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Open Access Peer-reviewed

The COVID-19 Vaccination Debate: Is there is a Link between COVID-19 and Celiac Disease?

M.O Flores Barriguete , M.A Okorie
International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2021, 9(1), 10-11. DOI: 10.12691/ijcd-9-1-5
Received January 01, 2021; Revised January 19, 2021; Accepted January 21, 2021

Abstract

Celiac disease has been recognized as a multisystem immunological disorder commonly manifested in children and adults. Celiac disease is a common syndrome which is usually efficiently treated with a gluten-free diet as well as an optimal prognosis. Some major symptoms of celiac disease include malabsorption syndrome which could manifest in the form of chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal distention. COVID-19 have been observed to impact and worsen several disorders and lifestyle habits but have been found to not affect patients with autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease. This article would serve as a foundation for further research on the impact of COVID-19 on celiac disease.

1. COVID-19 and Celiac Disease

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) which originated in China, quickly circulated the world 1 and has been observed to infect people of all age groups 2. Majority of patients with COVID-19 tend to experience mild to moderate respiratory illness as opposed to older patients, and patients with underlying disease conditions, which tend to suffer severe respiratory symptoms 3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causal agent of COVID-19 has been observed to cause mild symptoms ranging from cough, fever, and fatigue to more severe symptoms such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction 4. While COVID-19 has been observed to worsen several pre-existing disorders as well as lifestyle 5 and eating habits 6, 7, research has shown that immunological disorders such as celiac disease is not worsened in patients with COVID-19 8, 9 Celiac disease, which is a severe autoimmune disorder is characterized by the inability to consume gluten due to its effect on the small intestine. Consumption of a gluten-free diet combined with accurate optimum prognosis is essential for effectively treating this disorder 10, 11. The progression of COVID-19 in patients has been associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and found to trigger a cytokine storm in the body 12, 13, 14. This is quite like a celiac disease which is also characterized by an increased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL15, IL21, IFNγ, and IL17a 15, 16, 17. Regardless of the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in patients with severe COVID-19 and celiac disease, there has been no evidence to show that celiac disease is being worsened or impacted by COVID-19. Since there is no link between celiac disease and SARS-CoV-2, patients with celiac disease do not need to be vaccinated against COVID-19 unless they belong to the aging population and/or have other underlying diseases that makes them vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Funding

This article did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgements

This article is dedicated to all medical personnel around the globe who are in the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic.

References

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In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., Anyanwu, C. I., Degbe, E., Barriguete, M. F., Okorie, M. A., ... & Okegbe, S. (2020). Nutritional Impact of COVID-19 and Its Implications on Atherosclerosis. World, 8(1), 16-21.
In article      View Article
 
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[4]  Singhal, T. (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Mattioli, A. V., Sciomer, S., Cocchi, C., Maffei, S., & Gallina, S. (2020). Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: Changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30(9), 1409-1417.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., & Barriguete, M. F. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Healthy Eating Habits. J Clin Nutr Heal, 1(1), 001-002.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Abimbade, O., Adedoja, G., Fakayode, B., & Bello, L. (2019). Impact of mobile-based mentoring, socio-economic background and religion on girls’ attitude and belief towards antisocial behaviour (ASB). British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 638-654.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Zingone, F., D'Odorico, A., Lorenzon, G., Marsilio, I., Farinati, F., & Savarino, E. V. (2020). Risk of COVID-19 in celiac disease patients. Autoimmunity Reviews.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Elli, L., Scaramella, L., Lombardo, V., Scricciolo, A., Doneda, L., Roncoroni, L., & Vecchi, M. (2020). Refractory celiac disease and COVID-19 outbreak: findings from a high incidence scenario in Northern Italy. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 44(5), e115.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Elli, L., Barisani, D., Vaira, V., Bardella, M. T., Topa, M., Vecchi, M., ... & Roncoroni, L. (2020). How to manage celiac disease and gluten-free diet during the COVID-19 era: proposals from a tertiary referral center in a high-incidence scenario. BMC gastroenterology, 20(1), 1-9.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., Anyanwu, C. I., Barriguete, M. F., Okorie, M. A., & Lasode, D. O. Food Insecurity, Social Vulnerability, and the Impact of COVID-19 on Population Dependent on Public Assistance/SNAP: A Case Study of South Carolina, USA.
In article      
 
[12]  Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., ... & Yu, T. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mehta, P., McAuley, D. F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R. S., Manson, J. J., & HLH Across Speciality Collaboration. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet (London, England), 395(10229), 1033.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Lasode, M., Esobi, I., Anyanwu, C., & Lasode, D. (2020). Assessing Urban Land use Change in New Braunfels, Texas from 2013 to 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Oluwaseun, O., Tolulope, F., Lukuman, B., & Esobi, I. C. (2020). Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Memory and Retention Using Durable Memory Strategies in an Instructional Technology Course. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 847-855.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Oluwadara, A., Kolapo, B. L., & Esobi, I. C. (2020). Designing a Framework for Training Teachers on Mobile Learning in Sub-Sahara Africa.
In article      
 
[17]  Sarra, M., Cupi, M. L., Monteleone, I., Franze, E., Ronchetti, G., Di Sabatino, A., ... & Blanco, G. D. V. (2013). IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa. Mucosal immunology, 6(2), 244-255.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 M.O Flores Barriguete and M.A Okorie

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
M.O Flores Barriguete, M.A Okorie. The COVID-19 Vaccination Debate: Is there is a Link between COVID-19 and Celiac Disease?. International Journal of Celiac Disease. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2021, pp 10-11. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijcd/9/1/5
MLA Style
Barriguete, M.O Flores, and M.A Okorie. "The COVID-19 Vaccination Debate: Is there is a Link between COVID-19 and Celiac Disease?." International Journal of Celiac Disease 9.1 (2021): 10-11.
APA Style
Barriguete, M. F. , & Okorie, M. (2021). The COVID-19 Vaccination Debate: Is there is a Link between COVID-19 and Celiac Disease?. International Journal of Celiac Disease, 9(1), 10-11.
Chicago Style
Barriguete, M.O Flores, and M.A Okorie. "The COVID-19 Vaccination Debate: Is there is a Link between COVID-19 and Celiac Disease?." International Journal of Celiac Disease 9, no. 1 (2021): 10-11.
Share
[1]  Guan, W. J., Ni, Z. Y., Hu, Y., Liang, W. H., Ou, C. Q., He, J. X., ... & Du, B. (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England journal of medicine, 382(18), 1708-1720.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., Anyanwu, C. I., Degbe, E., Barriguete, M. F., Okorie, M. A., ... & Okegbe, S. (2020). Nutritional Impact of COVID-19 and Its Implications on Atherosclerosis. World, 8(1), 16-21.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1.
In article      
 
[4]  Singhal, T. (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Mattioli, A. V., Sciomer, S., Cocchi, C., Maffei, S., & Gallina, S. (2020). Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: Changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30(9), 1409-1417.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., & Barriguete, M. F. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Healthy Eating Habits. J Clin Nutr Heal, 1(1), 001-002.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Abimbade, O., Adedoja, G., Fakayode, B., & Bello, L. (2019). Impact of mobile-based mentoring, socio-economic background and religion on girls’ attitude and belief towards antisocial behaviour (ASB). British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 638-654.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Zingone, F., D'Odorico, A., Lorenzon, G., Marsilio, I., Farinati, F., & Savarino, E. V. (2020). Risk of COVID-19 in celiac disease patients. Autoimmunity Reviews.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Elli, L., Scaramella, L., Lombardo, V., Scricciolo, A., Doneda, L., Roncoroni, L., & Vecchi, M. (2020). Refractory celiac disease and COVID-19 outbreak: findings from a high incidence scenario in Northern Italy. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 44(5), e115.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Elli, L., Barisani, D., Vaira, V., Bardella, M. T., Topa, M., Vecchi, M., ... & Roncoroni, L. (2020). How to manage celiac disease and gluten-free diet during the COVID-19 era: proposals from a tertiary referral center in a high-incidence scenario. BMC gastroenterology, 20(1), 1-9.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Esobi, I. C., Lasode, M. K., Anyanwu, C. I., Barriguete, M. F., Okorie, M. A., & Lasode, D. O. Food Insecurity, Social Vulnerability, and the Impact of COVID-19 on Population Dependent on Public Assistance/SNAP: A Case Study of South Carolina, USA.
In article      
 
[12]  Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., ... & Yu, T. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mehta, P., McAuley, D. F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R. S., Manson, J. J., & HLH Across Speciality Collaboration. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet (London, England), 395(10229), 1033.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Lasode, M., Esobi, I., Anyanwu, C., & Lasode, D. (2020). Assessing Urban Land use Change in New Braunfels, Texas from 2013 to 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Oluwaseun, O., Tolulope, F., Lukuman, B., & Esobi, I. C. (2020). Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Memory and Retention Using Durable Memory Strategies in an Instructional Technology Course. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 847-855.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Oluwadara, A., Kolapo, B. L., & Esobi, I. C. (2020). Designing a Framework for Training Teachers on Mobile Learning in Sub-Sahara Africa.
In article      
 
[17]  Sarra, M., Cupi, M. L., Monteleone, I., Franze, E., Ronchetti, G., Di Sabatino, A., ... & Blanco, G. D. V. (2013). IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa. Mucosal immunology, 6(2), 244-255.
In article      View Article  PubMed