate cytokines and IL-8 that stimulated phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells 12. Moreover, gamma-oryzanol has enhanced NK cell activity associated with innate immunity and activated macrophages 13 and modulated the immune system by enhancing B-lymphocyte proliferation 57. TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are also major players in the innate defense system 58. The activity of COX-1 and -2, the key pro-inflammatory enzymes, has been inhibited by gamma-oryzanol 59.

2.3. Arabinoxylan

Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide found in various cereal brans (e.g., rice and wheat), which is indigestible in the upper gut and can supply a source of fermentable carbon in the large bowel 60, 61. Multiple carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes from Shiitake mushrooms modifies arabinoxylan from rice bran (processed hemicellulose) 15. Arabinoxylan has a high concentration of ferulic acid, which is the most abundant phenolic acid constituent in pigmented rice (black, brown, and red rice) bran extracts 62. Interestingly, arabinoxylan has immune benefits and acts as a prebiotic that feeds gut microbiota 63. It has been proven that prebiotics can positively modulate the immune system of the intestine 64. Arabinoxylan from black-colored rice bran inhibited inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha and IL-6) 16 and arabinoxylan unregulated NK cell activity 15.

Arabinoxylan, particularly water-soluble arabinoxylan, has been widely investigated for its immunostimulatory activity 65. More specifically, the immunostimulatory activity is associated with arabinoxylan structural characteristics 60. Arabinoxylan has the potential effect of stimulating NK cells (the major lymphocytes of the innate immune system), dendritic cells, and T-helper 2 cell immunity 65. The concentration of arabinoxylan, derived from pigmented rice bran hydrolysates, was approximately 20 µg/mL in cultured media 66. This concentration of the arabinoxylan was reported to show immunomodulatory effects 67, 68. Crude fermentation-polysaccharide isolated from black rice bran has modulated immune system activity via increasing IFN-gamma level by activated murine macrophage and splenocyte 45. Arabinoxylan has increased murine NK cell activity from aged mice 14 via upregulating and influencing NK cell activity against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo 15. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, the consumption of modified arabinoxylan from rice bran significantly elevated NK cell activity in the geriatric group compared with the placebo group 69. A study on patients with tumors has also revealed that arabinoxylan augments NK cell activity elevated the levels of T and B lymphocytes 70, 71, 72. The intake of arabinoxylan from rice bran may positively affect the quality of life in patients with cancer by improving immunity 73.

3. Conclusions

Pigmented rice contains immune-enhancing compounds such as anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, and arabinoxylan. Especially, pigmented rice has higher amounts of anthocyanins and gamma-oryzanol than white rice. Anthocyanins, gamma-oryzanol, and arabinoxylan effectively decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance the activity of natural killer cells and their innate responses. This review could pave the way for the potential use of pigmented rice as a functional food in treating chronic inflammation. A future investigation needs to determine whether pigmented rice can be used as nutraceutical rice to improve the immune system.

Acknowledgements

This research was partially supported by the Graduate School of YONSEI University Research Scholarship Grants in 2019.

References

[1]  Meydani M. “Effect of functional food ingredients: vitamin E modulation of cardiovascular diseases and immune status in the elderly.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000, 71(6), 1665S-1668S.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Hartati F.K., Widjanarko S.B., Widyaningsih T.D. & Rifa'I M. “Anti-inflammatory evaluation of black rice extract inhibits TNF-a, IFN-r and IL-6 cytokines produced by immunocompetent cells.” Food and Agricultural Immunology, 2017, 28(6), 1116-1125.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Morais C.A., Rosso V.V.d., Estadella D & Pisani L.P. “Anthocyanins as inflammatory modulators and the role of the gut microbiota.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2016, 33, 1-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Saenjum C., Chaiyasut C., Chansakaow S., Suttajit M. & Sirithunyalug B. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-oryzanol rich extracts from Thai purple rice bran.” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2012, 6(6), 1070-1077.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Deng G.F., Xu X.R., Zhang Y., Li D., Gan R.Y. & Li H.B. “Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2013, 53(3), 296-306.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Hao J., Zhu H., Zhang Z., Yang S. & Li. “Identification of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities.” Journal of Cereal Science, 2015, 64, 92-9.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Seo S.J., Choi Y.C., Lee S.M., Kong S. & Lee J. “Antioxidant activities and antioxidant compounds of some specialty rices.” Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 2008, 37, 129-135.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Chakuton K., Puangpronpitag D. & Nakornriab M. “Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Activity of Colored and Non-colored Thai Rice Cultivars.” Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 11(6), 285-293.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Ryu S.N., Park S.Z. & Ho C.T. “High performance liquid chromatographic determination of anthocyanin pigments in some varieties of black rice.” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 1998, 6, 729-736.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Boonsit P., Pongpiachan P., Julsrigival S. & Karladee D. “Gamma oryzanol content in glutinous purple rice landrace varieties.” Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 2010, 9(1), 151-157.
In article      
 
[11]  Xu Z., Hua N. & Godber J.S. “Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols & γ-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2’-Azo-bis (2-methylpropionamidin) dihydrochloride.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2001, 49, 2077-2081.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Shin S.Y., Kim H.W., Jang H.H., Hwang Y.J., Choe J.S., Lim Y., Kim J.B. & Lee Y.H. “γ-Oryzanol-Rich Black Rice Bran Extract Enhances the Innate Immune Response.” Journal of Medicinal Food, 2017, 20(9), 855-863.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[13]  Kim S.P., Kang M.Y., Nam S.H. & Friedman M. “Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2012, 56, 935-944.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Ghoneum M. & Abedi S. “Enhancement of natural killer cell activity of aged mice by modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran).” Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology, 2004, 56(12), 1581-1588.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Perez-Martinez A., Valentin J., Fernandex L., Hernandez-Jimenez E., Lopez-Collazo E., Zerbes P., Schworer E., Nunez F., Martin I.G., Sallis H., Diaz M.A., Handgretinger R. & Pfeiffer M.M. “Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblasoma in vitro and in vivo.” Cytotherapy, 2015, 17(5), 601-612.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Son H.J., Kim H.J., Chae J.H., Kwon H.T., Yeo H.S., Eo S.J., Leem Y.H., Kim H.J. & Kim C.K. “Effects of arabinoxylan rice bran and exercise training on immune function and inflammation response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats.” Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 2012, 55(1), 41-46.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Panchal S.S., Patidar R.K., Jha A.B., Allam A.A., Ajarem J. & Butani S.B. “Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress effects of oryzanol in glaucomatous rabbits.” Journal of Ophthalmology, 2017, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Goodyear A., Kumar A., Ehrhart E.J., Swanson K.S., Grusak M.A., Leach J.E., Dow S.W., McClung A. & Ryan E.P. “Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents Salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity.” Journal of functional foods, 2015, 18, 653-664.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Cho M.H., Paik Y.S., Yoon H.H. & Hahn T.R. “Chemical structure of the major color component from a Korean pigmented rice variety.” Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology, 1996, 39(4), 304-308.
In article      
 
[20]  Igwe E.O., Charlton K.E., Probst Y.C., Kent K. & Netzel M.E. “A systematic literature review of the effect of anthocyanins on gut microbiota populations.” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 2019, 32, 53-62.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Min S.W., Ryu S.N. & Kim D.H. “Anti-inflammatory effects of black rice, cyanidin-3-o-B-D-glycoside, and its metabolites, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid.” International Immunopharmacology, 2010, 10(8), 959-966.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Deng G.F., Xu X.R., Zhang Y., Li D., Gan R.Y. & Li H.B. “Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2013, 53, 296-306.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Guerra J.F., Magalhães C.L., Costa D.C., Silva M.E. & Pedrosa M.L. “Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.” Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 2011, 49(3), 188-94.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Bicudo M.O., Ribani R.H. & Beta T. “Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2014, 69(2), 142-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Abdel-Aal E.S.M., Young J.C. & Rabalski I. “Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 54(13), 4696-4704.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Hu C., Zawistowski J., Ling W. & Kitts D.D. “Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, 51, 5271-5277.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Park Y.S., Kim S.J. & Chang H.I. “Isolation of anthocyanin from black rice (Heugjinjubyeo) and screening of its antioxidant activities.” Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2008, 36(1), 55-60.
In article      
 
[28]  Ryu S.N., Han S.J., Park S.Z. & Kim H.Y. “Antioxidative activity and varietal difference of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside contents in pigmented rice.” The Korean Journal of Crop Science, 2000, 45(4), 257-260.
In article      
 
[29]  Park S.Z., Ryu S.N., Han S.J. & Kim H.Y. “Antioxidant activity and varietal difference of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside contents in pigmented rice.” The Korean Journal of Crop Science, 2000, 45, 106-107.
In article      
 
[30]  Brat P., Tourniaire F. & Amiot-Carlin M.J. Stability and analysis of phenolic pigments. In Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Propertiesi; Socaciu C (ed) CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp71-86, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Castañeda-Ovando A., de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández M., Páez-Hernández E., Rodríguez J.A. & Galán-Vidal C.A. “Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review.” Food Chemistry, 2009, 113, 859-871.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Hidalgo M., Oruna-Concha M.J., Kolida S., Walton G.E., Kallithraka S., Spencer J.P.E., Gibson G.R. & de Pascual-Teresa S. “Metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora and their influence on gut bacterial growth.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012, 60, 3882-3890.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Wang J., Tang H., Zhang C., Zhao Y., Derrien M., Rocher E., Vlieg J.E.V., Strissel K., Zhao L., Obin M. & Shen J. “Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice.” ISME Journal, 2015, 9(1), 1-15.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  D'Argenio G., Cariello R., Tuccillo C., Mazzone G., Federico A., Funaro A., Magistris L.D., Grossi E., Callegari M.L., Chirico M., Caporaso N., Romano M., Morelli L. & Loguercio C. “Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?” Liver International, 2013, 33(5), 687-97.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[35]  Rodes L., Khan A., Paul A., Coussa-Charley M., Marinescu D., Tomaro-Duchesneau C., Shao W., Kahouli I. & Prakash S. “Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and inflammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model.” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, 23(4), 518-26.
In article      
 
[36]  Zhu Y., Sun H., He S., Lou Q., Yu M., Tang M. & Tu L. “Metabolism and prebiotics activity of anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) in vitro.” Plos ONE, 2018, 13(4): e0195754.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Karlsen A., Retterstol L., Laake P., Paur I., Kjolsrud-Bohn S., Sandvik L. & Blomhoff R. “Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kB activation in monocytes and reduced plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults.” Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 137, 1951-1954.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Aupperle K., Bennett B.L., Han Z., Boyle D., Manning A. & Firestein G. “NF-kB regulation by IκB kinase-2 in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.” Journal of Immunology, 2001, 166, 2705-2711.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Lawrence T. “The nuclear factor B pathway in inflammation. Inflammation biology group.” Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2009, 1(6), 1-10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[40]  Hester S.N., Mastaloudis A., Gray R., Antony J.M., Evans M. & Wood S.M. “Efficacy of an anthocyanin and prebiotic blend on intestinal environment in obese male and female subjects.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[41]  Fan M.J., Yeh P.H., Lin J.P., Huang A.C., Lien J.C., Lin H.Y. & Chung J.G. “Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa) promote immune responses in leukemia through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages in vivo.” Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 2017, 14, 59-64.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  Zhao L., Zhang Y., Liu G., Hao S., Wang C. & Wang Y. “Black rice anthocyanin-rich extract and rosmarinic acid, alone and in combination, protect against DSS-induced colitis in mice.” Food and Function, 2018, 9, 2796.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  Ma B., Wu Y., Chen B., Yao Y., Wang Y., Bai H., Li C., Yang Y. & Chen Y. “Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside attenuates allergic airway inflammation by modulating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 signaling pathway in a murine asthma model.” International Immunopharmacology, 2019, 69, 1-10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  Park Y.M., Lee H.Y., Shin D.Y., Lee Y.H., Yang Y.J., Lee H.S., Lee J.O., Choi K.S., Kang J.H., Cho Y.H., Kim M.G., Yun C.Y., Kim M.J., Jang D.J., Yang H.J. & Lee Y.R. “Immunostimulatory activity of black rice bran in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed rats.” Natural Product Communications, 2020, 15(7), 1-11.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Kim D.J., Ryu S.N., Han S.J., Kim H.Y., Kim J.H. & Hong S.G. “In vivo immunological activity in fermentation with black rice bran.” The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2011, 24(3), 273-281.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  Wongwichai T., Teeyakasem P., Pruksakorn D., Kongtawelert P. & Pothacharoen P. “Anthocyanins and metabolites from purple rice inhibit IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinases expression in human articular chondrocytes through the NF-κB and ERK/MAPK pathway.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2019, 112, 108610.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Banjerdpongchai R., Wudtiwai B. & Sringarm K. “The cytotoxic effect of purple rice extracts on human cancer cells related to their active compounds.” Proceeding of 13th ASEAN Food Conference, Singapore, 1-10, 2013.
In article      
 
[48]  Bucci R., Magrí A.D., Magrí A.L., Marini D. & Marini F. “Chemical authentication of extra virgin olive oil varieties by supervised chemometric procedures.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002, 50, 413-418.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[49]  Piironen V., Lindsay D.G., Miettinen T.A., Toivo J. & Lampi A. “Plant sterols: biosynthesis, biological function & their importance to human nutrition.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2000, 80, 939-966.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Kim S.P., Kang M.Y., Nam S.H. & Friedman M. “Dietary rice bran component-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2012, 56(6), 935-944.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[51]  Choi Y., Jeong H.S. & Lee J. “Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea.” Food Chemistry, 2007, 103, 130-138.
In article      View Article
 
[52]  Patel M. & Naik S.N. “Gamma-oryzanol from rice bran oil-A Review.” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2004, 63, 569-578.
In article      
 
[53]  Wang T., Hicks K.B. & Moreau R. “Antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol & other phytosterol conjugates.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2002, 79, 1201-1206.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Fukushi J. “Antioxidant effects of oryzanol.” In Edible rice bran oil part - III, Pa: Hokkaido-Ritsu Eisei Kenkyushoho, 111-114, 1966.
In article      
 
[55]  Nakatani N., Tachibana Y. & Kikuzaki H. “Establishment of a model substrate oil for antioxidant activity assessment by oil stability index method.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2001, 78, 19-23.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Pereira-Caro G., Cros G., Yokota T. & Crozier A. “Phytochemical profiles of black, red, brown, and white rice from the Camargue region of France.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61(33), 7976-7986.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[57]  MSc S.S., MSc F.L.V., Olivares M., Jimenez J., Boza J. & Xaus J. “Increased immune response in mice consuming rice bran oil.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2005, 44, 509-516.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[58]  Reitsma P.H. & Rosendaal F.R. “Activation of innate immunity in patients with venous thrombosis: the Leiden Thrombophilia study.” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2004, 2, 619-622.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  Terada S. & Haruta K. “Anti-inflammatory effects of γ-oryzanol.” Nature Medicine, 2003, 57, 95-99.
In article      
 
[60]  Mendis M., Leclerc E. & Simsek S. “Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 139(30), 159-166.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[61]  Hopkins M.J., Englyst H.N., Macfarlane S., Furrie E., Macfarlane G.T. & McBain A.J. “Degradation of cross-linked and non-cross-linked arabinoxylans by the intestinal microbiota in children.” Food Microbiology, 2003, 69(11), 6354-6360.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[62]  Ghasemzadeh A., Karbalaii M.T., Jaafar H.Z.E. & Rahmat A. “Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative properties of black, red, and brown rice bran.” Chemistry Central Journal, 2018, 12, 17.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  Mendis M., Leclerc E. & Simsek S. “Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 139, 159-166.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[64]  Schley P.D. & Field C.J. “The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics.” British Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 87(2), S221-S230.
In article      View Article
 
[65]  Ma X., Wang L., Wei H., Huo X., Wang C., Liu D., Zhou S. & Cao L. “Adjuvant properties of water extractable arabinoxylans with different structural features from wheat flour against model antigen ovalbumin.” Food & Function, 2016, 7(3), 1537-1543.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[66]  Phusrisom S., Senggunprai L., Prawan A., Kongpetch S., Kukongviriyapan U., Thawornchinsombut S., Changsri R. & Kukongviriyapan V. “Rice bran hydrolysates induce immunomodulatory effects by suppression of chemotaxis, and modulation of cytokines release and cell-mediated cytotoxicity.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2020, 10(10), 470-478.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  Fang H.Y., Chen Y.K., Chen H.H., Lin S.Y. & Fang Y.T. “Immunomodulatory effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides from rice bran.” Food Chemistry, 2012, 134(2), 836-840.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[68]  Ghoneum M. & Agrawal S. “Mgn-3/biobran enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of dec-205 expression on dendritic cells.” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 2014, 27(4), 523-530.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[69]  Elsaid A.F., Shaheen M. & Ghoneum M. “Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan rice bran, enhances NK cell activity in geriatric subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2018, 15, 2313-2320.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[70]  Das K.R., Medhabati K., Nongalleima K. & Devi H.S. “The potential of dark purple scented rice-from staple food to nutraceutical.” Current World Environment, 2014, 9(3), 867-876.
In article      View Article
 
[71]  Ghoneum M. “Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by modified arabinoxylane from rice bran (MGN-3).” International Journal of Immunotherapy, 1998, 14, 89-99.
In article      
 
[72]  Ghoneum M. & Gollapudi S. “Synergistic apoptotic effect of arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) and curcumin (turmeric) on human multiple myeloma cell line U266 in vitro.” Neoplasma, 2011, 58, 118-23.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[73]  Ooi S.L., Park S.C., Micalos P.S., Schupfer E., Zielinski R., Jeffries T., Harris G., Golombick T. & McKinnon D. “Rice bran arabinoxylan compound and quality of life of cancer patients (RBAC-QoL): Study protocol for a randomized pilot feasibility trial.” Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 2020, 19, 100580.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Ayoung Lee, Juyeon Ko, Su-Jin Ahn, Hyung Joo Kim, Seung-Sik Min and Eunmi Kim

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Ayoung Lee, Juyeon Ko, Su-Jin Ahn, Hyung Joo Kim, Seung-Sik Min, Eunmi Kim. Potential Effects of Pigmented rice on Immunity: A Review Focusing on Anthocyanins, Gamma-oryzanol, and Arabinoxylan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2021, pp 26-31. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/9/1/4
MLA Style
Lee, Ayoung, et al. "Potential Effects of Pigmented rice on Immunity: A Review Focusing on Anthocyanins, Gamma-oryzanol, and Arabinoxylan." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 9.1 (2021): 26-31.
APA Style
Lee, A. , Ko, J. , Ahn, S. , Kim, H. J. , Min, S. , & Kim, E. (2021). Potential Effects of Pigmented rice on Immunity: A Review Focusing on Anthocyanins, Gamma-oryzanol, and Arabinoxylan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 9(1), 26-31.
Chicago Style
Lee, Ayoung, Juyeon Ko, Su-Jin Ahn, Hyung Joo Kim, Seung-Sik Min, and Eunmi Kim. "Potential Effects of Pigmented rice on Immunity: A Review Focusing on Anthocyanins, Gamma-oryzanol, and Arabinoxylan." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 9, no. 1 (2021): 26-31.
Share
[1]  Meydani M. “Effect of functional food ingredients: vitamin E modulation of cardiovascular diseases and immune status in the elderly.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000, 71(6), 1665S-1668S.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Hartati F.K., Widjanarko S.B., Widyaningsih T.D. & Rifa'I M. “Anti-inflammatory evaluation of black rice extract inhibits TNF-a, IFN-r and IL-6 cytokines produced by immunocompetent cells.” Food and Agricultural Immunology, 2017, 28(6), 1116-1125.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Morais C.A., Rosso V.V.d., Estadella D & Pisani L.P. “Anthocyanins as inflammatory modulators and the role of the gut microbiota.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2016, 33, 1-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Saenjum C., Chaiyasut C., Chansakaow S., Suttajit M. & Sirithunyalug B. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-oryzanol rich extracts from Thai purple rice bran.” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2012, 6(6), 1070-1077.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Deng G.F., Xu X.R., Zhang Y., Li D., Gan R.Y. & Li H.B. “Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2013, 53(3), 296-306.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Hao J., Zhu H., Zhang Z., Yang S. & Li. “Identification of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities.” Journal of Cereal Science, 2015, 64, 92-9.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Seo S.J., Choi Y.C., Lee S.M., Kong S. & Lee J. “Antioxidant activities and antioxidant compounds of some specialty rices.” Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 2008, 37, 129-135.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Chakuton K., Puangpronpitag D. & Nakornriab M. “Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Activity of Colored and Non-colored Thai Rice Cultivars.” Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 11(6), 285-293.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Ryu S.N., Park S.Z. & Ho C.T. “High performance liquid chromatographic determination of anthocyanin pigments in some varieties of black rice.” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 1998, 6, 729-736.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Boonsit P., Pongpiachan P., Julsrigival S. & Karladee D. “Gamma oryzanol content in glutinous purple rice landrace varieties.” Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 2010, 9(1), 151-157.
In article      
 
[11]  Xu Z., Hua N. & Godber J.S. “Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols & γ-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2’-Azo-bis (2-methylpropionamidin) dihydrochloride.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2001, 49, 2077-2081.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Shin S.Y., Kim H.W., Jang H.H., Hwang Y.J., Choe J.S., Lim Y., Kim J.B. & Lee Y.H. “γ-Oryzanol-Rich Black Rice Bran Extract Enhances the Innate Immune Response.” Journal of Medicinal Food, 2017, 20(9), 855-863.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[13]  Kim S.P., Kang M.Y., Nam S.H. & Friedman M. “Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2012, 56, 935-944.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Ghoneum M. & Abedi S. “Enhancement of natural killer cell activity of aged mice by modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran).” Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology, 2004, 56(12), 1581-1588.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Perez-Martinez A., Valentin J., Fernandex L., Hernandez-Jimenez E., Lopez-Collazo E., Zerbes P., Schworer E., Nunez F., Martin I.G., Sallis H., Diaz M.A., Handgretinger R. & Pfeiffer M.M. “Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblasoma in vitro and in vivo.” Cytotherapy, 2015, 17(5), 601-612.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Son H.J., Kim H.J., Chae J.H., Kwon H.T., Yeo H.S., Eo S.J., Leem Y.H., Kim H.J. & Kim C.K. “Effects of arabinoxylan rice bran and exercise training on immune function and inflammation response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats.” Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 2012, 55(1), 41-46.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Panchal S.S., Patidar R.K., Jha A.B., Allam A.A., Ajarem J. & Butani S.B. “Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress effects of oryzanol in glaucomatous rabbits.” Journal of Ophthalmology, 2017, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Goodyear A., Kumar A., Ehrhart E.J., Swanson K.S., Grusak M.A., Leach J.E., Dow S.W., McClung A. & Ryan E.P. “Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents Salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity.” Journal of functional foods, 2015, 18, 653-664.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Cho M.H., Paik Y.S., Yoon H.H. & Hahn T.R. “Chemical structure of the major color component from a Korean pigmented rice variety.” Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology, 1996, 39(4), 304-308.
In article      
 
[20]  Igwe E.O., Charlton K.E., Probst Y.C., Kent K. & Netzel M.E. “A systematic literature review of the effect of anthocyanins on gut microbiota populations.” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 2019, 32, 53-62.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Min S.W., Ryu S.N. & Kim D.H. “Anti-inflammatory effects of black rice, cyanidin-3-o-B-D-glycoside, and its metabolites, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid.” International Immunopharmacology, 2010, 10(8), 959-966.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Deng G.F., Xu X.R., Zhang Y., Li D., Gan R.Y. & Li H.B. “Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2013, 53, 296-306.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Guerra J.F., Magalhães C.L., Costa D.C., Silva M.E. & Pedrosa M.L. “Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.” Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 2011, 49(3), 188-94.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Bicudo M.O., Ribani R.H. & Beta T. “Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2014, 69(2), 142-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Abdel-Aal E.S.M., Young J.C. & Rabalski I. “Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 54(13), 4696-4704.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Hu C., Zawistowski J., Ling W. & Kitts D.D. “Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, 51, 5271-5277.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Park Y.S., Kim S.J. & Chang H.I. “Isolation of anthocyanin from black rice (Heugjinjubyeo) and screening of its antioxidant activities.” Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2008, 36(1), 55-60.
In article      
 
[28]  Ryu S.N., Han S.J., Park S.Z. & Kim H.Y. “Antioxidative activity and varietal difference of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside contents in pigmented rice.” The Korean Journal of Crop Science, 2000, 45(4), 257-260.
In article      
 
[29]  Park S.Z., Ryu S.N., Han S.J. & Kim H.Y. “Antioxidant activity and varietal difference of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside contents in pigmented rice.” The Korean Journal of Crop Science, 2000, 45, 106-107.
In article      
 
[30]  Brat P., Tourniaire F. & Amiot-Carlin M.J. Stability and analysis of phenolic pigments. In Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Propertiesi; Socaciu C (ed) CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp71-86, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Castañeda-Ovando A., de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández M., Páez-Hernández E., Rodríguez J.A. & Galán-Vidal C.A. “Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review.” Food Chemistry, 2009, 113, 859-871.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Hidalgo M., Oruna-Concha M.J., Kolida S., Walton G.E., Kallithraka S., Spencer J.P.E., Gibson G.R. & de Pascual-Teresa S. “Metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora and their influence on gut bacterial growth.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012, 60, 3882-3890.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Wang J., Tang H., Zhang C., Zhao Y., Derrien M., Rocher E., Vlieg J.E.V., Strissel K., Zhao L., Obin M. & Shen J. “Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice.” ISME Journal, 2015, 9(1), 1-15.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  D'Argenio G., Cariello R., Tuccillo C., Mazzone G., Federico A., Funaro A., Magistris L.D., Grossi E., Callegari M.L., Chirico M., Caporaso N., Romano M., Morelli L. & Loguercio C. “Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?” Liver International, 2013, 33(5), 687-97.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[35]  Rodes L., Khan A., Paul A., Coussa-Charley M., Marinescu D., Tomaro-Duchesneau C., Shao W., Kahouli I. & Prakash S. “Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and inflammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model.” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, 23(4), 518-26.
In article      
 
[36]  Zhu Y., Sun H., He S., Lou Q., Yu M., Tang M. & Tu L. “Metabolism and prebiotics activity of anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) in vitro.” Plos ONE, 2018, 13(4): e0195754.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Karlsen A., Retterstol L., Laake P., Paur I., Kjolsrud-Bohn S., Sandvik L. & Blomhoff R. “Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kB activation in monocytes and reduced plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults.” Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 137, 1951-1954.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Aupperle K., Bennett B.L., Han Z., Boyle D., Manning A. & Firestein G. “NF-kB regulation by IκB kinase-2 in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.” Journal of Immunology, 2001, 166, 2705-2711.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Lawrence T. “The nuclear factor B pathway in inflammation. Inflammation biology group.” Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2009, 1(6), 1-10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[40]  Hester S.N., Mastaloudis A., Gray R., Antony J.M., Evans M. & Wood S.M. “Efficacy of an anthocyanin and prebiotic blend on intestinal environment in obese male and female subjects.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[41]  Fan M.J., Yeh P.H., Lin J.P., Huang A.C., Lien J.C., Lin H.Y. & Chung J.G. “Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa) promote immune responses in leukemia through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages in vivo.” Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 2017, 14, 59-64.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  Zhao L., Zhang Y., Liu G., Hao S., Wang C. & Wang Y. “Black rice anthocyanin-rich extract and rosmarinic acid, alone and in combination, protect against DSS-induced colitis in mice.” Food and Function, 2018, 9, 2796.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  Ma B., Wu Y., Chen B., Yao Y., Wang Y., Bai H., Li C., Yang Y. & Chen Y. “Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside attenuates allergic airway inflammation by modulating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 signaling pathway in a murine asthma model.” International Immunopharmacology, 2019, 69, 1-10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  Park Y.M., Lee H.Y., Shin D.Y., Lee Y.H., Yang Y.J., Lee H.S., Lee J.O., Choi K.S., Kang J.H., Cho Y.H., Kim M.G., Yun C.Y., Kim M.J., Jang D.J., Yang H.J. & Lee Y.R. “Immunostimulatory activity of black rice bran in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed rats.” Natural Product Communications, 2020, 15(7), 1-11.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Kim D.J., Ryu S.N., Han S.J., Kim H.Y., Kim J.H. & Hong S.G. “In vivo immunological activity in fermentation with black rice bran.” The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2011, 24(3), 273-281.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  Wongwichai T., Teeyakasem P., Pruksakorn D., Kongtawelert P. & Pothacharoen P. “Anthocyanins and metabolites from purple rice inhibit IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinases expression in human articular chondrocytes through the NF-κB and ERK/MAPK pathway.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2019, 112, 108610.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Banjerdpongchai R., Wudtiwai B. & Sringarm K. “The cytotoxic effect of purple rice extracts on human cancer cells related to their active compounds.” Proceeding of 13th ASEAN Food Conference, Singapore, 1-10, 2013.
In article      
 
[48]  Bucci R., Magrí A.D., Magrí A.L., Marini D. & Marini F. “Chemical authentication of extra virgin olive oil varieties by supervised chemometric procedures.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002, 50, 413-418.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[49]  Piironen V., Lindsay D.G., Miettinen T.A., Toivo J. & Lampi A. “Plant sterols: biosynthesis, biological function & their importance to human nutrition.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2000, 80, 939-966.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Kim S.P., Kang M.Y., Nam S.H. & Friedman M. “Dietary rice bran component-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2012, 56(6), 935-944.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[51]  Choi Y., Jeong H.S. & Lee J. “Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea.” Food Chemistry, 2007, 103, 130-138.
In article      View Article
 
[52]  Patel M. & Naik S.N. “Gamma-oryzanol from rice bran oil-A Review.” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2004, 63, 569-578.
In article      
 
[53]  Wang T., Hicks K.B. & Moreau R. “Antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol & other phytosterol conjugates.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2002, 79, 1201-1206.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Fukushi J. “Antioxidant effects of oryzanol.” In Edible rice bran oil part - III, Pa: Hokkaido-Ritsu Eisei Kenkyushoho, 111-114, 1966.
In article      
 
[55]  Nakatani N., Tachibana Y. & Kikuzaki H. “Establishment of a model substrate oil for antioxidant activity assessment by oil stability index method.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2001, 78, 19-23.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Pereira-Caro G., Cros G., Yokota T. & Crozier A. “Phytochemical profiles of black, red, brown, and white rice from the Camargue region of France.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61(33), 7976-7986.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[57]  MSc S.S., MSc F.L.V., Olivares M., Jimenez J., Boza J. & Xaus J. “Increased immune response in mice consuming rice bran oil.” European Journal of Nutrition, 2005, 44, 509-516.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[58]  Reitsma P.H. & Rosendaal F.R. “Activation of innate immunity in patients with venous thrombosis: the Leiden Thrombophilia study.” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2004, 2, 619-622.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  Terada S. & Haruta K. “Anti-inflammatory effects of γ-oryzanol.” Nature Medicine, 2003, 57, 95-99.
In article      
 
[60]  Mendis M., Leclerc E. & Simsek S. “Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 139(30), 159-166.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[61]  Hopkins M.J., Englyst H.N., Macfarlane S., Furrie E., Macfarlane G.T. & McBain A.J. “Degradation of cross-linked and non-cross-linked arabinoxylans by the intestinal microbiota in children.” Food Microbiology, 2003, 69(11), 6354-6360.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[62]  Ghasemzadeh A., Karbalaii M.T., Jaafar H.Z.E. & Rahmat A. “Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative properties of black, red, and brown rice bran.” Chemistry Central Journal, 2018, 12, 17.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  Mendis M., Leclerc E. & Simsek S. “Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016, 139, 159-166.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[64]  Schley P.D. & Field C.J. “The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics.” British Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 87(2), S221-S230.
In article      View Article
 
[65]  Ma X., Wang L., Wei H., Huo X., Wang C., Liu D., Zhou S. & Cao L. “Adjuvant properties of water extractable arabinoxylans with different structural features from wheat flour against model antigen ovalbumin.” Food & Function, 2016, 7(3), 1537-1543.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[66]  Phusrisom S., Senggunprai L., Prawan A., Kongpetch S., Kukongviriyapan U., Thawornchinsombut S., Changsri R. & Kukongviriyapan V. “Rice bran hydrolysates induce immunomodulatory effects by suppression of chemotaxis, and modulation of cytokines release and cell-mediated cytotoxicity.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2020, 10(10), 470-478.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  Fang H.Y., Chen Y.K., Chen H.H., Lin S.Y. & Fang Y.T. “Immunomodulatory effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides from rice bran.” Food Chemistry, 2012, 134(2), 836-840.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[68]  Ghoneum M. & Agrawal S. “Mgn-3/biobran enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of dec-205 expression on dendritic cells.” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 2014, 27(4), 523-530.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[69]  Elsaid A.F., Shaheen M. & Ghoneum M. “Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan rice bran, enhances NK cell activity in geriatric subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2018, 15, 2313-2320.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[70]  Das K.R., Medhabati K., Nongalleima K. & Devi H.S. “The potential of dark purple scented rice-from staple food to nutraceutical.” Current World Environment, 2014, 9(3), 867-876.
In article      View Article
 
[71]  Ghoneum M. “Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by modified arabinoxylane from rice bran (MGN-3).” International Journal of Immunotherapy, 1998, 14, 89-99.
In article      
 
[72]  Ghoneum M. & Gollapudi S. “Synergistic apoptotic effect of arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) and curcumin (turmeric) on human multiple myeloma cell line U266 in vitro.” Neoplasma, 2011, 58, 118-23.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[73]  Ooi S.L., Park S.C., Micalos P.S., Schupfer E., Zielinski R., Jeffries T., Harris G., Golombick T. & McKinnon D. “Rice bran arabinoxylan compound and quality of life of cancer patients (RBAC-QoL): Study protocol for a randomized pilot feasibility trial.” Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 2020, 19, 100580.
In article      View Article  PubMed