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Influence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Infestation on Farinographical Properties of Wheat Flour Dough

Jianhua Lü , Yafei Guo, Zongwen Huang
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022, 10(3), 175-179. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-10-3-1
Received January 15, 2022; Revised February 18, 2022; Accepted February 27, 2022

Abstract

The effect of T. castaneum infestation on farinographical properties of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults for 0, 30, 60, and 90 d at 15, 25, and 30°C and 75% RH was investigated. The water absorption and softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by T. castaneum increased with increasing initial adult population density, storage temperature, and storage time, but the dough development time and stability time decreased significantly at 25 and 30°C. The water absorption, development time, stability time and softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 8 T. castaneum adults respectively reached 75.40±0.30%, 1.23±0.25 min, 1.17±0.15 min, and 182.67±1.53 FU after 90 d of storage at 30°C. The farinographical quality of wheat flour infested by adult T. castaneum population changed little at 15°C. Therefore, wheat flour should be stored at low temperature and insect-free environment.

1. Introduction

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the staple food crops in China and the world. Usually, wheat flour is processed into noodles, tortillas, breads, pastas, and so on, which is an important part of the human diet 1.

Stored wheat flour and its products are vulnerable to stored product insects. Stored product insect infestation results in adverse effects on grain quality. Nonreducing sugars, gluten, protein quality, and sedimentation value decreased in wheat infested by Trogoderma granarium and Rhizopertha dominica 2, 3, 4, 5.

Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pest insects in food processing and wheat flour storage spaces, can multiply rapidly in stored wheat flour at favorable conditions. Tribolium castaneum infestation frequently causes severe weight loss by feeding and quality loss by contaminating stored wheat flour with their cast skins, secreting benzoquinone, and insect fragments 6.

Rheological parameters were very important tests for cereal and milling industries. The rheological characteristics of the wheat flour dough were evaluated through various methods. Generally, farinograph test is used to determine the rheological behaviour during dough kneading. The farinograph measures and records resistance of dough samples to kneading. It is used to evaluate absorption of flours and to determine stability time and other characteristics of dough samples during kneading 7.

However, relatively little is known about the effect of T. castaneum infestation on farinographical properties of wheat flour dough. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of insect infestation on farinographical properties of dough made from wheat flour infested by different initial adult T. castaneum population densities for different times at different storage temperatures, which is in favor of implementing measures for maintaining quality of wheat flour.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Insect

Tribolium castaneum has been cultivated on food medium (wheat flour: yeast = 9:1, by weight) for several generations at 27±2°C and 70±5% RH at the Institute of Stored Product Insects of Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China. The males and females of T. castaneum were distinguished in pupae stage, then reared separately. The healthy T. castaneum adults (1 week old) were taken for the experiments.

2.2. Experimental Procedure

Fresh wheat (Zhengmai 583 cultivar), commercially grown in Zhengzhou, Henan, China, was obtained from Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and processed into whole wheat flour with a lab mill. Every 500 g wheat flour was put into a glass jar (2500 ml), and then 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults (male: female =1:1) were respectively introduced into a glass jar. Subsequently, the jars were respectively maintained at 15, 25, and 30°C and 75% RH. The farinograph quality of dough made from the wheat flour infested by T. castaneum adults was determined after 0, 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. Three replicates were conducted.

Water absorption, development time, stability time, and softening degree of dough made from the wheat flour infested by T. castaneum adults were analyzed in a Brabender Farinograph-Resistograph using the constant flour weight procedure (Method 54-21, AACC 1995).

2.3. Statistical Analysis

Means and standard errors of the wheat flour quality were calculated by using SPSS Statistics 20. Data on the wheat flour quality were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with storage temperature and time as fixed variables, and quality indices as response variables. Treatment means were compared and separated by Tukey’s test at p = 0.05.

3. Results

3.1. Effect of T. castaneum Infestation on Water Absorption of Dough

The water absorption of dough made from the wheat flour infested by T. castaneum adults slightly decreased from 67.27% to 69.23% after 90 d of storage at 15°C, but significantly increased with increasing initial adult population density and storage time at 25 and 30°C (df=3,59, F=12.540, p<0.01) (Figure 1). The water absorption of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults respectively increased to 68.50±0.10, 70.83±0.21, 72.43±0.12, 73.87±0.60, and 75.40±0.30% after 90 d of storage at 30°C.

3.2. Effect of T. castaneum Infestation on Dough Development Time

The development time of dough made from the wheat flour infested by T. castaneum adults decreased slightly during 90 d of storage at 15°C, but significantly decreased with increasing initial adult population density and storage time at 25 and 30°C (df=3,59, F=40.652, p<0.01) (Figure 2). The development time of dough made from the wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults respectively reached 4.43±0.12, 3.23±0.25, 2.47±0.32, 1.80±0.26, and 1.23±0.25 min after 90 d of storage at 30°C.

3.3. Effect of T. castaneum Infestation on Dough Stability Time

The stability time of dough made from the wheat flour infested by T. castaneum adults slightly decreased after 30 d storage, then slowly increased after 90 d of storage at 15°C. There was no significant difference among the stability times of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults at 15°C. The stability time of dough made from wheat flour without infestation slightly increased during 90 d of storage at 25 and 30°C. However, the stability time of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults slightly decreased within 30 d storage, then significantly decreased with increasing initial adult population density and storage time at 25 and 30°C (df=3,59, F=11.448, p<0.01) (Figure 3). The stability time of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults respectively reached 5.63±0.35, 1.93±0.15, 1.77±0.15, 1.23±0.06, and 1.17±0.15 min after 90 d of storage at 30°C.

3.4. Effect of T. castaneum Infestation on Dough Softening Degree

The softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults changed little during 90 d storage at 15°C. The softening degree of dough made from wheat flour without infestation increased within 30 d storage, then slightly decreased during 90 d storage at 25 and 30°C. However, the softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults markedly increased after 90 d of storage at 25 and 30°C (df=3,59, F=17.738, p<0.01) (Figure 4). The softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by initial 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 T. castaneum adults respectively reached 81.67±1.15, 151.33±3.06, 162.33±4.16, 169±4.00, and 182.67±1.53 FU after 90 d of storage at 30°C.

4. Discussion

Tribolium castaneum infestation in stored wheat flour frequently caused significant changes in dough farinographical properties, including water absorption, dough development time, stability time, and degree of softening. The water absorption and softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by T. castaneum increased with increasing initial adult population density, storage temperature, and storage time, but the dough development time and stability time decreased significantly. The present results are similar to previous researches 1, 8, 9. The farinographical quality of dough made from wheat flour infested by Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais and Rhyzopertha dominica also significantly decreased with the increasing initial adult population density of T. castaneum and storage time 10.

The stability time and water absorption of dough directly determine the gluten strength of dough, which is the most direct and accurate index of food processing quality 11. The quality (such as bread yield, pore structure, height, and crumb softness value) of bread made from wheat infested by Eurygaster integriceps was significantly improved by adding transglutaminase 12. The prolamine and glutenin in wheat are respectively responsible for dough extensibility and tensile resistance, then further affect rheological property of wheat flour 13. Whether the saliva secreted by T. castaneum feeding can cause the change of wheat flour quality remains to be further investigated.

Previous research mostly focused on the effects of infestation on the quality of raw grain 3, 4, 14. In fact, stored product insects occasionally invade stored wheat flour and cause damage, or a small amount of residual eggs in wheat flour will also cause damage after hatching at suitable conditions. Therefore, the effect of stored product insect infestation in wheat flour on quality of flour products is worthy of further study.

Low temperature storage can effectively maintain wheat flour at a stable state, which is in favor of maintaining wheat flour quality. The present results showed that farinographical quality of dough made from wheat flour infested by adult T. castaneum population changed little during 90 d storage at 15°C, but significantly decreased with increasing initial adult population density and storage time at 25 and 30°C. Thus, wheat flour should be kept in a low temperature, and insect free environment.

5. Conclusion

The water absorption and softening degree of dough made from wheat flour infested by T. castaneum increased with increasing initial adult population density, storage temperature, and storage time, but the dough development time and stability time decreased significantly at 25 and 30°C. The farinographical quality of wheat flour infested by adult T. castaneum population changed little at 15°C. Thus, wheat flour should be stored at no more than 15°C.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31870395).

Statement of Competing Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

[1]  Sánchez‐Mariñez, R. I., Cortez‐Rocha, M. O., Ortega‐Dorame, F., Morales-Valdes, M. and Silveira, M. I. End‐use quality of flour from Rhyzopertha dominica infested wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74(4): 481-483. Apr. 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Engelhardt, M., Rapoport, H. and Sokoloff, A. Odorous secretion of normal and mutant Tribolium confusum. Science, 150(3696): 632-633. Oct. 1965.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Villaverde, M. L., Juarez, M. P. and Mijailorsky, S. Detection of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) volatile defensive secretions by solid phase microextraction–capillary gas chromatography (SPME-CGC). Journal of Stored Products Research, 43, 540-545. Mar. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Sharma, S. S., Thapar, V. K. and Simwat, G. S. Biochemical losses in stored wheat due to infestation of some stored grain insect-pests. Bulletin of grain technology, 17,144-147. 1979.
In article      
 
[5]  Hodges, R. J., Robinson, R. and Hall, D. R. Quinone contamination of dehusked rice by Tribolium castaneurn (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 32, 31-37. Jan. 1996.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Smith, L. W., Jr., Pratt, J. J., Jr., Nii, I. and Umina, A. P. Baking and taste properties of bread made from hard wheat flour infested with species of Tribolium, Tenebrio, Trogoderma, and Oryzaephilus. Journal of Stored Products Research, 6, 307-316. Sept. 1971.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Dizlek, H., and Özer, M.S. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damage ratios on rheological characteristics of wheat flour. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods, 9(1), 47-54. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Wang, D. X., Wang, J. H. and Liu, H. M. Research on rheological characteristics of dough of flour infected by red floor beetle, Tribolium canstaneum(Herbst). Journal of Henan University of Technology (Natural Science Edition), Feb. 2008.
In article      
 
[9]  Özkaya, H., Özkaya, B. and Colakoglu, A. S. Technological properties of variety of soft and hard bread wheat infested by Rhyzoperta dominica (F.) and Tribolium confusum du Val. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment, 7, 166-172. 2009.
In article      
 
[10]  Aghababaei, A., Maftoonazad, N. and Elhamirad, A. Accelerated ageing of wheat grains: Part I- Influence on rheological properties of wheat flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 77, 147-156. Sept. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Wen, J. P., Lin, J. T. and Wang, X. X. Key technology of tailored wheat flour milling. Grain Processing, 34, 16-19. Aug. 2009.
In article      
 
[12]  Dizlek, H. and Özer, M. S. Improvement bread characteristics of high level sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheat by using transglutaminase and some additives. Journal of Cereal Science, 77, 90-96. Sept. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Zhang, S. H., Yang, X. J. and Zhang, C. Y. Relationships between protein composition content and dough rheological traits in wheat flour. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 46, 65-70. Apr. 2011.
In article      
 
[14]  Jood, S. and Kapoor, A. C. Biological evaluation of protein quality of wheat as affected by insect infestation. Food Chem, 45, 169-174. Dec. 1992.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Jianhua Lü, Yafei Guo and Zongwen Huang

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Jianhua Lü, Yafei Guo, Zongwen Huang. Influence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Infestation on Farinographical Properties of Wheat Flour Dough. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 10, No. 3, 2022, pp 175-179. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/10/3/1
MLA Style
Lü, Jianhua, Yafei Guo, and Zongwen Huang. "Influence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Infestation on Farinographical Properties of Wheat Flour Dough." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 10.3 (2022): 175-179.
APA Style
Lü, J. , Guo, Y. , & Huang, Z. (2022). Influence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Infestation on Farinographical Properties of Wheat Flour Dough. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 10(3), 175-179.
Chicago Style
Lü, Jianhua, Yafei Guo, and Zongwen Huang. "Influence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Infestation on Farinographical Properties of Wheat Flour Dough." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 10, no. 3 (2022): 175-179.
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  • Figure 1. Changes of water absorption of dough made from wheat flour initially infested with 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 adults of T. castaneum over time at 15, 25, and 30°C
  • Figure 2. Changes of development time of dough made from wheat flour initially infested with 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 adults of T. castaneum over time at 15, 25, and 30°C
  • Figure 3. Changes in stability time of dough made from wheat flour initially infested with 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 adults of T. castaneum over time at 15, 25, and 30°C
  • Figure 4. Changes in softening degree of dough made from wheat flour initially infested with 0 (as a control), 2, 4, 6, and 8 adults of T. castaneum over time at 15, 25, and 30°C
[1]  Sánchez‐Mariñez, R. I., Cortez‐Rocha, M. O., Ortega‐Dorame, F., Morales-Valdes, M. and Silveira, M. I. End‐use quality of flour from Rhyzopertha dominica infested wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74(4): 481-483. Apr. 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Engelhardt, M., Rapoport, H. and Sokoloff, A. Odorous secretion of normal and mutant Tribolium confusum. Science, 150(3696): 632-633. Oct. 1965.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Villaverde, M. L., Juarez, M. P. and Mijailorsky, S. Detection of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) volatile defensive secretions by solid phase microextraction–capillary gas chromatography (SPME-CGC). Journal of Stored Products Research, 43, 540-545. Mar. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Sharma, S. S., Thapar, V. K. and Simwat, G. S. Biochemical losses in stored wheat due to infestation of some stored grain insect-pests. Bulletin of grain technology, 17,144-147. 1979.
In article      
 
[5]  Hodges, R. J., Robinson, R. and Hall, D. R. Quinone contamination of dehusked rice by Tribolium castaneurn (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 32, 31-37. Jan. 1996.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Smith, L. W., Jr., Pratt, J. J., Jr., Nii, I. and Umina, A. P. Baking and taste properties of bread made from hard wheat flour infested with species of Tribolium, Tenebrio, Trogoderma, and Oryzaephilus. Journal of Stored Products Research, 6, 307-316. Sept. 1971.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Dizlek, H., and Özer, M.S. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damage ratios on rheological characteristics of wheat flour. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods, 9(1), 47-54. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Wang, D. X., Wang, J. H. and Liu, H. M. Research on rheological characteristics of dough of flour infected by red floor beetle, Tribolium canstaneum(Herbst). Journal of Henan University of Technology (Natural Science Edition), Feb. 2008.
In article      
 
[9]  Özkaya, H., Özkaya, B. and Colakoglu, A. S. Technological properties of variety of soft and hard bread wheat infested by Rhyzoperta dominica (F.) and Tribolium confusum du Val. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment, 7, 166-172. 2009.
In article      
 
[10]  Aghababaei, A., Maftoonazad, N. and Elhamirad, A. Accelerated ageing of wheat grains: Part I- Influence on rheological properties of wheat flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 77, 147-156. Sept. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Wen, J. P., Lin, J. T. and Wang, X. X. Key technology of tailored wheat flour milling. Grain Processing, 34, 16-19. Aug. 2009.
In article      
 
[12]  Dizlek, H. and Özer, M. S. Improvement bread characteristics of high level sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheat by using transglutaminase and some additives. Journal of Cereal Science, 77, 90-96. Sept. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Zhang, S. H., Yang, X. J. and Zhang, C. Y. Relationships between protein composition content and dough rheological traits in wheat flour. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 46, 65-70. Apr. 2011.
In article      
 
[14]  Jood, S. and Kapoor, A. C. Biological evaluation of protein quality of wheat as affected by insect infestation. Food Chem, 45, 169-174. Dec. 1992.
In article      View Article