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Waste Disposal and Infrastructural Factors in Slum Creation: A Study of Selected Inner City Communities in Yenagoa, Nigeria

Warebi Brisibe, Andrew Ebakpa
Journal of City and Development. 2021, 3(1), 60-68. DOI: 10.12691/jcd-3-1-7
Received May 15, 2021; Revised June 20, 2021; Accepted June 27, 2021

Abstract

This paper forms part of a larger study that examines how certain unchecked processes of development and city expansion could lead to unplanned slum creation in inner city areas of Yenagoa, Nigeria. It explores the relationship between housing development and compliance with building and planning laws in the city. It uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods in examining possible factors that may have contributed to inner city settlements becoming slums. The findings show that factors such as sewage disposal, drainage planning, the condition of roads and solid waste management amongst others, have aided in determining the quality of urban environment and ultimately creating slums in Yenagoa.

1. Introduction

The paper is part of a larger study that examines slum rehabilitation and improved sanitary services in Yenagoa, Nigeria. It focuses on the role waste disposal and infrastructural factors play in the development of slums in the inner city. It also examines the development of slums as opposed to squatter settlements or shanty towns within capital cities and towns. This is because the buildings and environment being investigated are not fringe lands where the occupiers hold no titles or deeds as is the case with squatter settlements, or houses built out of make-shift, cheap and temporary materials as is obtainable in shanties. On the contrary, the buildings in the study area are permanent structures built on deeded lands and inhabited on owner-occupier or tenement basis. Previous studies have shown that some of the architecture of buildings in the study areas did not comply with building codes and planning regulations and this has contributed to slum development 1. However, faulty planning and building designs are not the only contributory factor to slum development. Based on further study, this paper argues that waste disposal methods and poor infrastructure have also contributed significantly to the creation of slums in the inner city communities of Yenagoa.

A review of different slum definitions by UN-habitat revealed the following attributes of slums: lacking basic services; substandard housing or illegal and inadequate building structures; overcrowding and high density; unhealthy living conditions and hazardous locations; insecure tenure; and poverty and social exclusion. Although these attributes succinctly encapsulates the concept of slums, there are however some definitions and descriptions put forward by other scholars that are worthy of note here. These definitions differ in relation to context and emphasis on specific attributes. The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) describes typical slums in developing countries as unplanned informal settlements where access to services is minimal to non-existent and where overcrowding is the norm 2. The emphases on deterioration, non-planning and lack of amenities have been summed up in Igwilo’s definition of a slum as a “cluster of buildings in a defined area with characteristics of deterioration, congestion, absence of facilities, unsanitary conditions, lack of recreational facilities amongst others where the safety, health and/or morals of the populace are endangered due to poor conditions of sanitary services” 3.

Slums have been defined in several ways by different people. But it all boils down to inadequacy of essential infrastructure and services and a degradation of the environment and what little system exists in an area with extremely high occupancy ratio. Vidal asserts that there are about 20% of slum dwellers in Africa as a continent, closely followed by Latin America- 14% and the worst urban conditions are in Asia where more than 550 million people live in conditions below the minimum standard of the United Nations 4.

Nigeria is one of the developing countries in Africa where urban dwellers face the problems of ever-growing slums as most if not all its urban centres have deep-rooted environmental degradation and infrastructural problems due to rapid and unplanned urbanization and rapid population growth. This degradation manifests itself in a number of ways, the most significant of these being the deterioration of shelter conditions and growth of slums and squatter settlements, inadequate roads and services 5. Yenagoa the capital city of Bayelsa State is also not exempt from this menace, even though it is one of the youngest State capitals in Nigeria and had the advantage of planning on a clean canvass while learning from the errors and avoiding pitfalls of older capital cities in Nigeria. It is the factors that have led to this undesirable yet avoidable milieu that this paper examines.

1.1. Description of Study Area

The study was carried out in three of the inner city settlements of Yenagoa in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The State capital territory Yenagoa lies between latitude 4°, 55’ N and 4°, 57’N and longitude 6, 16’ E and 6°, 18’ E. Yenagoa capital territory covers a radius of 15Km with about fifty (50) settlements as at the time Bayelsa State was created. It covers the entire Yenagoa Local Government Area (LGA) and some communities in Kolokuma/Opokuma LGA on the North, Sagbama LGA on the North/West, Ogbia LGA on the South/East and Southern Ijaw LGA on the South/West. Based on the 2006 census, Yenagoa LGA had a population of about 266,008 persons and the population density was 376 persons per square kilometre 6. Yenagoa had a linear pattern of settlement as at the time Bayelsa State was created. Presently, the original settlement pattern has changed with increased development and housing construction due to rapid population growth.

Yenagoa experiences heavy rainfall for eight to nine months (March to November) of the year with highest rainfall values obtained in the months of June (322.92mm), July (413.59mm), August (438.34mm) and September (439.84mm) while the mean annual rainfall is 3191mm 7, 8. The general topography of Yenagoa is relatively flat-lying. Due to the low swampy terrain and high rainfall, most parts of Yenagoa are flooded for about 8 to 9 months of the year especially during the flood season from the months of May to October.

2. Research Methodology

The study was designed to apply both qualitative and quantitative techniques to collect detailed accounts and experiences from the respondents and the physical environment. Data sources include; key informant interviews, questionnaire survey, satellite imagery, maps and photographs. The data from the survey was coded and analyzed using the statistical package for social studies (SPSS).

To identify possible slum locations within the study area, the multi-staged sampling technique which involved the listing of all slum locations was used. Physical enumeration of properties was carried out with the aid of geographic information system map imageries to identify sixty-two (62) streets traversing the entire stretch of the study area. Three (3) slum neighborhoods were purposively selected for ease of access to collect data on demographic, physical and spatial characteristics of the study area. Systematic sampling technique was adopted to select respondents in the study area. A total of 25% of the population was purposively chosen for the study and the simple random sampling technique was applied to pick sampling units (houses) to avoid bias. The respondents in the study are household heads in the area.

Multiple Regression Model was used to establish the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. It was applied in this study to establish a numerical framework for the relationship between the state of infrastructure and waste disposal services and quality of the environment. The dependent variable (Y) is associated with, or is a function of the independent variables (Xm).

The quality of urban environment (Y) is related to waste disposal services (X1…..X6). If the null hypothesis is true, then none of the independent variables (X1,….,X6) is linearly related to Y. An analysis of variance for regression was used to test for significance at 0.05 probability level.

2.1. Observation of Physical Environmental Conditions

For purposes of gathering appropriate environmental data for the study, observation of the physical conditions of the study area was undertaken to enable the enumerators collect the needed environmental data. In the study, the enumerators ticked the appropriate answers to questions on the physical environment after proper observation of the physical condition of sanitary services within and outside the premises of each house selected for assessment. The aspects of the physical environment targeted for assessment through observation method include sewage disposal method (septic tank), kitchen facilities, toilets, drainage system, condition of roads and solid waste management methods/facilities.

2.2. Sewage Disposal Method (Septic Tank)

The data in Table 1 below shows the methods used in disposal of sewage and human waste within the premises of 118 out of the 438 houses selected for assessment in the study area that were built with provision of water closet (WC) toilets. The results show that only 14% of the 118 houses with WC toilets are provided with well-maintained septic tanks, 35% are with septic tanks that require minor repairs, 5% are with septic tanks that require major repairs, while the rest 10% of the 118 houses with wc toilets are provided with septic tanks that are either due for evacuation or dilapidated. This implies that only 4% of the 438 houses selected for assessment in the study are provided with good septic tanks, 13% are with septic tanks that are unhealthy as they require some levels of repair, while 83% of the 438 houses were built without provision of septic tank and therefore piped into seasonal streams. This is an indication that the use of environmentally-unfriendly sewage management method is a source of environmental pollution in the area.

The findings of the study have shown that improper disposal of sewage is a serious environmental challenge in the study area. It has also shown that the poorly maintained septic tanks in the city have resulted in the seepage of excreta into the urban environment thereby polluting the soil as well as water resources. The implication is that residents of the communities in question are exposed to several health challenges since the improper disposal of sewage has been known to be a major source of water pollution rampart in the developing countries that lack adequate sanitation and potable drinking water. According to Coleridge, the most serious water pollutants in terms of human health worldwide are pathogenic organisms 9. The main source of these pathogens is from untreated or improperly treated human waste.

2.3. Drainage System

The results in Table 2 show the distribution of drainage systems by community and the state of drainage systems in front of the houses in the study area. The results show that none of the houses in the area is along a road with a covered drainage system that is flowing; none is along a road with an open drainage system that is flowing; 9% of the houses are along roads with blocked covered drainage systems; 7% are along roads with blocked open drainage systems; while 84% of the houses are either on roads without drainage systems or not on access roads at all. The table further shows that of the 9% of houses along roads with covered drainage systems, 1% of the 438 houses are in Obele community, 2% of them are in Igugu community, while 6% are in Ololo community.

Without proper drainage systems, excess run-off from rainwater as well as domestic effluent from kitchen and bath places usually located close to the latrines, run along open earth gutters and natural drains through the compound to other areas in the neighborhood, along and across footpaths and communal grounds. The whole situation, particularly in compact compounds, and group of compounds, provides breading places for flies, mosquitoes, rats, etc, 10. The issue of domestic waste water pools within overcrowded areas of the city also contributes to the environmental degradation of such communities.

2.4. Condition of Roads

The results on Table 3 show the condition of roads in front of the houses in the study area. The results show that 10% of the houses are on tarred roads of 11 or more metres right-of-way (ROW) without potholes, 3% are on tarred roads of 10-10.9 metres ROW with potholes, while 87% of the houses are either along un-tarred roads or are not along access roads at all. The table further shows that 35% out of the houses that are either along tarred roads of less than 10 metres ROW, un-tarred roads or without access roads are in Obele community, 27% are in Ololo community, while 25% are in Igugu community.

The results on Table 4 show the condition of the 62 roads in the study area. It shows that only 4 out of the 62 roads are tarred and well-drained during rainy days. One (1) is partly tarred, while 57 are un-tarred and less than 10 metres ROW. The study observed that the area lacks good road network which is a serious environmental problem to the residents and contributes in projecting the image of informal settlements 11.

2.5. Solid Waste Management Method

Furthermore, the study shows the solid waste management methods used by residents of the area. The results show that none of the households in the area sorted and packed solid wastes into special sanitation bags as requested by the Sanitation Authority of the state. Also, none of the households in the area sorted and packed solid wastes into sacks or containers with cover. What the findings also revealed is that 6% of the households packed solid wastes into special sanitation bags but without sorting, a further 66% packed solid wastes into open containers, while the remaining 28% of the households dump solid wastes either behind buildings, by the road-side or into seasonal streams. The results further show that 2% of the households that pack solid waste into special sanitation bags without sorting reside in Obele community, 1% of them reside in Ololo community, while 3% reside in Igugu community. Table 5 below indicates that the 94% of the households that use environmentally-unfriendly methods like packing solid waste into open containers as well as dumping of solid waste either behind buildings, along road-side and into seasonal streams were identified in all the three communities of the study area.

The data from Table 6 also show the frequency of solid waste evacuation from the nine central waste collection centres in the study area. It shows that of the nine central solid waste collection centres in the area, seven are evacuated once a week, while the remaining two are evacuated twice a week. This shows that environmental quality of the area is very poor as solid waste tends to pile up, coupled with the environmentally-unfriendly management methods commonly practiced by residents of the area. Solid wastes are not frequently evacuated from central waste collection centres in the area as they should be evacuated on daily basis. The implication of the above findings is that the area is prone to environmental pollution.

The findings show the availability of central solid waste collection centres within the vicinity of residences in the study area. However, the results show that only 2% of the houses in the area have close proximity to central solid waste collection centres within their vicinity, while the rest 98% are far away from central solid waste collection centres. This also shows that although waste collection centres exist in the area, they are not properly distributed for easy proximity to all residents in terms of planning. The implication is that residents of the area are tempted to use unhealthy methods of solid waste management that put their lives at risk by exposing them to several health hazards apart from the offensive odour and unsightliness from poorly managed solid wastes.

Some of the health challenges from poor solid waste management on residents manifest after years of stay in such areas through bio-accumulation and magnification of pollutants 12. One of the common characteristics of slums is unhealthy management of solid wastes which is both a health and environmental problem. The relationship between public health and improper storage, collection and disposal of solid wastes was published by the U.S. Public Health Service in a research report showing that about 22 human diseases are traceable to improper solid waste management 13. The findings of the study have shown that the sanitary condition of the study area is unhealthy due to the common practice of environmentally-unfriendly methods of solid waste management in the City.

2.6. Toilet Facilities

The findings of the study also show that residents of about 27% of the houses in the area have toilet facilities with water closets (wc), while a further 40% use out-door pit latrines and the remaining 33% of residents in the study area reside in houses with no form of toilets. This has shown that a total of 73% of residents in the area either have no toilet facilities or use unsanitary types of toilet which degrade the environmental quality of the area. The study also indicated that residents of 36% of the houses who use water closet toilets (wc) piped them into seasonal streams which is a serious environmental problem as shown in Figure 111 below. The study has further shown that only 8% of the 118 households that use water closet toilets exclusively use them, while the rest 92% share toilets with water closet facilities with other residents in the area. This has shown that the use of toilet facilities in the area by too many persons create maintenance problems and frequent need for evacuation of the soak away pits.

It implies that the 33% of the households without any form of toilet facilities defecate at nearby streams, bushes and other unauthorized places thereby polluting the soil and water resources in the area. The implication of this unhealthy sanitation practice is a possible outbreak of epidemics and diseases in the city which support the assertion made by 14, 15. Burubi et al also observed that one of the pressing public health problems in many slums in urban communities in Nigeria as well as other developing countries is improper disposal of human fecal matter. Human fecal matter is associated with many bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa which are the principal channels for the transmission and spread of a range of diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever 16. The sanitary conditions prevalent in the study areas give indication of an area lacking basic services, failed infrastructure and depravation which are all symptoms characteristic of slums.

2.7. Kitchens/ Cooking Facilities

The findings of the study show that only 1% of the households in the area have defined kitchen spaces within their buildings with sinks piped to septic tanks. Another 1% of the households have kitchens in separate buildings with sinks piped to septic tanks, while a further 25% have defined kitchen areas either inside or outside their houses but with sinks either not piped to septic tanks or not provided. The remaining 73% of the households do not have defined kitchen spaces. The study further shows that 65% of these households without defined kitchen spaces prepare their meals along passages, while 14% cook inside their bedrooms, 12% cook outside the buildings on the street, while 9% cook on their verandas. This has shown that most houses in the study area were built without provision of defined kitchen areas. The implication is that inadequate provision of defined kitchen areas results in the use of outdoor spaces, passageways and other communal spaces for preparation of meals. This creates discomfort through smoke pollution and unsightliness in the area. The use of temporary structures as kitchen also creates a problem of shanty structures and increased building density and overcrowding in the area. This significantly degrades the living environment as temporary structures deface the aesthetic value of the neighbourhood. This conforms to the assertion that the practice of outdoor cooking and defecating constitutes a serious health hazard and poor aesthetics in urban centres of Nigeria 17.

3. Variables in the Study

The dependent variable (Y) of the study is the condition of the living environment (i.e. the environmental quality), while the independent variables (X) are:

X1= Toilet facilities

X2 = Kitchen/ cooking facilities

X3= Sewage disposal method (septic tank)

X4= Drainage system

X5 = Condition of roads

X6= Solid waste management methods

The above variables were quantified through the application of a check-list and table for assessment, rating and evaluation of the present state of sanitary services within and outside the buildings selected for sampling.

3.1. Test of Hypothesis

The hypothesis proposed states that the relevance of the model lies on at least one regression coefficient not being equal to zero. The out-put of Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) analysis indicated, shows that the coefficients of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 and X6 are statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Also, the constant term is significant. The regression equation becomes:

with the p-values in parentheses. In essence, the null hypothesis H0 of insignificant coefficients is rejected, making one to accept the alternative hypothesis H1 - all regression coefficients are significant at 5% level of significance. The computed F statistic is 258.828 with a p – value of 0.000. This shows that the overall model is significant at 5% level of significance.

This implies that the aggregate impact of the independent variables stated above contribute in degrading the environmental quality of the study area.

4. Conclusions and Recommendations

The findings of the previous study revealed that non-compliance with building regulations in building design, orientation, setbacks, aesthetic value, etc is one of the major factors that resulted in the creation of slums in inner city communities in Yenagoa 1. This study goes a step further to examine how poor waste disposal practices, poor infrastructure and poor design and planning aid slum creation in the same communities. The environmentally unfriendly practices and poor infrastructure were broken down into six independent variables namely: solid waste management methods; drainages; road conditions; sewage disposal systems; toilet facilities; and kitchen facilities. Using the regression model, the findings indicate that the aggregate impact of these independent variables contribute in degrading the environmental quality of the study area. The problems rest on the shoulders of two key parties; one is the party responsible for the provision of the infrastructure and approval of building designs, which is the State Government and its agencies and the other, is the party responsible for their own waste disposal actions, which are the residents. Although the government imposed a compulsory clean up exercise once every month on the residents of the State, this action only ensures non movement for 3 hours (7am – 10am) but does not ensure compliance with the actual sanitation exercises during that period.

Provision and maintenance of infrastructure such as the construction of access roads, drainages and provision of waste disposal collection facilities are the responsibility of the state government, especially as the study areas are located within the state capital. The outright unavailability or poor conditions of these infrastructure where available, is a direct reflection of the negligence and poor governance experienced by most African nations, and one of the major contributing factors to the growth of urban slums in the region. In addition, it is also the responsibility of the municipal council or Capital City Development Authority (CCDA) which is an arm of the government to deny building approval for house plans without toilet and kitchen facilities. However, in most cases where building plans are not submitted for approval and construction is carried out regardless, it still rests on the government agency to enforce strict compliance with building codes and planning regulations. This is often done through planning inspectors. The role of planning inspectors involved monitoring of neighbourhoods to ensure compliance with sanitation laws as well as enforcing these laws with the backing of the law enforcement agencies. With the gradual state of environmental degeneration in the inner city communities, it is recommended that these roles be reprised to upgrade sanitary practices and ensure compliance of the same. In addition, the few central solid waste collection centres in the city should be evacuated on daily basis to avoid a pile up of waste.

The above findings of the study have shown that the extant laws for regulating building operations and other human activities in the state have not made an appreciable impact in Yenagoa. It shows that residents of the city lack improved basic sanitation facilities which are at variance with Millennium Development Goals (MDG 7) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6) targets. It is also at variance with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 which is to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

In conclusion, it is clear from the above findings of the study that the current condition of infrastructure and the poor waste disposal practices observed have seriously degraded the environmental quality of the study area, thereby contributing to the creation of slums in the inner cities of Yenagoa.

References

[1]  Ebakpa, A.F and Brisibe, W.G. 2019 Unintentional Slum Creation: Assessing Housing Development in Selected Inner City Settlements of Yenagoa, Nigeria, American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 7, No. 4, 181-189.
In article      
 
[2]  United Nations. Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. United Nations, New York. 2015, 60-61.
In article      
 
[3]  Igwilo, I. 2004 Environmental Studies Terminologies and Other Issues: A Comprehensive Guide to the study of Environmental Professions in Tertiary Institutions. Christon International Co. Ltd. Awka, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[4]  Vidal, J. 2003. Every Third Person will be a Slum Dweller within 30 years, UN Agency Warns. mhtml: file://E:\Every %20 third %20 Person %20 will %20 be %20 a %20 slum %20 dweller %20w… 6/20/2008.
In article      
 
[5]  Olokesusi, F. and Ogu, V.I. 1998 The Concept of “Healthy Cities” and its Application to Sustainable Human Settlement Development. Adeniji, K and Ogu, V. 1. (eds). Sustainable Physical Development in Nigeria. NISER, Ibadan. 1998, 16-26.
In article      
 
[6]  Federal Republic of Nigeria 2006, National Population Commission, Census Report.
In article      
 
[7]  Harcourt Adukeh Associates, 2004. Yenagoa Maser Plan, Harcourt Aduke Associates, Port Harcourt.
In article      
 
[8]  Adejuwon, J. O. 2012 Rainfall Seasonality in the Niger Delta Belt, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 5(2), 51-60.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Coleridge, S. T. 2003 Water pollution. Environmental Science. A Global Concern. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A, 447-474.
In article      
 
[10]  Obialo, D. C. 2005. Housing Nigerians. Trends in Policy, Legislation, Funding and Practice, 1914-2000. Global Press Limited, Owerri, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[11]  Olurin, T. 2016 Residential Land Use Planning. Agbola, T., Egunjobi, L. and Olatubara, C. O. (eds). Housing Development and Management. A Book of Readings. Artsmostfare prints, Ibadan, Nigeria, 563-598.
In article      
 
[12]  Idle, E. 2003 Environmental Health and Toxicology. Cunningham, W. P., Cunningham, M. A. and Saigo, B. W. (eds). Environmental Science. A Global Concern. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A, 183-204.
In article      
 
[13]  Isirimah, O.N. 2002 Understanding the nature, properties and sources of wastes for quality environment. Tom & Harry. Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[14]  Simiyu, S. 2015 Determinant of Usage of Communal Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. Environment & Urbanization, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Sapepublication, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Agbola, T. and Kassim, O. F. 2016 Conceptual and Theoretical Issues in Housing. Agbola, T., Egunjobi, L. and Olatubara, C. O. (eds). Housing Development and Management. A Book of Readings. Artsmostfare prints, Ibadan, Nigeria, 19-86.
In article      
 
[16]  Burubai, W, Akor, A. J. and Lilly, M. T. 2004 Design and Evaluation of Double Chamber Composting Privy. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Technology, 1(2), 135-140.
In article      
 
[17]  NISER, 2003 Understanding poverty in Nigeria. College press and publishers. G.R.A, Ibadan, Nigeria.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Warebi Brisibe and Andrew Ebakpa

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Warebi Brisibe, Andrew Ebakpa. Waste Disposal and Infrastructural Factors in Slum Creation: A Study of Selected Inner City Communities in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Journal of City and Development. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2021, pp 60-68. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcd/3/1/7
MLA Style
Brisibe, Warebi, and Andrew Ebakpa. "Waste Disposal and Infrastructural Factors in Slum Creation: A Study of Selected Inner City Communities in Yenagoa, Nigeria." Journal of City and Development 3.1 (2021): 60-68.
APA Style
Brisibe, W. , & Ebakpa, A. (2021). Waste Disposal and Infrastructural Factors in Slum Creation: A Study of Selected Inner City Communities in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Journal of City and Development, 3(1), 60-68.
Chicago Style
Brisibe, Warebi, and Andrew Ebakpa. "Waste Disposal and Infrastructural Factors in Slum Creation: A Study of Selected Inner City Communities in Yenagoa, Nigeria." Journal of City and Development 3, no. 1 (2021): 60-68.
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[1]  Ebakpa, A.F and Brisibe, W.G. 2019 Unintentional Slum Creation: Assessing Housing Development in Selected Inner City Settlements of Yenagoa, Nigeria, American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 7, No. 4, 181-189.
In article      
 
[2]  United Nations. Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. United Nations, New York. 2015, 60-61.
In article      
 
[3]  Igwilo, I. 2004 Environmental Studies Terminologies and Other Issues: A Comprehensive Guide to the study of Environmental Professions in Tertiary Institutions. Christon International Co. Ltd. Awka, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[4]  Vidal, J. 2003. Every Third Person will be a Slum Dweller within 30 years, UN Agency Warns. mhtml: file://E:\Every %20 third %20 Person %20 will %20 be %20 a %20 slum %20 dweller %20w… 6/20/2008.
In article      
 
[5]  Olokesusi, F. and Ogu, V.I. 1998 The Concept of “Healthy Cities” and its Application to Sustainable Human Settlement Development. Adeniji, K and Ogu, V. 1. (eds). Sustainable Physical Development in Nigeria. NISER, Ibadan. 1998, 16-26.
In article      
 
[6]  Federal Republic of Nigeria 2006, National Population Commission, Census Report.
In article      
 
[7]  Harcourt Adukeh Associates, 2004. Yenagoa Maser Plan, Harcourt Aduke Associates, Port Harcourt.
In article      
 
[8]  Adejuwon, J. O. 2012 Rainfall Seasonality in the Niger Delta Belt, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 5(2), 51-60.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Coleridge, S. T. 2003 Water pollution. Environmental Science. A Global Concern. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A, 447-474.
In article      
 
[10]  Obialo, D. C. 2005. Housing Nigerians. Trends in Policy, Legislation, Funding and Practice, 1914-2000. Global Press Limited, Owerri, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[11]  Olurin, T. 2016 Residential Land Use Planning. Agbola, T., Egunjobi, L. and Olatubara, C. O. (eds). Housing Development and Management. A Book of Readings. Artsmostfare prints, Ibadan, Nigeria, 563-598.
In article      
 
[12]  Idle, E. 2003 Environmental Health and Toxicology. Cunningham, W. P., Cunningham, M. A. and Saigo, B. W. (eds). Environmental Science. A Global Concern. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A, 183-204.
In article      
 
[13]  Isirimah, O.N. 2002 Understanding the nature, properties and sources of wastes for quality environment. Tom & Harry. Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[14]  Simiyu, S. 2015 Determinant of Usage of Communal Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. Environment & Urbanization, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Sapepublication, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Agbola, T. and Kassim, O. F. 2016 Conceptual and Theoretical Issues in Housing. Agbola, T., Egunjobi, L. and Olatubara, C. O. (eds). Housing Development and Management. A Book of Readings. Artsmostfare prints, Ibadan, Nigeria, 19-86.
In article      
 
[16]  Burubai, W, Akor, A. J. and Lilly, M. T. 2004 Design and Evaluation of Double Chamber Composting Privy. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Technology, 1(2), 135-140.
In article      
 
[17]  NISER, 2003 Understanding poverty in Nigeria. College press and publishers. G.R.A, Ibadan, Nigeria.
In article