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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infant Porridges Produced from Infant Flours Containing Millet and Sorghum Malt

Fidèle Wend-Bénédo TAPSOBA , Serge SAMANDOULOUGOU, Elie Wilfried Wendnongma BIEOGO, Abel TANKOANO, Alfred S TRAORE, Hagrétou SAWADOGO-LINGANI
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022, 10(5), 341-349. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-10-5-2
Received April 01, 2022; Revised May 04, 2022; Accepted May 12, 2022

Abstract

Women generally use traditional cereal flour porridges for weaning children, which are products rich in starch but low in protein. These porridges with a heavy, viscous, indigestible consistency are difficult for the child to digest, due to the starch which swells during cooking. To do this, this study was conducted with the aim of formulating twelve porridges of good nutritional value with the incorporation of millet and sorghum malt flours from four infant flours in order to increase the energy density of the porridges. The analysis of the physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological parameters of the porridges was carried out using standard methods. From the results, it emerged that the best malt flour incorporation rates were 0.125% for 48h millet malt flour and 0.2% for 48h red sorghum malt flour with a viscosity of porridges between 90 and 120 mm/30s. The macronutrient parameters (Carbohydrates: 14,91±0,88% - 34,48±0,40 %/DM; Proteins: 34,59±0,54% - 44,90±0,84 %/DM, Fat: 26,34±0,18% - 39,50±0,57 %/DM) and the energy density (89.41±0.81kcal/100g to 124.54±0.57kcal/100g) were in accordance with the standards for processed cereal-based foods intended for infants and young children. The results of the total amino acids profile showed that Lysine presented the best content (0.166 to 0.285 mg/100g). For all the samples, the best values of macronutrient and energy density values were obtained with millet malt which presented a high diastatic power. It emerged from the microbiology results that all of the samples presented quite satisfactory levels of coliforms (<10 CFU/g), Salmonella, yeasts and molds in accordance with the standards for processed cereal-based foods intended for infants and young children. At the end of the study, the results obtained showed that the use of millet and sorghum malts could be an alternative to improve the nutritional quality and increase the energy density of infant porridge.

1. Introduction

From the age of 4 to 6 months, the infant's nutritional needs increase and breast milk becomes qualitatively and quantitatively insufficient. It therefore appears necessary to introduce new foods in liquid or semi-liquid form into their diet to supplement the intake of breast milk, this is the weaning period 1. Optimal nutrition in the first year of life is crucial in laying the foundation for good nutrition, health and development in later life 2. Malnutrition among infants in low-income countries is an important public health problem and can be related to the composition and formulation of the complementary foods introduced after the breastfeeding period and inadequate complementary feeding practice 3. Adoption of recommended complementary feeding practices and access to the appropriate quality and quantity foods are essential components of optimal nutrition for infants and young children 4. Indeed, Formulation and development of nutritious complementary foods from local and readily available raw materials has received a lot of attention in many developing countries 2, 5.

Researchers have recognized the need to increase the energy value of complementary food of young children in order to prepare high energy porridge that could cover all the nutritional and energy needs for African young children 6, 7, 8. In order to reach these goals, it is important to develop process which can help to increase the energy value of infant flours used as complementary foods. So, improving the energy value, the fluidity of local porridge and mineral bioavailability are necessary 8. The starch flours must sustain technological treatments that cause breaking of the glycosidic bonds in order to reduce the swelling ratio and increase their fluidity and energy value while cooking. The incorporation of germinated cereals flour makes it possible to prepare sufficiently fluid porridge with high concentrations of dry matter and energy while reducing the quantity of water 6, 8, 9, 10. In fact, cereals malting allows to enrich cereals with hydrolytic enzymes such as beta-amylase and alpha-amylase, in sugars, in free amino acids and in vitamins, thus improving the technological and nutritional quality of the derived products 11, 12. Previously, work had been carried out on the formulation of thirteen (13) infant flours made from local raw materials and the evaluation of their porridge in Burkina Faso 35. From this work, four (04) flour formulations emerged as the most appreciated by children from six (06) to 59 months. These flours by their composition were rich in protein, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral elements. These four selected flours will be used in this study for the production of porridge with the incorporation of malt flour in order to increase their energy densities.

The aim of this study is to improve the nutritional and microbiological qualities of porridges from infant flours with the incorporation of millet and sorghum malt flour.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Vegetal Material

For the formulation of infant flours, the raw materials and ingredients used consisted mainly of: millet, red sorghum, maize, soy, beans, orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), peanuts, millet malt and red sorghum malt.

2.2. Method of Formulating Infant Flours for the Production of Porridges

The Table 1 presents the formulations of infant flours used to produce the porridges.

2.3. Technological Properties of the Malts Used

The Table 2 presented the characteristics of malt flours used to incorporate in the porridge production process.

2.4. Method for Determining the Rate of Incorporation of Malts in the Production of Porridges

The incorporation rate of the malt flours was determined by measuring the consistency of the slurries. This consistency was measured by the Bostwick flow method 14. The choice of the best malt content was made following 3 steps:

- Measure the consistency of the four control mixtures F1T, F2T, F3T and F4T;

- Incorporate into each control mixture different contents of 48 and 72 hours malt flours (millet and red sorghum) i.e. 0.125%, 0.2% and 0.5% then measure the flow speeds again.

- Porridges with the incorporation of malt flours which have a consistency recommended by the standard (90-140mm/30s) have been retained.

2.5. Infant Porridge Production Diagram

The main steps of infant porridge production were presented in Figure 1.

2.6. Physico-chemical Analyses

The pH of the samples was measured with an electronic pH-meter (Model HI 8520; Hanna Instrument, Singapore). For each samples, 10 g of product were mixed with 20 mL of distilled water prior to pH measurement. Water content was determined by drying the sample at 105°C ± 2°C for 24h (NF V03-707, July 2000); ash content was determined by incineration at 650°C overnight according to international standard ISO 2171, (2007); crude protein content (N×6.25) was determined by the Kjeldahl method 15 after acid digestion (NF V03 50, 1970); crude fat content was determined by soxhlet extraction using n-hexane ( 16; ISO 659, 1998). Total carbohydrates content were determined by spectrophotometric method at 510 nm using orcinol as reagent 17. The energy value was calculated according to the Atwater method 18. The amino acid profile was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using Waters PICO-TAG method 19 which consists of three steps: hydrolysis of samples, sample derivatization pre-column and HPLC-reverse phase analysis. The identification and determination of the concentrations of the different amino acids were done from the Empower software by comparing retention times obtained with retention times of the standards. The values were expressed in g/100g of dry matter.

2.7. Microbiological Analyses

Ten grams of each sample were aseptically homogenized with 90 mL of sterile diluent (0.1% peptone, 0.8% NaCl, pH 7.0 ± 0.2) in a stomacher bag (stomacher 400 lab blender, England) at normal speed for 2 min to obtained 10-1 dilution. Serial dilutions were made from the homogenate of all samples using 9 mL sterile diluent. From appropriate ten-fold dilutions, Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB) were enumerated by pour plate on Plate Count Agar (PCA) (Liofilchem, Spain) incubated aerobically at 30°C for 72 h according to ISO (International Standard organization) 4833 (2003). Yeasts and molds were enumerated by pour plate on Sabouraud agar (Liofilchem, Spain) incubated at 25°C for 3-5 days according to ISO 7954 (1988). The presence or absence of salmonellas was enumerated by pour plate method on XLD and SS agar (Liofilchem, Spain) according to the international standard ISO-6579 (2002). Coliforms were determined according to international standard ISO-4832: 2006 for total coliforms and according to French standard V08-060: 2009 for fecal coliforms. The coliforms were enumerated by pour plate on Violet Red Bile Lactose (VRBL) agar (Liofilchem, Spain) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h ± 2h for total coliforms and 44°C for 24 h ± 2h for fecal coliforms. After incubation, plates of Sabouraud, XLD, SS, PCA and VRBL containing 15-150 colony forming units (CFU) were counted and results expressed as CFU/g of sample. Microbial enumerations were conducted in duplicate and means and standard deviation were calculated.

2.8. Statistical Analyses of the Data

All the data were analyzed with the statistical software XLSTAT-Pro 7.5.2: 2016 and R (version 3.6.3). The physico-chemical parameters were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The means were compared using the test of Student Newman-keuls to the probability level p<0.05.

3. Results

3.1. Rate of Malt Incorporation in Accordance with the Porridges Fluidity

The viscosity test, carried out with the Botswick viscometer, allowed to determine the average rate for the incorporation of millet and red sorghum malt flours in order to have porridges with an acceptable and beneficial viscosity for the children as shown as in the Table 3.

It emerged from the results of Table 3 that the viscosities of the mixtures resulting from the formulations of flours with the incorporation of millet malt flour were between 98 and 120 mm/30s and this for an incorporation rate of 0.125% of malt flour from 48h of germination. For porridges with incorporation of red sorghum malt flour, the values were between 90 and 110 mm/30s for a rate of 0.2% malt flour incorporation for 48 hours of germination. The best malt flour incorporation rates were 0.125% for 48h millet malt flour and 0.2% for 48h red sorghum malt flour.

3.2. Porridges Constancy Value

It emerged from the results of Table 4, that the viscosity of the mixtures remained constant after inactivation of the amylases after heating to 85°C.

3.3. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Porridges Samples

The results in Table 5 showed that the water contents of the porridge samples varied between 68.86±0.14% and 77.65±0.20%. As for the dry matter content, it varied between 22.35±0.20% and 31.14±0.14%. The average ash contents of the porridge samples ranged from 0.51±0.02% to 1.68±0.01% DM. No significant difference (P˃0.05) was observed between the ash content of the control porridges and those of the porridges incorporated with millet and red sorghum malts. As for the pH values of the porridges, they varied between 6.17±0.00 and 6.60±0.00. There are no significant variations (P˃0.05) between the pH values of the control porridges and the incorporated porridges of millet and red sorghum malts. The carbohydrate contents of the different porridge samples varied between 14.91±0.88% and 34.48±0.40% DM. It appears in each formulation that the porridges with the incorporation of sorghum and millet malt flours (F1MSR, F1MPM, F2MSR, F2MPM, F3MSR, F3MPM, F4MSR, and F4MPM) have higher carbohydrate values than the control porridges (F1T, F2T, F3T and F4T). The mean protein contents of the porridge ranged from 34.59±0.54% DM to 44.90±0.84% DM. The highest protein contents were obtained with the formulations using millet malt. Overall, the formulations using malt presented the best total sugar and protein levels. As for the fat contents, they varied from 26.34±0.18% DM to 39.50±0.57% DM. The energy density of the porridges, meanwhile, varied from 89.41±0.81kcal/100g to 164.64±0.96kcal/100g DM. It emerged that the incorporation of sorghum and millet malt flours made it possible to increase the energy density of the porridges. However, millet malt flour as a source of amylases gave better results than red sorghum malt flour. Overall, there is a significant variation (P<0.05) between the measured parameters of the different porridge samples.

It also emerged from the results that the porridges F1T, F2T, F2MPM, F2MSR, F3T, F3MSR and F3MPM had the highest contents of moisture, fat, protein and ash. On the other hand, the porridges samples, F1MSR, F1MPM, F4T, F4MSR, and F4MPM presented the best carbohydrate and dry matter contents, with the highest energy densities.

3.4. Total Amino Acid Profile of Porridges Samples

The total amino acid content varied from 0.097 to 0.160 mg/100g (Asp), 0.221 to 0.447 mg/100g (Glu), 0.072 to 0.122 mg/100g (Ser), 0.047 to 0.071 mg/100g (Gly), 0.033 to 0.057 mg/100g (His), 0. 033 to 0.066 mg/100g (Arg), 0.045 to 0.073 mg/100g (Thr), 0.085 to 0.141 mg/100g (Ala), 0.129 to 0.062 mg/100g (Pro), 0.053 to 0.069 mg/100g (Tyr), 0.079 to 0.091 mg/100g (Val), 0.038 to 0.051 mg/100g (Met), 0.000 to 0.016 mg/100g (Cys), 0.056 to 0.067 mg/100g (Ile), 0.129 to 0.205 mg/100g (Leu), 0.084 to 0.112 mg/100g (Phe), 0.166 to 0.285 mg/100g (Lys) (Table 6). Formulations with malt incorporation showed an increase in total amino acid content. The best values were observed with millet malt (Table 6).

It emerged from the results of the principal component analysis (Figure 2) of the amino acid contents that the porridges of the F2 and F4 formulations (F2T, F2MPM, F2MSR, F4T, F4MSR, F4MPM) presented a high content in Isoleucine, Tyrosine, Proline, Leucine, Alanine, Glycine, Threonine, Arginine, Glutamate, Lysine, Asparagine, Serine, Phenylalanine, Valine and low content in Cysteine, Methionine and Histidine. However, the porridges of the F1 and F3 formulations (F1T, F1MSR, F1MPM, F3T, F3MSR, F3MPM) presented a high content in Cysteine, Methionine and Histidine and poor in Isoleucine, Tyrosine, Proline, Leucine, Alanine, Glycine, Threonine, Arginine, Glutamate, Lysine, Asparagine, Serine, Phenylalanine, Valine.

  • Figure 2. ACP Biplot Porridge and Amino acids (F1T: Control porridge of formulation 1; F1MSR: Porridge of Formulation 1 using Red Sorghum Malt; F1MPM: Porridge of Formulation 1 using Pearl Millet Malt; F2T: Control porridge of Formulation 2; F2MSR: Porridge of Formulation 2 using Red Sorghum Malt; F2MPM: Porridge of Formulation 2 using Pearl Millet Malt; F3T: Control porridge of Formulation 3; F3MSR: Porridge of Formulation 3 using Red Sorghum Malt ; F3MPM: Porridge of Formulation 3 using Pearl Millet Malt;; F4T: Control porridge of formulation 4; F4MSR: Porridge of Formulation 4 using Red Sorghum Malt; F4MPM: Porridge of Formulation 4 using Pearl Millet Malt.)
3.5. Microbiological Characteristics of Porridges Samples

It emerged from the results of the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (Table 7) that infant flours (FF1T, FF2T, FF3T and FF4T) had higher loads (1.0.105 to 1.5.105 CFU/g) than porridges (F1T, F1MSR F1MPM, F2T, F2MSR, F2MPM, F3T, F3MSR, F3MPM, F4T, F4MSR, and F4MPM) whose loads range from about 5.1.103 CFU/g to 2.0.104 CFU/g. For yeast and mould loads (Table 7), infant flours (FF1T, FF2T, FF3T and FF4T) as well as porridges (F1T, F1MSR, F1MPM, F2T, F2MSR, F2MPM, F3T, F3MSR, F3MPM, F4T, F4MSR, and F4MPM) have showed a very low loads. These loads varied from less than 40 CFU/g to 5.45 101 CFU/g for the flours and were less than 10 CFU/g for the porridges. It also emerged that the total and faecal coliforms loads varied from less than 10 CFU/g to 4.55.101 CFU/g for the infant flours and less than 10 CFU/g for the porridges (Table 7). The results showed a total absence of Salmonella in the formulated infant flours as well as in the porridges (Table 7).

4. Discussion

The reduction in the viscosity of the porridges, obtained after incorporating the malts flour, could be due to the fact that the malts contain enzymes, in particular amylases, which allowed the hydrolysis of the cereal starch while increasing the energy density of the porridges. These results are in agreement with the Burkinabe standard 20 for infant flours which set values between 90 to 140 mm/30s. These results could be explained by the effectiveness of malt enzymes in thinning the porridges. These malts which presented a good diastatic power 13. These results corroborate also those of 21 and 5 who used germinated maize flour to get an appropriate consistency of infant porridge and good energy value. The results corroborate those of 22, whose incorporation of barley malt flour at the rate of 3.8% made it possible to obtain unfermented porridges of appropriate consistency (≈120 mm/30 s). This study made it possible to have a good consistency with a low rate of incorporation of millet malt flour (0.125%) and sorghum malt flour (0.2%) at temperatures of 65°C. The results obtained for the water and dry matter content are in accordance with the recommendations of the 23 which indicate dry matter rates greater than or equal to 18%. Moreover, these values are higher than the results obtained by 24, whose average dry matter content varied between 17.92±1.59 and 17.89±1.285%. Dry matter content obtained in this study increased in formulations using malt flours, especially in formulation 3 and 4. Some scientists observed that it was necessary to incorporate in this infant flour a malted cereals flours to improve the dry matter and energy value concomitantly 8. The result of 5 in Benin and 25 in Côte d‟Ivoire also showed that the use of malted maize and sorghum flours improved the dry matter and energy value of composite infant flour. In Burkina-Faso, 26 reported that in order to enhance energy value of infant flours in order to meet nutritional requirements of young children, malted cereal flour should be added to infant flour in rate depending on raw material.

The increase in the carbohydrate content of porridges incorporated with malt flour compared to control porridges could, on the one hand, be linked to the addition of malt flours which would contain carbohydrate fractions (sucrose, glucose, amylose) 27. On the other hand, it could be linked to the enzymatic power 13 of incorporated malt flours. The action of hydrolases on the starch during heating, makes it possible to release more carbohydrate molecules (glucose in particular) in prepared porridge.

The high protein levels recorded are linked to the fact that there were several sources of protein, namely legumes (soya, beans) and oilseeds (peanuts) in the different formulations and the addition of malt flour contributed to increase the content. These values comply with the Burkinabé standard 20 for infant flours, the recommended minimum value of which is set at 13.80% DM. These results corroborate those of 5 who found that the incorporation of cereals with soybean increased the protein content. These results are in lined with 28 who showed that the protein content of the combined cereals and legumes combined was better than that produced from cereals alone. Also, germination improved the protein content and digestibility of porridges 5. It has been noted that a non-significant decrease in certain cases of the lipid content in the porridges containing millet and sorghum malt flours compared to the control porridges. This could be explained by the fact that the addition of malt flour would have favored complexation of lipid and amylose molecules. Indeed, 29 reported that the decrease in the content of certain molecules can be explained by the fact that during extrusion amylose-lipid complexations were established.

The porridges incorporated with malt flours presented good energy values in agreement with 1 which recommend that porridges must have dry matter approaching 30% at least and energy value approaching 120 kcal /100ml 5. Energy value is a very important factor in young children feeding and represents the calories in a given volume of porridge 30.

The results found for energy value were higher than those of 24 whose values ranged from 71.04 to 78.4 kcal/100g DM for "bensongo" and are similar to those of 25 who had obtained an energy density of 112, 6 kcal/100ml with porridge prepared from maize flour and germinated sorghum containing soy. The results of porridge energy value corroborated those of 5 who found an energy value in the porridge samples which ranged from 91.92 to 120.26 Kcal/100ml. Also the work of 31 demonstrated that the incorporation of malt had made it possible to increase the energy density of yam porridges from 64.52 ± 1.93 to 99.16 ± 1.56 kcal / 100g DM. Some authors have also observed an increase in the protein content in porridges added with malt flours. The high enzymatic activities of malts leading to an increase in amino acid content linked to protein hydrolysis reaction 27, 31, 32.

The microbiological results obtained for yeasts and molds comply with the standard published by the Official Journal of the Algerian Republic 33 and the Codex Alimentarius 34 which recommends that the yeast and mold load of preparations intended for infants over six months and children in young age is not greater than the value of 103 CFU/g. As well as for the results of faecal and total coliforms in preparations intended for infants over six months and young children is not greater than the value of 10 CFU/g and 102 CFU/g, respectively, for preparations requiring cooking before consumption. These results corroborate those found by 5 and 8 in infant flours. The Salmonella results are in line with the standard published by the Official Journal of the Algerian Republic 33 and the Codex Alimentarius 34 which recommends a total absence in 25g in preparations intended for children.

5. Conclusion

This study allowed to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of sorghum and millet malt flours on the nutritional quality of infant porridge while determining the ideal malt incorporation rate. It also made it possible to formulate porridges with a recommended consistency and an improvement in the protein content and energy density of the porridges. Using sorghum and millet malt flours as a source of amylase to formulate infant porridges could be a good way to fight against malnutrition in children. From one formulation to another, the incorporation of malt improved the nutritional characteristics of the porridges. But the small millet malt flour was even better. Overall, the porridge samples presented good values in total amino acid profile. From a microbiological point of view, except for the total flora, the porridges present acceptable microbiological loads.

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank everyone who contributed to this study.

Statement of Competing Interests

The authors have no competing interests.

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In article      View Article
 
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Fidèle Wend-Bénédo TAPSOBA, Serge SAMANDOULOUGOU, Elie Wilfried Wendnongma BIEOGO, Abel TANKOANO, Alfred S TRAORE and Hagrétou SAWADOGO-LINGANI

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Fidèle Wend-Bénédo TAPSOBA, Serge SAMANDOULOUGOU, Elie Wilfried Wendnongma BIEOGO, Abel TANKOANO, Alfred S TRAORE, Hagrétou SAWADOGO-LINGANI. Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infant Porridges Produced from Infant Flours Containing Millet and Sorghum Malt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 10, No. 5, 2022, pp 341-349. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/10/5/2
MLA Style
TAPSOBA, Fidèle Wend-Bénédo, et al. "Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infant Porridges Produced from Infant Flours Containing Millet and Sorghum Malt." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 10.5 (2022): 341-349.
APA Style
TAPSOBA, F. W. , SAMANDOULOUGOU, S. , BIEOGO, E. W. W. , TANKOANO, A. , TRAORE, A. S. , & SAWADOGO-LINGANI, H. (2022). Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infant Porridges Produced from Infant Flours Containing Millet and Sorghum Malt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 10(5), 341-349.
Chicago Style
TAPSOBA, Fidèle Wend-Bénédo, Serge SAMANDOULOUGOU, Elie Wilfried Wendnongma BIEOGO, Abel TANKOANO, Alfred S TRAORE, and Hagrétou SAWADOGO-LINGANI. "Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infant Porridges Produced from Infant Flours Containing Millet and Sorghum Malt." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 10, no. 5 (2022): 341-349.
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  • Figure 2. ACP Biplot Porridge and Amino acids (F1T: Control porridge of formulation 1; F1MSR: Porridge of Formulation 1 using Red Sorghum Malt; F1MPM: Porridge of Formulation 1 using Pearl Millet Malt; F2T: Control porridge of Formulation 2; F2MSR: Porridge of Formulation 2 using Red Sorghum Malt; F2MPM: Porridge of Formulation 2 using Pearl Millet Malt; F3T: Control porridge of Formulation 3; F3MSR: Porridge of Formulation 3 using Red Sorghum Malt ; F3MPM: Porridge of Formulation 3 using Pearl Millet Malt;; F4T: Control porridge of formulation 4; F4MSR: Porridge of Formulation 4 using Red Sorghum Malt; F4MPM: Porridge of Formulation 4 using Pearl Millet Malt.)
  • Table 3. Viscosity of porridges during sorghum and millet malt flour incorporation tests (Bostwick flow in mm/30s)
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article      
 
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In article