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Effect of Sprouting on Selected Macronutrients and physical Properties of four Zambian Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties

F. Malama, V. Nyau , P. Marinda, K. Munyinda
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(5), 238-243. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-5-4
Received May 18, 2020; Revised June 21, 2020; Accepted June 28, 2020

Abstract

Sprouting is one of the popular methods used to prepare legumes for human consumption. In this study, the effect of sprouting on selected macronutrients (crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash) and physical properties (hydration capacity after 24 hrs and equilibrium hydration capacity) of four common bean Zambian varieties were investigated. The varieties studied were Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Lundazi and Carioca-38. The crude protein values ranged from 17.6-24.4% before sprouting to 28.0-30.72% at day 6 of sprouting. Crude fibre content ranged from 4.1-5.9 before sprouting to 6.0-7.8% at day 6 of sprouting. Crude fat content ranged from 1.5-3.1% before sprouting to 3.8-6.3% at day 6 of sprouting. Ash content ranged from 4.1-4.8% before sprouting to 7.2-8.1 after 6 days of sprouting. Hydration capacity ranged from 0.210 to 0.475 g/seed among the four varieties after 24 hrs of soaking. Equilibrium hydration capacity was reached at different times among the four varieties. Carioca 38 was first at 72 hrs and Lundazi was last at 120 hrs. Sprouting was found to have a positive effect on crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the selected common bean varieties investigated. Further, these common bean varieties demonstrated varying hydration patterns.

1. Introduction

Legumes play a significant role in the diets of people in many regions of the world. They include Peas, beans, lentils, peanuts and other podded plants that are used as food 1, 2. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is one of the most commonly consumed legume in the world. It is an important food crop with an outstanding potential to resolve nutritional, health, income generation and agricultural sustainability needs of developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in the world 3. The contribution of common bean to world nutrition remains significant especially in developing countries where it is the main source of protein to the poor majority. This is because protein has always been recognized as the most significant macronutrient in common bean despite it being a good source of carbohydrate, fiber, minerals and vitamins as well 3.

Legumes are prepared or processed in many ways for human consumption. Different processing methods are applied depending on the intended use of the final product and the availability of the processing facilities 4. Among the processing technologies, sprouting is one of the technique used to prepare a number of legumes including common bean for human consumption. Sprouting of seeds has been shown to significantly enhance their nutraceutical value and nutrients bioavailability 5, 6. Previous studies have reported that the original composition of seeds essentially changes during germination 7. Enhancement of nutraceutical phenolics in common beans and bambara groundnuts after sprouting has been reported 6. Thus germination can lead to the development of functional foods that have positive effect on the human organism and help in maintaining the health 8. The attention of experts dealing with the healthy nutrition in the last decades had shifted more towards the determination of the biological value of the nutritional sprouts 9. The consumption of sprouted seeds has become common in Western Europe as sprouts were perceived to meet the modern nutrition requirements 9.

In this study, the effect of sprouting on crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash contents of four common bean Zambian varieties (Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi) were investigated. Lyambai 4-4-B and Carioca 38 are newly developed varieties through irradiating of the parents Lyambai and Carioca respectively while Lundazi is a landrace 10. Further, selected physicochemical properties (hydration capacity and equilibrium hydration capacity) prior to sprouting were also investigated. Scientific data regarding the effect of sprouting on the nutritional and physicochemical properties of these common bean varieties is limited.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Sample Collection

The red (Lundazi) common bean variety was collected from Chipata at Saturday market while red-speckled Lyambai-parent, Lyambai-4-4-B and white Carioca 38 common bean varieties were collected from the Department of Plant Science in the School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia. The seeds were manually cleaned by removing dust, dirt and cracked seeds.

2.2. Determination of Hydration Capacity after 24 hrs of Soaking

The hydration capacity was determined according to the method described by 3, 11. Fifty (50) seeds for each variety were placed in the measuring cylinder with 100ml of water and left to hydrate for 24 hrs. The initial weights of the seeds before imbibition were then subtracted from weight of the seeds after imbibition. The difference in weight was then divided by the number of seeds to determine the seeds hydration capacity.

2.3. Determination of Equilibrium Hydration Capacity

Equilibrium hydration capacity was determined by the method of weight gain until a constant weight was attained. Fifty (50) seeds for each variety were placed in the measuring cylinder with 100 ml of water and allowed to hydrate. The weight of hydrated seeds was noted every after 24 hours. The equilibrium hydration capacity was reached when there was no more increase in weight.

2.4. Sprouting

Hundred (100) seeds of each variety were soaked in 100 ml distilled water for 12 hours for the seeds to absorb water. The seeds were then spread on a damp filter paper and allowed to germinate at room temperature (25°C) up to 6 days. Bean samples were analyzed for crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, and ash contents after 3 and 6 days of sprouting respectively.

2.5. Chemical Analysis

Chemical composition analyses of the seeds for crude fat, crude protein, total ash and crude fiber were determined using AOAC official methods of 934.01, 920.39 (A), 984 (A – D), 942.05 and 978.10 respectively 12.

2.6. Data Analysis

Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software version 20. Results were expressed as mean values ± standard error. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the data and values at p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Hydration Capacity

Hydration capacity after 24 hrs of soaking of common bean varieties is presented in Table 1. The hydration capacity ranged from 0.210 to 0.475 (g/seed) among the four varieties. Lundazi had the maximum hydration capacity with 0.475 (g/seed) while Carioca 38 had the minimum with 0.210 (g/seed). Lyambai 4-4-B had 0.459 (g/seed) while Lyambai parent had 0.445 (g/seed) respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the equilibrium hydration capacity of Lyambai 4-4-B and Lyambai parent. Hydration capacity has been shown to be inversely related to the cooking time 3, 11. Therefore, Carioca 38 having the lowest hydration capacity, would most likely require longer cooking times than the other varieties. A similar relationship was observed between hydration capacity and the rate of sprouting in this study. The higher the hydration capacity, the faster the sprouting of the seeds. Carioca 38 which recorded the lowest hydration capacity took longer than the others to start sprouting.

  • Table 1. Hydration capacity of the Zambian common bean varieties after 24 hrs of soaking

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3.2. Equilibrium Hydration Capacity

The hydration pattern of the common bean varieties up to the time when equilibrium hydration capacity was reached is presented in Figure 1.

All the varieties were observed to have imbibed substantial amount of water during the first 24 hrs period. After this period, small but gradual increments in change of weight were recorded. Carioca 38 was the first to reach constant weight after 72hrs (day 3). This was followed by the two Lyambai varieties (Lyambai 4-4-B and Lyambai parent) after 96hrs (day 4) and Lundazi was the last after 120hrs (day 5). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the equilibrium hydration capacity of Lyambai 4-4-B and Lyambai parent. This may be so because Lyambai 4-4-B, being a mutant of Lyambai parent, most likely possessed a closely similar cell matrix to the parent. It has been reported that water uptake increase of a seed with time depends on the number of cells within the seed to be hydrated 13. This likely may have contributed to the differences in the hydration pattern noted in the other common bean varieties investigated.

3.3. Ash Content

The ash contents of the unsprouted and sprouted Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi are presented in Figure 2.

The ash contents of the unsprouted seeds ranged from 4.1% to 4.8%. Lyambai 4-4-B had the highest with 4.8% and Lyambai parent had the least with 4.1 %. On day 3, the ash contents of the sprouted seeds ranged from 5.2% to 5.8%. Lundazi had the highest (5.8%), Lyambai 4-4-B (5.6%), Carioca 38 (5.4%) and Lyambai parent (5.2%). On day 6, the sprouted seeds ash content ranged from 7.2% to 8.1%. Lundazi recorded the highest (8.2%), Lyambai 4-4-B (8.1%), Lyambai parent (7.8%) and Carioca 38 (7.2%).

There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the ash content among the sprouted seeds. Significant increase in ash content of seed after sprouting has been observed previously by other workers 14, 15. The increase in ash content is attributed to loss of starch during sprouting 16.

3.4. Crude Fat Content

The crude fat contents of the unsprouted and sprouted Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi presented in Figure 3.

The crude fat content of the unsprouted seeds ranged from1.5% to 3.6%. Lyambai parent had the highest content at day 0 with 3.6% and Lyambai 4-4-B the least (1.5%). On day 3 of sprouting, crude fat content ranged from 3.0% to 5.4%. Lyambai parent had the highest (5.4%) and Carioca 38 the least (3.0%). On day 6 of sprouting, crude fat content in four varieties ranged from 3.8% to 6.3%. Lyambai parent recorded the highest (6.3%) and Carioca 38 the least (3.8%).

There were significant differences (P <0.05) in crude fat content among the sprouted seeds. The findings obtained for crude fat in this study are similar to what has previously reported by 17 in which fat concentrations in African Locust bean and Pigeon pea were observed to increase after sprouting. On the other hand, these findings are in contrast to what was found by 5 in a study on Mung bean and Chick Pea, but are in agreement with 18 where Carioca-9, Solwezi Rose and Kablangete common bean varieties were sprouted for 8 days. In the current study, it is generally observed that sprouting enhances the crude fat contents of the investigated varieties of common beans. This may be attributed to breaking of the food matrix, more especially carbohydrates leading to the release of more quantifiable crude fat.

3.5. Crude Protein

The crude protein contents of the unsprouted and sprouted Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi are presented in Figure 4.

The crude protein content in the unsprouted seeds ranged from was 17.6% to 24.4%. Lyambai 4-4-B had the highest content (24.4%) and Lundazi the least (17.6%). On day 3, the crude protein content ranged from 25.7% to 28.7%. Lyambai 4-4-B recorded the highest (28.7%) and Lundazi least (25.7%). On day 6, crude protein content of the sprouted seeds ranged from 28.0% to 30.7%. Lyambai 4-4-B recorded the highest (30.7%) whereas Lundazi the least (28.0%). It is observed that in all the common bean varieties investigated, there was an increase in the protein content as a result of sprouting.

There were was significant differences (P <0.05) in the crude protein content among the sprouted seeds. A similar trend for crude protein content increase after sprouting has been reported for other legumes by other researchers. A 19.15% increase in crude protein content after 28 hrs of sprouting in Cowpea has been observed previously 19. Other workers have also reported a significant increase in crude protein after sprouting of mung beans, chicken peas and other legumes 5, 20. Considering the fact that during sprouting, there is a breakdown of reserve protein to give NH3, which accumulates in the form of amide such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid 21. Such breakdowns give rise to more quantifiable crude protein. The increase in crude protein could likely be attributed to these changes. Metabolic enzymes such as proteinases are activated during sprouting which may lead to release of some amino acids and peptides and synthesis or utilization of these may form new proteins. Consequently, nutritional quality of proteins is enhanced 22.

3.6. Crude Fibre Content

The crude fibre contents of the unsprouted and sprouted Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi presented in Figure 5.

The crude Fibre content of the unsprouted seeds ranged from 4.1% to 5.9%. Lundazi had the highest crude fibre content (5.9%) and Carioca 38 the least (4.1%). On day 3 crude fibre content for the sprouts ranged from 4.6% to 6.4%. Lundazi still recorded the highest (6.4%) and Carioca 38 least (4.6%). On day 6, crude fibre content for sprouts ranged from 6.0% to 7.8%. Lundazi had the highest at (7.8%) and Carioca 38 the least (6.0%).

There were significant differences (P< 0.05) in the crude fibre content among the sprouted seeds of the four varieties. A similar trend for crude fibre content has been reported for other legumes by other researchers. A significant increase in the crude fibre content for all the genotypes of cowpea after 6 days of sprouting has been reported previously 14. The current findings are also in agreement with the observations reported for other legumes in which substantial increase in crude fibre contents were noted 15, 20, 23. Increase in crude fibre content is considered only as apparent and may be attributed to the disappearance of starch during sprouting, which is used to form new plant materials such the cell walls for the developing plant. The formation of these contributes to both soluble and insoluble fibres.

4. Conclusion

Sprouting had positive effects on the selected nutritional qualities of Lyambai parent, Lyambai 4-4-B, Carioca 38 and Lundazi varieties investigated. For all the varieties, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, and ash contents were higher in the sprouted compared to the unsprouted seeds. Sprouting was thus found to enhance the nutritional profiles of the varieties investigated. Further, these varieties demonstrated varying hydration behaviors prior to sprouting.

References

[1]  Chilipa L. N. K., Lungu D.M. & Tembo L., 2016. Multiple Race Inoculation as an Option in Breeding for Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in Common Beans. Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 2, 45-50.
In article      
 
[2]  Messina, J. M. (1999). Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. The American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (4), 39S-50S.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Nyau, V. (2013). Nutraceutical antioxidant potential and polyphenolic profiles of the Zambian market classes of bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ph.D. Thesis, University of cape town, Cape Town, South Africa.
In article      
 
[4]  Nyau, V., Prakash, S., Rodriques, J., & Farrant, J. (2017). Domestic cooking effects of Bambara groundnuts and Common Beans in the Antioxidant Properties and Polyphenol Profiles. Journal of Food Research, 6 (2), 24-37.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Masood, T., Shah, H.U. & Zeb, A. (2014). Effect of sprouting time on proximate composition and ascorbic acid level of mung bean (Vigna radiate l.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) seeds. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 24(3), 850-859
In article      
 
[6]  Nyau, V., Prakash, S., Rodrigues, J., & Farrant, J. (2017). Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Sprouted Common Beans and Bambara Groundnuts. Journal of Food Research, 6 (6), 74-82.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Marton, M., Mandoki, Z.S., Csapo-Kiss & Csapo J. (2010). The role of sprouts in human nutrition. A review. Alimentaria 3, 81-117.
In article      
 
[8]  Sangronis, E., & Machado, C.J. (2007). Influence of germination on the nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cajanus cajan. LWT, 40, 116-120.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Penas, E., Gomez, R., Frias, H., & Vidal-Valverde, C. (2008). Application of high-pressure on alfalfa (Medigo sativa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds to enhance the microbiological safety of their sprouts. Food Control, 19, 698-705.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Tembo L., & Munyinda, K. (2015). Clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings. African Crop Science Journal, 23, 1-7.
In article      
 
[11]  Bishnoi, S. & Khetarpaul, N. (1993). Variability in physico-chemical properties and nutrient composition of different pea cultivars. Food Chemistry, 47, 371-373.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  AOAC. (2006). Methods of Analysis - Official methods 923.03, 923.05, 925.09, 962.09, and 979.09. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, (Vol. II 17th edition) of AOAC International, Washington, DC, USA.
In article      
 
[13]  Nonogaki, H., Bassel, G.W. & Bewley, J.W. (2010). Germination-still a mystery. Journal of Plant Science, 179 (6), 574-581.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Chingakham, B.D, Archana, K. & Anil, K. (2015). Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Science &Technology, 52(10), 6821-6827.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Ranhotra, G.S., Loewe, R.J., & Lehman, T.A., (1977). Bread making quality and nutritive value of sprouted wheat. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 42, 1373.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Lorenz, K. (1980) Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications. CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition. 13, 353-385.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Adamu, G.O.L., Ezeokoli, O.T., Dawodu, A.O., Adebayo-Oyetoro, A.O. & Ofodile, L.N 2015. Macronutrients and Micronutrients Profile of Some Underutilized Beans in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review, 7(2), 80-89.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Zulu, C. (2010), Nutrition analysis and consumer’s knowledge assessment of sprouted beans (phaselpous vulgaris) being used as food in Lusaka. Unpublished BSc. Thesis, University of Zambia.
In article      
 
[19]  Mehta, M. B., Mehta, B., Bapodra, A. H. & Joshi, H. D. (2007). Effect of sprouting and heat processing on protein, riboflavin, vitamin C and niacin content in peas, cowpea, redgram and wheat. Asian Journal of Home Science, 2(1&2): 34-38.
In article      
 
[20]  Uppal, V., & Bains, K. (2012). Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(2),184-191.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Hsu, D., Leung, H.K., Finney, P.L. & Morad, M.M, (1980), Effects of sprouting of nutritive value and baking properties of dry peas, lentils and faba beans. Journal of Food Science 45(1), 87-92.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Gulewicz, P., Martınez-Villaluenga, C., Frias, J., Ciesiołka, D., Gulewicz, K. & Vidal-Valverde, C. (2008). Effect of germination on the protein fraction composition of different lupin seeds. Food Chemistry, 107, 830-844.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Sood, M., Malhotra, S.R., & Sood B.C. (2002). Effect of processing and cooking on proximate composition of chickpea varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 69-71.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 F. Malama, V. Nyau, P. Marinda and K. Munyinda

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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F. Malama, V. Nyau, P. Marinda, K. Munyinda. Effect of Sprouting on Selected Macronutrients and physical Properties of four Zambian Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp 238-243. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/8/5/4
MLA Style
Malama, F., et al. "Effect of Sprouting on Selected Macronutrients and physical Properties of four Zambian Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 8.5 (2020): 238-243.
APA Style
Malama, F. , Nyau, V. , Marinda, P. , & Munyinda, K. (2020). Effect of Sprouting on Selected Macronutrients and physical Properties of four Zambian Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 8(5), 238-243.
Chicago Style
Malama, F., V. Nyau, P. Marinda, and K. Munyinda. "Effect of Sprouting on Selected Macronutrients and physical Properties of four Zambian Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 8, no. 5 (2020): 238-243.
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[1]  Chilipa L. N. K., Lungu D.M. & Tembo L., 2016. Multiple Race Inoculation as an Option in Breeding for Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in Common Beans. Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 2, 45-50.
In article      
 
[2]  Messina, J. M. (1999). Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. The American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (4), 39S-50S.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Nyau, V. (2013). Nutraceutical antioxidant potential and polyphenolic profiles of the Zambian market classes of bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ph.D. Thesis, University of cape town, Cape Town, South Africa.
In article      
 
[4]  Nyau, V., Prakash, S., Rodriques, J., & Farrant, J. (2017). Domestic cooking effects of Bambara groundnuts and Common Beans in the Antioxidant Properties and Polyphenol Profiles. Journal of Food Research, 6 (2), 24-37.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Masood, T., Shah, H.U. & Zeb, A. (2014). Effect of sprouting time on proximate composition and ascorbic acid level of mung bean (Vigna radiate l.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) seeds. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 24(3), 850-859
In article      
 
[6]  Nyau, V., Prakash, S., Rodrigues, J., & Farrant, J. (2017). Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Sprouted Common Beans and Bambara Groundnuts. Journal of Food Research, 6 (6), 74-82.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Marton, M., Mandoki, Z.S., Csapo-Kiss & Csapo J. (2010). The role of sprouts in human nutrition. A review. Alimentaria 3, 81-117.
In article      
 
[8]  Sangronis, E., & Machado, C.J. (2007). Influence of germination on the nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cajanus cajan. LWT, 40, 116-120.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Penas, E., Gomez, R., Frias, H., & Vidal-Valverde, C. (2008). Application of high-pressure on alfalfa (Medigo sativa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds to enhance the microbiological safety of their sprouts. Food Control, 19, 698-705.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Tembo L., & Munyinda, K. (2015). Clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings. African Crop Science Journal, 23, 1-7.
In article      
 
[11]  Bishnoi, S. & Khetarpaul, N. (1993). Variability in physico-chemical properties and nutrient composition of different pea cultivars. Food Chemistry, 47, 371-373.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  AOAC. (2006). Methods of Analysis - Official methods 923.03, 923.05, 925.09, 962.09, and 979.09. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, (Vol. II 17th edition) of AOAC International, Washington, DC, USA.
In article      
 
[13]  Nonogaki, H., Bassel, G.W. & Bewley, J.W. (2010). Germination-still a mystery. Journal of Plant Science, 179 (6), 574-581.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Chingakham, B.D, Archana, K. & Anil, K. (2015). Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Science &Technology, 52(10), 6821-6827.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Ranhotra, G.S., Loewe, R.J., & Lehman, T.A., (1977). Bread making quality and nutritive value of sprouted wheat. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 42, 1373.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Lorenz, K. (1980) Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications. CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition. 13, 353-385.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Adamu, G.O.L., Ezeokoli, O.T., Dawodu, A.O., Adebayo-Oyetoro, A.O. & Ofodile, L.N 2015. Macronutrients and Micronutrients Profile of Some Underutilized Beans in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review, 7(2), 80-89.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Zulu, C. (2010), Nutrition analysis and consumer’s knowledge assessment of sprouted beans (phaselpous vulgaris) being used as food in Lusaka. Unpublished BSc. Thesis, University of Zambia.
In article      
 
[19]  Mehta, M. B., Mehta, B., Bapodra, A. H. & Joshi, H. D. (2007). Effect of sprouting and heat processing on protein, riboflavin, vitamin C and niacin content in peas, cowpea, redgram and wheat. Asian Journal of Home Science, 2(1&2): 34-38.
In article      
 
[20]  Uppal, V., & Bains, K. (2012). Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(2),184-191.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Hsu, D., Leung, H.K., Finney, P.L. & Morad, M.M, (1980), Effects of sprouting of nutritive value and baking properties of dry peas, lentils and faba beans. Journal of Food Science 45(1), 87-92.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Gulewicz, P., Martınez-Villaluenga, C., Frias, J., Ciesiołka, D., Gulewicz, K. & Vidal-Valverde, C. (2008). Effect of germination on the protein fraction composition of different lupin seeds. Food Chemistry, 107, 830-844.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Sood, M., Malhotra, S.R., & Sood B.C. (2002). Effect of processing and cooking on proximate composition of chickpea varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 69-71.
In article