Figure 5. DHMBA increased mitochondrial respiratory function. Oleate (400 μM)-treated cells were incubated with 500 μM DHMBA or treated with ES for 24 h. Myotubes were harvested and assayed as described in the Methods section. (A) A representative oxygraph collected from the control myotubes without FA incubation and electrical stimulation. In the model of permeabilized cell, reagents were added step by step as indicated. Substrates (glutamate, malate, and succinate) provided the electron donors for electron transport chain (ETC). Digitonin partially permeabilized plasma membrane. Addition of ADP initiated state 3 respiration. Addition of oligomycin A inhibited Complex V and allowed for the measurement of state 4 respiration. Addition of CCCP disrupted ΔΨm and allowed for the measurement of maximal respiration. Addition of Complex IV inhibitor, KCN, completely inhibited O2 consumption. IM, mitochondrial inner membrane; IMS, intermembrane space. UCPs, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins; V, Complex V. (B) O2 consumtion rate (OCR) of non-permeabilized cells (n=4). (C) State 4 (oligomycin A-inhibited) OCR (n=4). (D) Maximal (CCCP-induced) OCR (n=4). (E) Intracellular ATP level (n=6). ES, electrical stimulation. *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; N.S., not significant

From

Improvement of Mitochondrial Function and Lipid Utilization by 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl Alcohol, an Oyster-derived polyphenol, in Oleate-loaded C2C12 Myotubes

Yi-Shing Ma, Shigeru Yoshida, Yu Kobayashi, Noriaki Kawanishi, Takayuki Furukawa, Hirotoshi Fuda, Shu-Ping Hui, Hitoshi Chiba

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(8), 498-507 doi:10.12691/jfnr-4-8-3