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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Seasonal Effect on Tourism in India

Anay Kumar , Gurdeep Singh
Journal of Finance and Economics. 2019, 7(2), 48-51. DOI: 10.12691/jfe-7-2-1
Received January 10, 2019; Revised February 16, 2019; Accepted March 04, 2019

Abstract

Tourism plays an important role in the economy of India. Directly and indirectly tourism generates employment, increases hotels, restaurants and it also helps to increase the economy by increasing transportation etc. In India there are so many seasonal industries which directly depend upon tourism. So this is the need of time to understand the variations in tourism during different months. In this paper, with the help of collection of data from different sources for each month of year the coefficient of variation is calculated .The seasonal tourism plays an important role in Indian economy. So it is taken under consideration for each month’s coefficient of variation and multiple correlation coefficient to provide the basic reasons for the growth and development of tourism in India.

1. Introduction

Tourism industry is the backbone of a service sector and it plays an important role in the development of allied sectors as hotels, restaurant, hospitality, travel and transportation .State and central government frame various policies for tourism. For the development of tourism huge amount of money is invested and spent. Tourism also generates employment and contributing to Gross Domestic Product. Ashish Nag mentioned that the ministry of Tourism in any country seeks ways to promote and develop tourism in the country 1. Tourism is not only growth engine but also an employment generator. The role of Government in tourism development has been redefined from that of a regulator to that of a catalyst 2. Apart from marketing and promoting, the focus on the tourism development plans is now on integrated development of enabling infrastructure through effective partnership with various stakeholders. M.A. Khan wrote in his book on ‘Principles of Tourism Development’ which deals with hotel industry and tourism 3. These are the major sectors of modern economy in the world as well as in India. Tourists help to promote the economy of a country ,so these should be honored as guests. Romila Chawla wrote her famous book ‘Tourism In The 21st Century’ and she emphasized on important features of the tourism industry and its role in the Gross Domestic Product of India 5. The tourism acts as an industry for the economic development of a country. Tang, Tiwari and Shahbaz related international tourist arrivals with energy consumption and economic growth nexus for India covering the period from 1971-2002 and their result showed a feedback type relationship between the foreign tourists arrivals and economic growth in India 6. Dayananda. K.C.,and Prof.D.S. Leelavathi, explain the ‘Tourism Development and Economic Growth in India 7. Manish Ratti. In his “Tourism Planning and Development” Book which deals with the tourism industry also provides a number of job opportunities to the local people, adverse effect on destinations; it contains vital information on tourism 8. Dr. Kulwant Singh Pathania and Arun Kumar explain all the aspects related to tourism in India and the resources available for tourisim in India 9. The data used in this paper has been taken from World Travel and Tou Reserve Bank of India 14 rism Report 12, Bureau of Immigration, Government of India 13, Reserve Bank of India 14, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India 15, and India Tourism Statistics at a Glance 16.

2. Review of Literature

Romila Chawla (2003) wrote her famous book ‘Tourism In The 21st Century’. She emphasized on important features of the tourism industry and its role in the Gross Domestic Poduct Of India.She also suggests the promotion of arts and culture which brings prosperity and sustainable development to a country.

M.A.Khan (2005) wrote in his book on ‘Principles of Tourism Development’ which deals with hotel industry and tourism. These are the major sectors of modern economy in the world as well as in India. Tourists help to promote the economy of a country, so these should be honored as guests.

Ashish Nag (2013) mentioned that the ministry of Tourism in any country seeks ways to promote and develop tourism in the country. He simply mentioned the tourism as an industry for the economic development of a country.

Lok sabha secretariat (2013), the role of Government in tourism development has been redefined from that regulator to that of a catalist .Apart from marketing and promoting, the focus on the tourism development plans is now on integrated development of enabling infrastructure through effective partnership with various stakeholders.

Tang, Tiwari and Shahbaz (2016) related international tourist arrivals with energy consumption and economic growth nexus for India covering the period from 1971-2002. Their result showed a feed back type relationship between the foreign tourists arrivals and economic growth in India.

2.1. Objectives of the Study

1. To study the role of seasons in Indian tourism.

2. To study the role of strength of tourists in each month of the year.

3. To find out the challenges in different seasons and strategies for the growth of tourism in different months.

4. To provide the suggestions for policy makers to make different policies for the different month of the year.

5. To find out the strategic steps for development in infrastructure and roads for monsoon as well as winter season.

2.2. Foreign Tourist Arrival in India

India can rightly boast of being one of the earliest civilizations of the world. Tourism sector has involved as a special attraction in the field of education, adventure, heritage, wildlife, medical, pilgrimage. Tourism contributes significantly in country’s gross domestic product as well as foreign exchange earnings with its backward and forward linkages with other sector of the economy like transportations, handicrafts, manufacturing, agriculture, and horticulture etc. Tourism has the potential to not only be the economy driver, but also become an effective tool for poverty alleviation and amelioration of the down trodden section of society.

Month wise of foreign tourist arrivals in India from 2011 to 2016

This table shows that the highest variation of foreign tourist arrival was 16.23% in the month of July but the lowest variation of foreign tourist arrival were 9.2% in the month of November in India from 2011 to 2016.

Year wise top ten counrties of foreign tourist arrival in India from 2011 to 2016.

This table shows the highest variation of the foreign tourist arrival from Bangladesh was 43.07% and the lowest variation of the foreigners arrival in India from France was 2.96% during 2011 to 2016.

2.3. Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism in India

Tourism sector is providing different types of investment opportunities sustaining, trades, handicrafts (jewels, carpets, leatherwoods and brass work) contributing to foreign exchange earning most of the tourist arrive in India for the purpose of adventure activities, sports activities, entertainments activities, medical and educational facilities. The ancient monuments fair and festivals held in India are major point of attraction for the foreign tourist. The large number of tourist do not arrive in India but huge amount of money spend by them from others country. Even that foreign exchange earnings from tourism is the result of consumption expenditure i.e. payments made for goods and services by foreign tourist arrival in India from the foreign currency brought by them.

Month wise foreign exchange earning in India from 2011 to 2016

This table shows that the highest variation of foreign exchange earning in the month of August was 25.75% in India from 2011 to 2016 and the lowest variation of foreign exchange earnings in the month of October was 17.73% in India from 2011 to 2016.

2.4. Contribution of Travel and Tourism to Gross Domestic Product in India

Tourism is one of the most important sectors for Indian economy in the terms of foreign exchange earnings and creation of employment opportunities. India is endowed with topographic diversity, historical monuments and religious shrines. This sector in India has not been giving priority and Centre Government has developed an appropriate infrastructure for its development which includes provision of public utility services, roads, communication, network, airlines, transportation and civic amenities etc.

2.5. Contribution of Travel and Tourism to Gross Domestic Product in India

The above table shows that the highest variation of travel and tourism in GDP in the month of April was 45.97% but the lowest variation of Travels & Tourism in GDP was the month of October was 29.2% during 2011 to 2016.

2.6. Contribution Travel and Tourism to Employment in India

Tourism generates direct, indirect and induced employments skill and unskilled from restaurant, guides, traveller agent, artist, handicraft, transportation etc. Tourism sector has been contributing to a large comparative share of National income developing country like India.

Contribution Travel & Tourism to Employment from 2011 to 2016.

2.7. Multiple Correlation Coefficient

3. Conclusion

While studying the role of seasons in Indian Tourism, it is observed on the basis of coefficient of variation in the Table 1, that the tourism variation influx/inflow of tourists too much in months of July & August. It means there is a need of infrastructure, roads, and bridges over the flooded-streams and rivers in hilly and plains tourism places. The tourists have fear in their minds while visiting the hilly areas of landsides and its effect on transportation. The strength of tourist is stable in the months of November and December, but the other months (see Table 1) like June and September are not favourable for the strength of tourists. This means in the month of June there is scarcity of water in the hot climate in the lowest tourist places like Rajasthan, Punjab, U.P. etc. Similarly in the month of September there are various problems in the flooded places. Tourists inflow is in the month of monsoon in H.P., Kerala, Assam, U.K. on the bases of multiple correlation coefficient (Table 6). it is clearly observed that in the month of November and December, it is perfect positive. It means in these months there is a sufficient increment in our foreign exchange earnings, gross domestic product and employment. But multiple correlation coefficient moderate in the month of February. It clearly means that one FEE, GDP and employment are not increasing at the desirable rate.

Therefore our Govt. and Tourism Department has to take steps to increase infrastructure, roads and bridges to increase the strength of tourists in monsoon seasons. So that our multiple correlation coefficient becomes perfect positive in these months.

In the summer season it we have to make arrangements for providing sufficient drinking water in hot tourist places as discussed above.

References

[1]  Nag Ashish (2013), A study of Tourism Industry of Himachal Pradesh With Special References To Eco Tourism, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing And Management Review , Vol.2 (4), April 2013.
In article      
 
[2]  Lok Sabha Secretariat (2013) Tourism Sector in India http://164.100.47.134./internet/Tourismsectrin India.pdf.
In article      
 
[3]  Khan.M.A. (2005). Principles of Tourism Development, Anmol Publication Pvt.Ltd.New Delhi, P-250.
In article      
 
[4]  Pathania Kulwant Singh & Kumar Arun, 2008, Tourism in India, Regal Publication .New Delhi.
In article      
 
[5]  Chawla Romila (2003), Tourism in The 21st Century, Sonali Publications ,New Delhi.
In article      
 
[6]  Tang, C.F., Tiwari, A.K. and Shahbaz, M. (2016). Dynamic interrelationship among tourism,economic growth and energy consumption in India. Geosystem engineering, 19(4), 158-169.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Dayananda. K.C., and Prof. D.S. Leelavathi, ‘Tourism Development and Economic Growth in India‘ IQSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IQSR-JHSS) Volume 21, issue 11, ver. 8 (Nov.2016). PP- 43-49.
In article      
 
[8]  Ratti Manish, (2007), Tourisim Planning and Develpoment, Rajat Publication, New Delhi, p-25.
In article      
 
[9]  Pathania Kulwant Singh and Kumar Arun, (2008). Tourisim in India, Regal Publication, New Delhi.
In article      
 
[10]  http://www.incredibleindia.org.
In article      
 
[11]  Punia, B.K, (1994) Tourism management: problems and prospects. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi.
In article      
 
[12]  World travel and tourism report from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[13]  Bureau of Immigration, Govt. of India form 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  Reserve bank of India from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[15]  Ministry of tourism, Govt. of India from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[16]  India tourism statistics from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[17]  www.indiatourism.com.
In article      
 
[18]  www.travelindia.com.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Anay Kumar and Gurdeep Singh

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Anay Kumar, Gurdeep Singh. Seasonal Effect on Tourism in India. Journal of Finance and Economics. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp 48-51. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfe/7/2/1
MLA Style
Kumar, Anay, and Gurdeep Singh. "Seasonal Effect on Tourism in India." Journal of Finance and Economics 7.2 (2019): 48-51.
APA Style
Kumar, A. , & Singh, G. (2019). Seasonal Effect on Tourism in India. Journal of Finance and Economics, 7(2), 48-51.
Chicago Style
Kumar, Anay, and Gurdeep Singh. "Seasonal Effect on Tourism in India." Journal of Finance and Economics 7, no. 2 (2019): 48-51.
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[1]  Nag Ashish (2013), A study of Tourism Industry of Himachal Pradesh With Special References To Eco Tourism, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing And Management Review , Vol.2 (4), April 2013.
In article      
 
[2]  Lok Sabha Secretariat (2013) Tourism Sector in India http://164.100.47.134./internet/Tourismsectrin India.pdf.
In article      
 
[3]  Khan.M.A. (2005). Principles of Tourism Development, Anmol Publication Pvt.Ltd.New Delhi, P-250.
In article      
 
[4]  Pathania Kulwant Singh & Kumar Arun, 2008, Tourism in India, Regal Publication .New Delhi.
In article      
 
[5]  Chawla Romila (2003), Tourism in The 21st Century, Sonali Publications ,New Delhi.
In article      
 
[6]  Tang, C.F., Tiwari, A.K. and Shahbaz, M. (2016). Dynamic interrelationship among tourism,economic growth and energy consumption in India. Geosystem engineering, 19(4), 158-169.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Dayananda. K.C., and Prof. D.S. Leelavathi, ‘Tourism Development and Economic Growth in India‘ IQSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IQSR-JHSS) Volume 21, issue 11, ver. 8 (Nov.2016). PP- 43-49.
In article      
 
[8]  Ratti Manish, (2007), Tourisim Planning and Develpoment, Rajat Publication, New Delhi, p-25.
In article      
 
[9]  Pathania Kulwant Singh and Kumar Arun, (2008). Tourisim in India, Regal Publication, New Delhi.
In article      
 
[10]  http://www.incredibleindia.org.
In article      
 
[11]  Punia, B.K, (1994) Tourism management: problems and prospects. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi.
In article      
 
[12]  World travel and tourism report from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[13]  Bureau of Immigration, Govt. of India form 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  Reserve bank of India from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[15]  Ministry of tourism, Govt. of India from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[16]  India tourism statistics from 2011 to 2016.
In article      
 
[17]  www.indiatourism.com.
In article      
 
[18]  www.travelindia.com.
In article