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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

The Universe Revolves around of an Axis and does not Expand

Angelos Per. Psimopoulos
International Journal of Physics. 2021, 9(1), 28-30. DOI: 10.12691/ijp-9-1-2
Received October 06, 2020; Revised November 07, 2020; Accepted November 13, 2020

Abstract

Astronomers looking at the Nebulae, which stands far away from the Earth, see that the spectral lines shift to the red color and this shift is analog of the distance the Nebulae have from the Earth. This shift of the spectral lines led the scientists to believe that the Universe expands. In addition, scientists assure us, that at the beginning, the whole Universe was concentrated in a small sphere the “Singularity” that was spinning at a tremendous speed. The Thesis of the author is that the “Singularity”, as it was rotating, constituted a spinning sphere and its motion was obeying to the laws of the rotating spheres. So also the “Singularity” was rotated [relatively slowly according to its main rotation - Nutation of the axis of the main rotation -] around of an axis that was passing from a point of its main rotation axis. After the Big Bang happen, this motion gave the rotational movement from the west to the east to all celestial bodies [Nebulae, stars, planets etc.] as well as to the whole Universe, which rotates around of an axis. This movement increases the distance we see the Nebulae against the real one they have. Using Pythagorean Theorem the author proves this by a simple mathematical way and we see that the distances of the Nebulae are increasing analog to the real distance they have from the Earth. This apparent increase of the distance shifts the spectral lines to the red color. It is up to the experts to calculate the speed our Galaxy has while moving around of the axis of the Universe, where is the center of the Universe and possibly the distance from the center of the Universe that our Galaxy stands.

1. Introduction

Astronomers, while observing remote Nebulae, have discovered that the lines of the spectrum of the light shift toward the red color. This shift of the spectral lines is proportional to the distance each Nebula retains from the Earth and led scientists to the theory of the Universe's expansion [Hubble's law] 1, 2, 3, 4. However, is the Universe really expanding or something else is happening which shifts the spectral lines toward the red color?

2. The Rotational Motion of the Universe Shifts the Spectral Lines toward the Red Color

According to the Big Bang theory, initially the entire mass of the Universe was concentrated into a very small space in the form of a sphere. Its density and temperature was enormous rotated around of an axis at a tremendous speed [Singularity]. According to the experts, at this stage, there was no time and space. At some initial time [t0], the Big Bang happened and the material ejected towards all directions thus forming the known Universe. After 13.8 billion years, the Universe stands today, as we know and experience it.

It is worth to notice, that the rotational movement of the original sphere [Singularity] presupposes the existence of time, because rotational movement even as tremendous as it was, requires number of turns per unit of time. The “Singularity”, such as it was rotating, constituted a spinning sphere and its motion was obeying to the laws of the spinning spheres. Therefore, the “Singularity” also was rotating [relatively slowly according to its main rotation] around of an axis that was passing at a point of the axis of its main rotation. These moves presuppose the existence of space.

However, when material is ejecting from a rotating wheel or sphere, that material is moving at the tangent of the surface of the sphere or wheel at the point of ejection in a straight line and eventually falls to the Earth. This happens to wheels or spheres upon the surface of the Earth, where except the Earth no any other object practices any attractive force to the ejected material after the ejection. The mass of the “Singularity” was extremely huge and always was exerting attractive force upon the ejected material. Therefore, the material that was ejected from the “Singularity”, while it was moving extremely fast going away from the initial launch point [the center of the Universe], at the same time it was tended to move in a circular course around the center of the Universe, because the center of the Universe was constantly moving towards a specific direction.

When the Big Bang took place and according to the law of attraction of masses, this resulted to the fact that the material was collected to form a celestial body [Nebula, Star or Planet] to change constantly direction in a circular course, while it was moving towards the center of the celestial body it was tending to form. [See Plan 1]. Therefore, immediately after the Big Bang appeared, this move gave rotational movement to all celestial bodies that were formed [Nebulae, Stars, Planets etc.].

Indeed all the celestial bodies are turning around of an axis to the same direction from west to east. [There are only few exceptions of this law]. To this rotational movement, the whole Universe has to obey, which rotates around of an axis.

We do not perceive this movement because of the Universe’s extra gigantic size and we ignore it, as until a few centuries ago we ignored the rotational movement of the Solar system and the Galaxy. This motion forces astronomers to see the celestial bodies in a longer distance against the real one they have from the Earth.

We can prove it mathematically as follows:

For example, assume that the Earth is at point [E], [see Plan 2]. The vertical axis [EABC] shows the distance in light years [s = c*t] that Nebulae [A], [B] and [C] have from the Earth. The horizontal axis [E3E] shows the distance [s=v*t] which the Earth [together with the Galaxy] covers moving around the center of the Universe and where [v] is the Earth’s speed moving around the Universe’s center. Now, suppose that nebula [A] is three 3 billion of years [EA=3*109] away from the Earth, nebula [B] is six 6 billion years [EB=6*109] and nebula [C] is nine 9 billion years [EC=9*109]. Also, suppose that the Earth moving around the center of the Universe in three 3 billion years covers a distance of 0.2 units, in six 6 billion years 0.4 units and in nine 9 billion years 0.6 units.

Astronomers upon the Earth [E] at present time [t0] will see Nebulae [A], [B] and [C] as follow. 1] The Nebula [A], at the position [A1], where it was three 3 billion years ago, while now it is at the position [A]. From the Earth, we see it at a distance [EA1], instead of the real one, which is the [EA] and the [EA1] is the hypotenuse of the triangular [EA1E1]. 2] The Nebula [B], at the position [B2], where it was six 6 billion years ago, while now it is at the position [B]. From the Earth, we see it at a distance [EB2], instead of the real one, which is the [EB] and the [EB2] is the hypotenuse of the triangular [EB2E2]. 3] The Nebula [C], at the position [C3], where it was nine 9 billion years ago, while now it is at the position [C]. From the Earth, we see it at a distance [EC3], instead of the real one, which is the [EC] and the [EC3] is the hypotenuse of the triangular [EC3E3].

Due to the great distance of the Earth from the center of the Universe, we can consider that the direction of the Earth’s motion is perpendicular to the radius of the Universe and the [E3EA] is a right angle. Therefore, the distance [E1A1] is equal to [EA], the [E2B2] is equal to [EB] and the [E3C3] is equal to [EC], because the [EE3] is perpendicular to the [EC].

(1)

According to the Pythagorean Theorem, equation (1), the distance we see Nebulae [A], [B] and [C] in billion years will be as follows:

Where: At the equation (2), [EA1] is the distance we see Nebula [A] from the Earth, [α] is the actual distance [EA] or [E1A1] of Nebula [A] from the Earth and [b] is the distance [E1E] that the Earth along with the Galaxy run at the rotational course around of the axis of the Universe in three 3 billion years. At the equation (3), [EB2] is the distance we see Nebula [B] from the Earth, [α] is the actual distance [EB] or [E2B2] of Nebula [B] from the Earth and [b] is the distance [E2E] that the Earth along with the Galaxy run at the rotational course around of the axis of the Universe in six 6 billion years. At the equation (4), [EC3] is the distance we see Nebula [C] from the Earth, [α] is the actual distance [EC] or [E3C3] of Nebula [C] from the Earth and [b] is the distance [E3E] that the Earth along with the Galaxy run at the rotational course around of the axis of the Universe in nine 9 billion years.

3. Conclusion

From the above (2), (3) and (4) equations, we finally reach to the conclusion that we see: 1] Nebula A, that stands three 3 billion years away the Earth to be in a distance equivalent of 0,006659275674582 billion years greater than the real one. 2] Nebula B, that stands six 6 billion years away the Earth, to be in a distance equivalent to double of 0,006659275674582 billion years greater than the real one. 3] Nebula C, that stands nine 9 billion years away the Earth, to be in a distance equivalent to triple of 0,006659275674582 billion years greater than the real one. Therefore, the difference of the distances that we calculate on the above Nebulae comparing to the real one are proportional to the actual distance they are away from the Earth. Therefore, when Astronomers are observing the sky, they see that the distances that the Nebulae stands away from the Earth are greater than the real ones depending on the distance, they have from the Earth. This results the shifting of the spectral lines to the red color. This led the scientists to think, that the Universe is actually expanding, but in reality this is due to the rotational movement of the Universe around of an axis.

Surely, in this case, Astronomers had to see the Nebulae, which relatively to the Earth stands at the direction of the circular movement of the Universe, to be approaching the Earth. However, the rotational movement of the Universe maintains a direction from the Solar system to the center of the Galaxy so astronomers, standing on the Earth, are unable to understand that the Nebulae being far away beyond the Galaxy are appearing as approaching the Earth.

It is up to the experts to calculate the speed our Galaxy has while moving around of the axis of the Universe, where is the center of the Universe and possibly the distance from the center of the Universe that our Galaxy stands.

References

[1]  Bunn E. F., Hogg D. W. The kinematic origin of the cosmological red shift. American Journal of Physics, (2009).
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Liddle A. R., Lyth D. H. (2000), Cosmological inflation and large - scale structure, ed. C.U.P.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Whiting A. B., The expansion of space. The Observatory. (2004).
In article      
 
[4]  Wikipedia, Expansion of the Universe.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Angelos Per. Psimopoulos

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Angelos Per. Psimopoulos. The Universe Revolves around of an Axis and does not Expand. International Journal of Physics. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2021, pp 28-30. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/9/1/2
MLA Style
Psimopoulos, Angelos Per.. "The Universe Revolves around of an Axis and does not Expand." International Journal of Physics 9.1 (2021): 28-30.
APA Style
Psimopoulos, A. P. (2021). The Universe Revolves around of an Axis and does not Expand. International Journal of Physics, 9(1), 28-30.
Chicago Style
Psimopoulos, Angelos Per.. "The Universe Revolves around of an Axis and does not Expand." International Journal of Physics 9, no. 1 (2021): 28-30.
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[1]  Bunn E. F., Hogg D. W. The kinematic origin of the cosmological red shift. American Journal of Physics, (2009).
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Liddle A. R., Lyth D. H. (2000), Cosmological inflation and large - scale structure, ed. C.U.P.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Whiting A. B., The expansion of space. The Observatory. (2004).
In article      
 
[4]  Wikipedia, Expansion of the Universe.
In article