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Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Zainuri Agung , Siti Patimah, Syaiful Awar, Umi Hijriyah
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 513-517. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-7
Received July 02, 2021; Revised August 03, 2021; Accepted August 12, 2021

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to analyze stress management for Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is a type of descriptive research that uses a qualitative approach. The results of the study found that general stress management for teachers at Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City was not being optimally performed during the Covid-19 pandemic. especially when developing strategies to avoid and cope with stress. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct Qolbu management training for MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City to better manage stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

1. Introduction

One of the tests and trials that Allah SWT gave people at this point in time is the Coronavirus outbreak, better known as Covid-19. The outbreak of the Corona virus (Covid-19) that has struck most countries in the world has left humanity in deep sadness and fear 1. The current 2019 coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic has caused many life changes. The effects of COVID-19 range from political, economic, social, cultural, defense and security issues to community wellbeing. This shows that COVID-19 is not a virus to be underestimated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has officially declared COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 a global pandemic since March 11, 2020.

A survey by the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence and Collaborative for Social Emotional and Academic Learning of more than 5,000 teachers in the United States, cited from the Edsurge newsletter, found that teachers experienced work stress while conducting the learning process and working from home the Covid-19 pandemic. Fear and fear of exposure to Covid-19 and the process of adapting to new technologies are the causes of work stress 2.

This is also in line with the research carried out by Purwanto on several teachers in Tangerang, where they also have difficulty working from home, which is why the conditions at home are not the same as in class at school , The workload increases with limited facilities and supporting infrastructure to teach online, the lack of a good internet network which affects the ineffectiveness of the teaching and learning process, and the role conflicts that arise when they have to fulfill two different roles at the same time, namely Duties as a teacher and as a parent at home 3.

According to the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization or UNESCO (2020), around 63 million teachers worldwide have to face a completely different educational process, with schools in around 165 countries being closed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Teachers have to go the extra mile to ensure that learning continues for the nearly 1.5 billion students around the world. To enable high quality distance learning for students, teachers must always be creative, innovative and fun in presenting online learning materials using digital technology so that they can have a positive impact on students or students during the Covid-19 pandemic. On the flip side, teachers face an imbalance and unpreparedness between requirements and the ability to cope with the changes in the education sector affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, which can create health problems and add to the stress on the teaching profession 4.

Based on the results of interviews with several MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City, information has been obtained that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the educational activities they carry out. The emergence of saturation, especially saturation in teaching. “At school we feel tired every day because we want to prove that we are good teachers above all for the students, for others and for ourselves. We already feel very tired, but all the work we have done is rewarded in a balanced way. ”In this context, the oversaturation of MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the pandemic was illustrated by the occurrence of emotional states among teachers due to high Work demands and many teaching ideals that are due to the pandemic.

According to several MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City, the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic will have to be faced with unprecedented learning conditions, namely distance or online learning. The presence of additional work to be done and difficulty adapting to this learning process can create work stress. The accepted workload increases in this online learning system. MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City need to prepare learning materials that are packaged in an attractive and easy-to-understand way to display later and teach students what is very different from face-to-face teaching while learning online with WhatsApp, Googlemeet or Zoom Learning system directly. After studying, the teacher must also do an assessment, review the students' collected assignments and generate reports so that it takes more time to complete the work. This condition is experienced by MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City so it can cause work stress which, if left untreated, will negatively affect their psychological and physical condition.

If MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City are exposed to prolonged stress, it will affect their self-stability and work productivity. Hence, there is a need to manage stress for teachers by implementing effective stress management that can help teachers turn stress into something positive for themselves and others.

2. Stress Management

2.1. Understanding Stress Management

Stress management is commonly referred to as coping. According to R.S. Lazarus and Folkman define coping as the process of managing demands (internal or external) that are assessed as burdens because they are beyond the ability of the individual 5. Stress management is a program to control or regulate stress which aims to identify the causes of stress and know the techniques for managing stress, so that people are better at controlling stress in life than being crushed by stress itself 6. Another opinion defines stress management as an attempt to change behavior and cognitive constantly to manage specific internal or external demands, which are judged as burdensome or exceed a person's ability to accept pressures 7.

Based on some of the definitions above, it can be concluded that stress management is all individual efforts to manage environmental demands and all conflicts that arise, reducing discrepancies/perceptual gaps between the demands of the situation both from individuals and the environment and the resources they use in dealing with stress.

2.2. Karateristik Manajamen Stres

According to Robbins, there are four indicators in stress management, namely (1) identification of stress symptoms, (2) analysis of stress symptoms, (3) strategies to avoid stress, and (4) stress coping 8.


2.2.1. Identify Symptoms of Stress

The first step in managing stress is to identify the symptoms of stress. This is a measure to determine the source of the more persistent stress 8. According to Greg Wilkinson, the source of stress lies primarily in a person's life events. Some events are more likely to cause stress. Any event that requires adjustment or life change can cause stress. In addition, when a stressful event occurs in a person and the pressure exceeds the optimal limit, it leads to stress. The source of stress can therefore come from various phenomena that occur inside the body and outside the body (environment). Stressors usually arise from a social environment that exhibits a variety of phenomena 9.

T. Hani Handoko shows in his book that the causes of stress that affect performance are the following: (1) excessive workload (2) pressure or time constraints (3) poor quality of supervision (4) inadequate feedback Work execution (5) Frustration (6) Role conflict (7) Differences between company and employee values (8) Family problems (9) Financial strength 10.

Based on the factors causing stress described by the experts above, it can be concluded that the causes of stress are factors outside the individual and factors within the individual himself. In addition, factors outside the individual can be caused by family, work and community settings. Factors from within the individual such as personality type, personal control and resignation, self-perception, steadfastness in dealing with role conflicts and role ambiguity.


2.2.2. Analysis of Stress Symptoms

After the symptoms of stress are identified, an analysis of symptoms of stress or signs of attitudes and feelings exhibited due to stress can be interpreted. 8. Stress can have psychological consequences in the form of fear, frustration, apathy, low self-esteem, aggression and depression 11. Other cognitive consequences of stress include poor concentration, inability to make correct decisions or complete inability to make decisions, mental retardation, and decreased attention span. Other effects of stress are behavioral, such as accident proneness, impulsive behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and explosive temperament. Finally, the physiological consequences of stress include increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, sweating, chills and glucose levels, and increased production of stomach acid 11.

Based on some of the expert opinions above describing the effects of stress, the author can understand that the effects of stress can be broadly divided into four parts, namely the effects on a person's psychological, behavioral, physiological and cognitive characteristics.


2.2.3. Stress Avoidance Strategies

The next step, after knowing the causes of stress and what signs of stress are occurring, the next step is to establish a stress avoidance strategy, which is a dynamic cognitive and behavioral strategy that focuses on problem-solving action 8. Lahey suggests strategies for stress avoidance that are effective, among other things, (1) staying away from sources of stress (2) adjusting thinking when confronted with a problem (3) regulating reactions through stress or pressure 12.

According to Rutter, the most effective stress management strategy is appropriate for the type of stress and the situation 13. Success in managing stress relies more on incorporating stress management strategies that match the characteristics of each stressful event than on finding the one strategy that works best. Another opinion argues that effective stress management is carried out systematically and aimed at preventing stress from developing 14.

From some of these opinions, it can be concluded that when dealing with stress, one must pay attention to the teacher's symptoms and sources of stress when using different strategies. This means that teachers' stress management strategies should be tailored to the symptoms and sources of stress in order to make stress management strategies more effective and efficient. In addition, the management of stress should be planned and systematic by first defining the goals of the actions taken so that all strategies implemented correspond to the goals of dealing with stress for the teacher.


2.2.4. Stress Coping

The next stress management step is to do stress coping, which is a visible and hidden behavior that a person does to reduce or eliminate psychological tension in stressful conditions 8.

Efforts in coping with stress include: (1) Changing environmental factors so that they are not a source of stress. (2) changing factors of the individual 15. The techniques for coping with stress are: (1) Organizational engineering (2) Personality engineering (increasing the ability to change needs and values) (3) Techniques for calming the mind (4) Coping techniques through physical activity 16.

Based on some of these opinions, Smet argues that there is no single strategy that can be used for all stressful situations. There is no such thing as the most successful stress management. According to Rutter, the most effective stress management strategy is one that is appropriate for the type of stress and the situation 13. Success in managing stress relies more on incorporating stress management strategies that match the characteristics of each stressful event than on trying to find the one strategy that works best.

3. Research Methods

This type of research is descriptive research with a qualitative approach. This investigation was conducted at Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City, Lampung Province and included a total of 30 MTs with details of 2 (two) MTs with public status and 28 MTs with private status. Data sources in this qualitative research, selectively selected and snowball samples, including the school principal, teachers, students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City. Data collection tools in this study were interviews, observation and documentation. The data analysis technique used in qualitative research is inductive; H. an analysis based on the data obtained, then a certain relationship pattern is developed. In this study, the validity of the data is determined by triangulation.

4. Results and Discussion

Stress management stress management for Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City during Covid-19 pandemic in identifying stress symptoms has been properly done in accordance with stress symptom identification efforts, namely 1) there is good communication between madrasa director and teachers in identifying teachers' symptoms of stress, (2) madrasa directors use observation and interview methods, (3) madrasa directors still have difficulty identifying symptoms of stress, (4) madrasa directors have never attended any stress management training, (5) Sources of stress for teachers in public MTs include more workload, rarely difficulties, lack of IT understanding and time pressure, (6) Sources of stress for private MTs teachers lack of IT-supported facilities, lack of IT understanding, often late salaries , Students who are less active, lack of support in using vo n IT and lack of cohesion among teachers in addressing learning challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The results of this study are relevant to the results of Arismunandar's research that the most dominant causes of teacher stress are (1) wage deductions), 2) delayed promotions / positions, (3) individual students who persistently misbehave, (4) ) Conflicts with other staff, (5) the school environment is too noisy, and (6) lack of motivation, attention and reaction of students to the class 17. Other research also showed that a lack of administrative support, individual student challenges, teacher performance, and government assignments were sources of stress. Administrative support that helps build collaboration between teachers, change negative perceptions of teachers, and promote health and wellbeing can be a protective factor against stress 18.

Stress management for teachers from Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 pandemic in the analysis of stress symptoms including physical and psychological symptoms. Physical symptoms such as easy fatigue, dizziness, tired eyes, nausea, mild colds, and other physical fatigue. While the mental symptoms such as irritability, irritability, decreased work motivation, often late, and other mental symptoms appear. Therefore, teachers in public MTs have more symptoms of stress than physical exhaustion. Meanwhile, in private MTs, teachers are more concerned about mental exhaustion.

Prasad's research found that work stress had a moderate impact on employees. institutional performance, work-related stress in general and job security stressors in particular. Employee stress reaction - Physiological factors also have a moderate influence on an employee's performance. In terms of health, some employees suffer from chronic neck and back pain due to long periods of sitting 19.

Other studies have shown that their stressors stem from certain work-related events. The source of their mild stress is the balance between private and working hours. Symptoms of stress occur in the form of fatigue, which arises in connection with the feeling of pressure 20.

Stress management for teachers of Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City during the Covid-19 pandemic in the implementation of strategies to avoid stress, including (1) based on the results of the identification of teachers' problems through observations and interviews conducted by the head of the madrasa, (2) in formulating strategies to avoid stress, the headmaster invites the teacher to consult together so that the stress management strategy is based on the results of joint decisions and agreements rather than madrasa, (3) forcing unilaterally decided by the headmaster Not asking the teacher to determine the strategy management strategy to be implemented, (4) open communication channels offline and online, (5) listening to complaints, problems and obstacles that are a source of teacher stress, (6) helping to find solutions in dealing with sources of stress, (7) Headmasters share experiences in dealing with stress, (8) Teachers share experience in dealing with stress and (9) provide inspiration and motivation, (10) hold a monthly meeting, (11) sit with the teacher in their free time, (12) conduct teacher performance tests, (13) work with them the assistant director of the madrasah, (14) monitors changes in teachers' stress levels after coping with stress, (15) provides feedback on the teacher's efforts to deal with stress at work.

These results are relevant to the view expressed by Lasswell and Kaplan that strategy is an instrument for achieving goals, where strategy is a projected program in relation to goals, values and practices 21. This is relevant to the opinion expressed by Said Zainal Abidin that several principles must be taken into account in the creation and implementation of stress management, namely (1) the existence of a goal, namely the existence of a goal to be achieved through efforts made with the help of factors , existing or required support have been agreed. (2) the existence of a plan that is a particular tool or way of achieving it. (3) the existence of a program; d. H. a method that has been agreed and approved and ratified in order to achieve the desired objective. (4) the existence of decisions, namely certain actions taken to determine goals, create and adjust plans, implement and evaluate existing programs. (5) Impact, namely the influence created or created by a program in the community 21.

Stress management for teachers from Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City during the Covid-19 pandemic in coping with stress with the results (1) adapted to the cause of teacher stress, (2) carried out taking into account the negative effects of teacher stress, (3) after the The principle of confidentiality carried out, (4) trust the teacher in counseling services for coping with stress, (5) carried out according to the principle of voluntary activity without coercion, (6) implemented according to the principle of independence, the teacher decides, (7) conveys a feeling of security and comfort, (8) dealing with stress This is done, among other things, by trying to maintain / eliminate the source of stress by meeting the needs of the teacher, building good communication, being a listener and motivator who is positive Responding to symptoms of teacher stress, providing spiritual guidance, and helping teachers find solutions to the causes of their St resses to find.

However, the stress management of MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City has yet to be improved as it is less targeted and systematic based on the findings (1) as there are no written guidelines that serve as a guide for dealing with the causes of teacher stress (2) it is rarely done to avoid sources of stress, but rather to make the source of stress as motivating for the teachers, (3) it is not done routinely and continuously as there is no schedule for coping with stressors that are programmed in writing, and (4) has not employed any person officially responsible for providing assistance services, has stress management, (5) has not set any written goals for a teacher's stress management, (3) never has a stress management instructor, (4) Has no special room for the teacher to cope with stress, (5) Beats teachers financially due to limited time tel and understanding no alternative stress management before, (6) rarely evaluate and follow up follow up on the results of the stress management of teachers ru, (7) lack of information on stress management, (8) less positive attitude towards negative teacher stress reactions.

These results are relevant to Lahey's opinion that effective stress management includes: Stress or pressure (coping with the stress response) 12.

Based on the results and related research in general, stress management for Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City was not optimally performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This conclusion is based on the results of stress management at Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the Covid-19 pandemic, who made efforts to (1) identify stress symptoms (2) analyze stress symptoms (3) develop strategies to avoid stress (4) Coping with stress. However, stress management efforts for MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City have not been optimally carried out, particularly in developing stress avoidance and management strategies.

Based on the results and findings of the study, MT teachers in Bandar Lampung City can avoid and manage stress by practicing Qolbu management. Heart management means leading the heart in such a way that the positive potential can optimally develop, accompanying the ability to think and act in such a way that the entire attitude becomes positive and the negative potential is recognized and controlled immediately so that it does not turn into negative actions 22.

This heart management then spawned the principle that when a person's heart is pure, it will be the center of all activity on earth. Get the full attention of people in all kinds of professions, be they traders, teachers, da'wah practitioners, and leaders. People whose hearts are pure will automatically endow their movements with an extraordinary attraction. Words will convince and calm the heart of the interlocutor. His demeanor will show that he is always being watched by God. Its entirety reveals a condition that only the pleasure of Allah is expected. God is the center of all direction of his life 23.

In other words, every external and internal activity has been filtered through the Qalbu management process in this way. There is therefore only one, namely a noble attitude with sincere considerations of conscience. From this it can be concluded that through the concept of heart management a person can be made to be very sensitive to turning the slightest potential that exists within them into something that is of noble value and offers great benefits, both for yourself as well as for other God's creatures. In addition, it can bring benefits both in this world and in the hereafter.

Hence, management of the heart has several methods, namely (1) self-introduction: efforts to purify the heart must begin with efforts to understand oneself and others (2) heart purification: namely, trying to continuously improve the condition of oneself , d perceived as poor (3) self-control: namely trying to fight lust or things that are not good in themselves (4) self-development: always try to develop through the process of self-awareness and purification of the heart (5) ma' rifatullah, namely the management of the heart that is carried out with a dissertation istiqomah, think and strive and do dhikrullah, which only serves to get closer and remember Allah SWT 24.

Based on the five methods of heart management, it is hoped that it can help the teachers of the MTs in Bandar Lampung City avoid stress and cope with stress well. For this reason, stress management efforts must be based on heart management to identify stress symptoms, analyze stress symptoms, implement strategies to avoid stress, and manage stress so that stress management efforts can more effectively and efficiently achieve goals.

5. Conclusions and Recommendations

The results of the study showed: In general, stress management for the teachers at Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City had not been optimally carried out during the Covid-19 pandemic. This conclusion is based on the results of stress management at Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the Covid-19 pandemic, who made efforts to (1) identify stress symptoms (2) analyze stress symptoms (3) develop strategies to avoid stress (4) Coping with stress. However, stress management efforts for MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City have not been optimally carried out, particularly in developing stress avoidance and management strategies.

Therefore, it is recommended to conduct Qolbu management training for MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City to better manage stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

References

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Zainuri Agung, Siti Patimah, Syaiful Awar and Umi Hijriyah

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Zainuri Agung, Siti Patimah, Syaiful Awar, Umi Hijriyah. Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 9, No. 8, 2021, pp 513-517. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/9/8/7
MLA Style
Agung, Zainuri, et al. "Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic." American Journal of Educational Research 9.8 (2021): 513-517.
APA Style
Agung, Z. , Patimah, S. , Awar, S. , & Hijriyah, U. (2021). Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Educational Research, 9(8), 513-517.
Chicago Style
Agung, Zainuri, Siti Patimah, Syaiful Awar, and Umi Hijriyah. "Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic." American Journal of Educational Research 9, no. 8 (2021): 513-517.
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[1]  E. Mahase, “Coronavirus: covid-19 has killed more people than SARS and MERS combined, despite lower case fatality rate,” Br. Med. J. Publ. Gr., p. 1, 2021.
In article      
 
[2]  E. N. T. A. A. and Overwhelmed., “They Need SEL Now More Than Ever,” Article in Education in The Face of Unprecedented Challenges (Online), 2020. https://www.edsurge.com/news/2020.
In article      
 
[3]  A. Purwanto, “Studi Eksploratif Dampak Pandemi Covid-1 Terhadap Proses Pembelajaran Online di Sekolah Dasar,” Edupsycouns J., vol. 2, no. 1, 2020.
In article      
 
[4]  U. N. Educational, “Scientific and Cultural Organization. School closures caused by Coronavirus (Covid-19),” United Nations Educational, 2020. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse.
In article      
 
[5]  A. J. N. dan S. Yusuf, Landasan Bimbingan dan Konseling. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 2010.
In article      
 
[6]  R. D. Segarahayu, “Pengaruh manajemen stres terhadap penurunan tingkat stres pada narapidana di LPW Malang,” J. UM Learn. Univ., vol. 1, no. 1, 2013.
In article      
 
[7]  E. Armajayanthi, “Studi Diskriptif Mengenai Coping Stres Pada Ibu Yang Memiliki Anak Dengan Autism Sebuah Penelitian di Sekolah ‘X’ Bandung,” J. Humanit., vol. 1, no. 1, 2011.
In article      
 
[8]  S. P. Robbins, Perilaku organisasi. Jakarta: PT Indeks Kelompok GRAMEDIA, 2006.
In article      
 
[9]  G. Wilkinson, Seri Kesehatan Bimbingan Dokter Pada Stres. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, 2002.
In article      
 
[10]  T. H. Handoko, Manajemen personalia dan Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Yogyakarta: BPFE, 2006.
In article      
 
[11]  J. M. Ivancevich, Prilaku Dan Manajemen Organisasi. Jakarta: Gelora Aksara Pratama, 2006.
In article      
 
[12]  B. Lahey, Psychology An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill Companies Inc., 2004.
In article      
 
[13]  B. Smet, Psikologi Kesehatan. Jakarta: Grasindo, 1994.
In article      
 
[14]  Masdin, Agama dan Gangguan-gangguan Kejiwaan. Kendari: UNHALU Press, 2008.
In article      
 
[15]  Rasmun, Stress Koping dan Adaptasi. Jakarta: CV.Sagung Seto, 2004.
In article      
 
[16]  A. S. Munandar, Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Indonesia, 2012.
In article      
 
[17]  A. dan I. W. Ardhana, “Sumber-Sumber Stres Kerja Guru,” J. Ilmu Pendidik., vol. 5, no. 1, 1998.
In article      
 
[18]  T. Haydon, “Teacher Stress: Sources, Effects, and Protective Factors,” J. Spec. Educ. Leadersh., vol. 31, no. 2, 2018.
In article      
 
[19]  K. Prasad, “A Study on Causes of Stress among the Employees and Its Effect on the Employee Performance at the Workplace in an International Agricultural Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India,” Eur. J. Bus. Manag., vol. 7, no. 25, 2015.
In article      
 
[20]  Y. Widyawati, “The Description Of Teachers’ Stressor And Manifestation Of Special Needs Teachers In Inclusive And Special Schools In Jakarta,” Int. J. Indones. Educ. Teach., vol. 1, no. 1, 2017.
In article      
 
[21]  S. Z. Abidin, Kebijakan Publik. Jakarta: Yayasan Pancur Siwa, 2004.
In article      
 
[22]  A. Gymnastiar, Aa Gym Apa Adanya. Bandung: Khas MQ, 2006.
In article      
 
[23]  H. & M. D. Ridwan, Aa Gym dan Fenomena Daruut Tauhid. Bandung: Mizan Pustaka, 2004.
In article      
 
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