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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal

Nirmal Dhungana
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 633-642. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-4
Received June 03, 2020; Revised September 05, 2020; Accepted September 14, 2020

Abstract

This qualitative study examines how community schools' can be transformed from headmasters' (HMs) Transformational Leadership. The purpose of the study is how Transformational Leadership of headmasters is perceived by Headmasters, school management committee (SMC) members and teachers. The author purposefully selected three best community schools which were transformed by headmasters' transformational leadership in Devdaha municipality of Rupandehi district. In this study, the researcher focused on headmasters’ Transformational Leadership as a case. So, this study fallows the exploratory case study design and described interpretively. The results of the study showed that Transformational Leadership of HMs play a crucial role in the success of the community secondary schools. Co-ordinate to their members, serious presentation of discussion on the issue, and transparent financial activities, respect the view of all teachers and staffs, motivation, equal behaviour of teacher and staff, significant understanding on problems, rules by the policy, cooperation, rewards, not criticize in the group, collectivity, etc. are the knowing behaviour of Transformational Leader and this has contributed to the all-round development of the school have proved to be important. The findings of this article appeared if headmasters practice the Transformational Leadership in school, it has greatly contributed to the transformation and development of community schools in Nepal.

1. Introduction

Leadership is discussed from different angles. Many phenomenons are related to Leadership. Leadership is much like the words democracy, love, and peace 1. There are many standpoints of Leadership like as functional skill, the focus of group processes, influence to others, attention to common goals, power relationship, Transformational process etc. The common practices of Leadership are called assigned Leadership and emergent Leadership. Leadership based on occupying a position in an organization is assigned Leadership. Headmasters, Team leaders, plan managers, department heads, directors, and administrators are examples of assigned Leadership.

From the previous time to present, as many as 65 specific classification structures have been developed to define the dimensions of Leadership 2. Transformational Leadership standing on the context of school reform; it is one of the new dimensions of achievement the common goals of the organization 3. Among the various types of Leadership, Transformational Leadership has been chosen for this study. There has been a lot of research in the world about Transformational Leadership, but exploring the perception of stockholders among Headmasters (HMs) Transformational Leadership is one of the unique studies in the context of Nepal.

Stockholders{1} perception in Nepal, the Headmasters (HMs) is both a leader and manager of the school. Hence, teachers and other educational professionals need to know and understand this notion. In the international context, HMs play a pivotal Leadership role in the overall running of their schools 4. Besides, talking about the issues of HMs role Bell and Rowley 5 opined; The HMs as they are called in many parts of the world, have multiple roles such as being instructional leaders, accounting officers, and public relations officers, HMs etc. In Nepal, the role of the HMs is divided between the managerial aspects and the teaching roles with the managerial aspect taking up most of the HM's time.

Although the teacher is important in the all-round development of the student, the Leadership role of the HMs leads to the educational achievement and overall school success. The HMs are supposed to have multiple roles such as being instructional leaders, accounting officers, and public relations officers, HMs and so on in around the world. There are two aspects of HM's role; one of the roles is that of being the chief executive officer which emphasizes the interpersonal, informational and decisional aspects 6. The second aspect of the HMs role is that of a leading professional where there is more concerned with goal setting, evaluating of school programs, curriculum coordinating and developing and exemplification of professional values 5. While the authors identify the above-stated roles of the HMs in Nepal, HMs have always been required to carry out two different and sometimes conflicting sets of Leadership functions as the professional and chief executive or the managerial role of their work.

The role of the HMs in Nepal is entails planning for school development, managing the class, managing resources, handover responsibility being the secretary to the school management committee (SMC), The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Ministry of Social Development, Educational Development and coordination Unit, Local education Unit, Parent Teacher Association etc. Furthermore, the roles of the HMs in Nepal have been increased with the current governments' development strategy in which the HMs is supposed to manage the constituency development 7.

In the practice of Nepal seniors permanent teacher work as an HMs in the community school. Leadership was not found from rank the seniority therefore this research seeks to find out how the educational stakeholders perceive the HMs Transformational Leadership role on community secondary schools of Nepal. The HMs is the academic as well as the administrative leader of the school. Thus, the management of HMs keeps significant importance in the spare of teacher management. Concerning the same, an attempt has been made to explore the perception and views of the stakeholders in managing the HMs 3. Accordingly, Quatoshi et al. 8 claimed:

Community school headmaster is playing multiple roles in a particular socio-cultural and politico-historical context of the school where teachers, parents, community members, supporting institutions and SMC members keep high expectations from HMs to improve the school. These expectations found to be looking for students improved results (p. 91).

The role duality of the HMs as the HMs as well as the Honorary Secretary of SMC and job complexity with non-clarity of roles put them in a dilemma in deciding what to do and what not to do. The HMs roles are predominantly administrative, managerial and financial, which substantially affect the quality of Leadership in this scenario, setting academic goals, improving teaching and learning 8 as well as improving relations with community, institutions and parents, seeking resources and building school capacity to provide quality education to the Community become more ambiguous and challenging 9. Under such circumstances, it is the HMs who may either sail the boat across; or sink it into the deep ocean depending on his or her concepts of School Improvement (SI), knowledge, skills, values, expertise, and more importantly, the Leadership style and commitment to improving the school 10.

The HMs were encouraging collaborative decision-making, teamwork and distributed Leadership in a collective culture and in structures that supported collaboration. Participation in decision-making, premise production and connections helped to create safe and secure environments for teachers 11. Eacott 12 claimed:

The challenge for educational Leadership, management and administration scholarship as engaged with three markers: first, the changing image of what is essentially a modern institution, the school, in contemporary (post-modern?) times; second, the critique of science, or what will become clear, logical empiricism, from scholars, primarily from the critical school; and finally, the contemporary, although arguably enduring tensions of administration polarizing individualism and collectivism and agency and structure. (p. 3)

In this connection, the government of Nepal has financing the highest amount of national budget in the area of education. However, the achievements are not as satisfactory as it should be 13. One of the reasons for this is the lack of Transformational Leadership of the HMs 14. If most of the schools in Nepal are not transformed from the leader, investment in education can be wasted. So, this study aims to find out the Transformational Leadership of HMs. In the context of Nepal, the study attempts to fulfil the gap of the perception of Transformational Leadership of HMs. The project resolves the headmasters’ role in community secondary schools in Nepal and also discusses the perception of School Management Committees and teachers in transformation scenarios of the community school. This article has explored how the HMs do perceive their Transformational Leadership in the community secondary school? Likewise, how do the School Management Committees members' and Teacher Representative (TR) perceived the Headmasters Transformational Leadership in community secondary schools in Nepal?

2. Literature Review

The purpose of the literature review is to discuss history, types, theory and best practices of Transformational Leadership in education, as they relate to the background, design and interpretation of this study. Review of previous literature is essential to understand the groundwork which has previously been researched and presented by other authors on areas related to the study. To understand the research field in-depth, the author will review the literature associated with the core concepts. Based on different e-resources, electronic database, journals and magazines, and books and book sites of literature whatever I found, I have reviewed thoroughly with taking point and analyzed them on the following. This chapter reviews literature about Transformational Leadership and its factors, and international and national practices by HMs in school, Transformational Leadership of HMs who enhance the organizational or school performance and it further seeks the barriers of applying Transformational Leadership by HMs in School. The term Transformational brings up to involve transformation.

2.1. Transformational Leadership

The term Transformational Leadership was first used by Downton in 1973. Its emergence as an essential strategy to Leadership started with a basic work through political sociologist James MacGregor Burns titled Leadership 15. He exposed that people who exhibit Transformational Leadership often have a strong set of internal values and ideals, and they are effective at motivating followers to act in ways that promote the greater well rather than their self-interests. From different types of Leadership Northouse (2016) claimed:

Transformational Leadership is a process that changes and transforms people. Transformational Leadership is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standard, and long-term goals. It includes assessing followers’ motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings. Transformational Leadership involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. It is a process that often incorporates charismatic and visionary Leadership. (p. 161)

In the community school of Nepal, the Transformational Leadership transform the teacher-staff in the school for school success. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore the Transformational Leadership work from the HMs in the community secondary school of Nepal. In this research, the author applies the Transformational Theory of Leadership taken from the Burn's in 1985 16. Transformational Leadership theory stands on their factors and quality of transformational leaders.

2.2. Factors of Transformational Leadership

Hall et al. 17 claimed, there are four elements to Transformational Leadership, (also known as the 'four I's'): idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. Each component will be mentioned to help HMs for using this method in the school. Transformational leaders do more with their colleagues and followers than set up simple exchanges or agreements. They behave their staff in ways to achieve superior results by employing one or more of the above four core components. The components of Transformational Leadership have changed as improvements have been made in both the conceptualization and measurement of Transformational Leadership. Conceptually, Leadership is charismatic, and followers seek to identify with the leader and match them. Leadership inspires their staffs with challenge and influence, providing both meaning and understanding. Leadership is intellectually motivating, expanding the followers' use of their abilities. Finally, Leadership is individually understanding, providing the follower with support, mentoring, and educating.


2.2.1. Idealized Influences

Transformational leaders behave in ways that allow them to serve as role models for their staffs or followers. The leaders are always admired, respected, and trusted by staffs. Staffs identify with the leaders and want to match them; leaders are endowed by their staffs as having surprising capabilities, persistence, and purpose. Thus, there are mainly two aspects to idealized influence; the leader's behaviours and the elements that are attributed to the leader by their staffs or followers and other associates. The Transformational leader emphasizes the importance of having a collective sense of the mission. A sample item from the idealized influence attributed the leader encourages others that obstacles will be overcome. Besides, leaders who have a great deal of idealized influence are willing to take risks and are consistent rather than self-decision. They can be counted on to do the right thing in the school by demonstrating high standards of ethical and moral conduct 18.

Idealized influence is known as the charismatic personality of a leader. Idealized influence describes managers or HMs who are ideal role models for associates ( 19, p. 3). HMs with idealized influence can be trusted and respected through associates to make proper decisions for the school. Charisma provides vision and sense of mission, instils pride, gains respect and trust which enhance to flowers for more responsible for lead to organizational success.

It describes HMs who inspire their staffs to commit to the vision of the organization or school. HMs with inspirational motivation encourage team spirit to reach desires of extended revenue and market increase for the organization.


2.2.2. Inspirational Motivation

Transformational Leadership moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected from them. They become motivated to transcend their self-interests for the good of the group or organization 20. Transformational leaders motivate their followers to make the school successful by questioning their innovative and creative activities, by approaching the old situation in new ways. As creativity is encouraged by these type of leaders, its promote support culture from teachers and staff. Transformational Leadership does not necessarily lead to public criticism of the mistakes of individual members. New ideas and creative problem solutions are asked from followers who are involved in the process of solving problems and finding solutions. Followers are encouraged to use new approaches, and their views should not be criticized because they differ from the views of leaders. It describes HMs, who inspire innovation and creativity through the difficult regular beliefs or views of a group. Teachers and stockholders with intellectual stimulation promote critical thinking and problem-solving to make the school better 1.


2.2.3. Intellectual Simulation

It is described HMs who act as coaches and advisors to the teachers, officials and stockholders. HMs with individual consideration encourages associates to attain a goal that assists both the associates and school 17. Transformational leaders stimulate their staffs and followers' efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching change old situations in new ways. Creativity is encouraged by its type of leader. When individual members' mistakes in their work leader avoid public criticism. New ideas and creative problem solutions are demanded from followers, who are included in the process of addressing problems and demanding solutions. Followers and staffs are encouraged to try new approaches, and their ideas are not criticized because they differ from the leaders' ideas. In this condition, the leader gets others to look at problems from many different angles 21.


2.2.4. Individual Consideration

It is described HMs who inspire innovation and creativity through difficult the regular beliefs or views of a group. Teachers and stockholders with intellectual stimulation promote critical thinking and problem-solving to make the school better 22. Transformational leaders always pay special attention to each follower's needs for achievement and growth by acting as a coach or mentor. Followers and staffs are developed to successively higher levels of potential. Individualized consideration is practised in and organization from the leader when new learning opportunities are created along with a supportive climate. Individual differences in terms of needs and desires are recognized.

The leader's behaviour demonstrates acceptance of individual differences such as some teachers and staffs receive more encouragement, some more autonomy, others firmer standards, and still others more task structure. Individualized consideration enhances the two-way exchange in the communication of any official design, and management in an organization. Interactions with followers are personalized like as the leader remembers previous conversations, is aware of individual concerns, and sees the individual as a whole person rather than as just an employee, staffs or teachers. The individually considerate leader listens to their follower's voice effectively. The leader delegates tasks as a means of developing followers or staffs. Delegated tasks are monitored to see if the followers need additional direction or support and to assess progress; ideally, followers do not feel they are being checked on 18.

2.3. Qualities of Transformational Leaders

To mobilize the teaching staff of the school in the relation of this study, the various topics mentioned below will be the main determinants of the Transformational Leadership of HMs, these are the main qualities of Transformational Leaders. So, these topics are discussed here. Also, a conceptual framework has been prepared based on this theme.


2.3.1. Task Performance

Transformational Leaders can influence teachers and other officials task performance through means of other than teachers' positive moods 1 state an example that social teachers identified two Transformational Leadership motivational processes that link Leadership and other teachers' task performance using the self-concept based theory. First of all, the Transformational leader provides vision, expresses high expectations and shows confidence to increase teacher's self-efficacy. Secondly, those teachers who have pride in belonging to their leader facilitate social identification with their group. A high level of self-efficiency and group identification on the part of the school would, in turn, enhance teacher's task performance 23.


2.3.2. Organizational Vision

It is represented as the school's vision in this research, schools vision shows the ability of Transformational management to take the possibility upon them for the achievements of the change. When they experience the modification, managers can act in two methods. They can "keep themselves aside", to look at and, gradually, criticized the transformation. The feature of responsibility is one more in the row of the attributes, which allows such professionals to change into Transformational leaders 24.


2.3.3. Goal Settings

Goal settings symbolize a prominent feature of Transformational management in school, which reflects their capability to influence stockholders in the process of modifying to show, immediate and appropriate them. Without goals, the satisfaction of Transformational goals breaks upon temporary chances only, and not on the style founded in progress in school.


2.3.4. Team Work

A school is good when the teachers and staff all like to work together. Best school alignment of Transformational management shows their attention to the importance of working together and ability to slender on the help of others, otherwise known as teamwork. Complexness of the process of school modification details out, in itself, that a Transformational leader of school cannot separately carry the whole procedure of modification to an end. Because of that, Transformational management strategy the design of groups within which, together with the other associates, create appropriate options and fix issues they come across. In that feeling, one should increase performance to a stage which covers finish equal rights, without being frightened that they will experience revenge because of their activities from their leaders 25.


2.3.5. Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment is known as that commitment which promotes the school which has an excellent effect on the successful performance of a school. This is because a highly committed teacher, staff will recognize with the objectives and principles of the school, has a more powerful wish to fit in with the school and is willing to display higher professional citizenship habits i.e., a willingness to go over and beyond their necessary job responsibilities. If human options are said to be an organization's biggest resources, then dedicated time should be considered as an organization's competitive benefits 24.


2.3.6. Empowerment

Empowerment, as a feature of Transformational authority, allows management to identify situations of schools, in which supporters should be recognized, i.e. provide them with recognition. Giving recognition by saying thank you for a well-done job, does not price anything, and represents a powerful pleasure for the supporters to provide further assistance in initiatives to perform the modification. An effective change doesn't occur accidentally. It includes implicitly certain initiatives of both, management and supporters. If the attempt created by followers remains unobserved, it can occur that such attempt will be lost. In that feeling, Transformational management rewards every well-done measure of their supporters.


2.3.7. Communication

A Transformational HMs communicates to the teachers, staff the expectations he has set for them and always outlines the larger goals and motivates them to change their thinking as it is not in their nature so far to be able to engage in creative thinking and this is a challenge sometimes beyond them. A teacher stuff's body language usually reflects their mind which is happy or not and the satisfaction they have gained is obvious to see on their faces, which will reflect happiness and a job well done 26. To convey all ideas and leading the values to their subordinates, in the normal course of a day a leader uses a set of clichés, body language, idioms and they are well understood by the members 27. Therefore, leaders' skill in expressing together with revealing their feelings that represent the most crucial characteristic of the Transformational leader 28.


2.3.8. Innovation

Innovation as a feature of Transformational management contains not only undertaking creative activities by HMs but, also, visibility to innovative corporations of their supporters. Some activities of Transformational management illustrate their creativity in the procedure of modification 29. However, of the same significance for the success of Transformational modify is participating management in linking the following consideration and using the suggestions of their supporters. By admiring the innovative initiatives of the workforce, a powerful inspirational time frame from their active involvement in the procedure of modifying is covered.


2.3.9. Motivation

For an organization or school to be effective, it needs to see innovation take place and whatever the idea which has been conceived by the leader has to be reaching the teacher staffs or employees as needs to be converted to action, for a Transformational HMs alone is capable of motivating a teacher-staffs or normal employee to galvanize to perform for the sake of the school or organization, their unstinted commitment which stems from a burning desire to work makes the goals look nearer and achievable 30.

This research deals with only Transformational Leadership and its components. HMs transformation Leadership perception enhances the school's success. The studies show that the components or strength of Transformational Leadership lead to the school's success. These studies explore the perception of Transformational Leadership from the perspectives of HMs, SMC Chairman and Teachers. This conceptual framework adopted from the Influence of Transformational Leadership Style on Organizational Success by Akechai Judkrue 31 and modified from the author.

3. Methodology

This study followed the interpretive multiple case study on HMs Transformational Leadership on the school in Rupandehi district. A multiple case study design is used when the author seeks to determine the prevalence or occurrence of a specific phenomenon 32. The phenomenon of this study is the Transformational Leadership of HMs. This research design helps the author to follow certain plans and procedures for reform community school by HMS Leadership. A research population is a particular area or group or the collection of all the units to which the conclusions from the research will apply.

The research population needs to be investigated to answer research questions 33. The population of the study was the HMs, SMC member, and teachers' representative (TR) who involved in SMC. Selection method of research population is in Table 1. In the selection of teacher for this research, the author selects the TR of SMC because that teacher is also the leader of teacher-staffs and involved in SMC meeting so they know about the HMs Leadership work very closely.

This study was based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected through interview protocol and secondary data were collected from the results of SEE, governmental investment, audit report, school's history, and books. In this study, the researcher selected the three transformed community schools purposively. They are Yugjyoti Secondary School{2}, Kerwani Secondary School{3} and Siktahan Secondary School{4} of Devdaha municipality of Rupandehi district, province no. 5 of Nepal. These schools are the best community schools of Devdaha Municipality, rewarded by local Government and Government of Nepal (GON). To collect the necessary information regarding the objectives of this study interview protocol was conducted. The interview protocol was used in HMs, SMC chairman, and teacher who represent in SMC of each selected schools. Information of participants is given in Table 1.

Above mention, the table shows the participants of the research. In this research, three HMs, three SMC chairman and three TR of SMC provided the information.

The researcher handed over a permission letter to the Mayor of Devdaha Municipality for research permission from local government. After getting authority from Municipality the researcher informed the participants and get cosine for data collection. Data collection means identifying and selecting individuals for any study or research, obtaining their permission to study them, and collecting the information by asking them queries or observing their performances 34.

Therefore in the process of data collection, the research collects necessary information regarding the objectives of this study from interview protocols. The interview is a social encounter, not simply a site for information exchange or capture, and interviewers should keep this in the forefront of their minds 35. Interview protocols were used in HMs, SMC member, and TR. During the interview, the participants were required to reflect on their experiences, how HMs performed in leading the transformation in schools 36. The interview protocols explore the information related to Transformational Leadership behaviour; the questions of research are listed below.

1) How HMs influence teacher-staffs for task performance?

2) How do HMs set school vision and goals?

3) How do HMs mobilize the team?

4) How do HMs increase teacher-staff commitment to the school?

5) How do HMs empower the teacher-staff?

6) How do HMs communicate the received information?

7) How do HMs respect the creative work of teachers-staffs?

8) How to motivate a teacher-staffs?

9) How can personal views of teacher-staff be respected from HMs?

After collecting the necessary data from HMs, SMC member, and teacher the author wrote the ethnographic note for making contextualization in research. And input the data in atlas-ti software then coding, decoding, memo writing and family making process was done. The required frequency and table were generated based on collected data and objectives of the study. Then, the information was classified as categorized and subcategorized according to the nature of the obtained data. The data were analyzed interpretatively. Furthermore, the data were interpreted according to the observation review of related literature norms of national and international practices for Transformational Leadership. Finally, the conclusions were made for further studies especially related to this.

4. Results

The author shared what teachers want the principal to do was the teachers’ expectation to determine the perception of Transformational Leadership of HMs. It will be more beneficial to find out the impact of the Transformational Leadership practice for the reformation of the community school. Subsequently, the idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, communication, task performance, organizational vision, teamwork, organizational commitment, empowerment of teacher and SMC member, innovation, and goal setting might play an important role for determining the enhancing the school performance and student's result.

4.1. How Teacher-Staff Influenced and Motivate for Task Performance?

The author heard that most of the participants had shared what they perceived about the influence and motivation for task performance in teacher-staffs. These feelings can be categorized into three types of participants that are HMs, SMC chairman and TR.

HMs. HMs of selected schools perceived the way of influenced and motivating the teacher-staff to complete the task performance are represented of this theme:

He said the efforts did make to become an influenced teacher-staff are first, do own self and tell others to do, follow the suggestion of stakeholders and don't perceive as a leader but act as a public servant…(Shiva). Enhancement of infrastructures, improving student's achievement, Understanding the feelings of teacher-staffs, Understand the personal problems of teachers-staffs, feedback taken from the students and parents… (Chandrakanta). Gives them positive feedback, constructive criticism, interpersonal communications, provide praise in public, show the democratic behaviour, and listen to them carefully… (Kamal).

SMC Chairman. HMs of selected schools perceived the way of influence in the teacher-staff to complete the task performance are representative of this theme:

He said the efforts did make to become an influenced teacher-staff are respected as a source of knowledge, distribute the equal facility, behave without discrimination, provide well guidance … (Shovakar). Provide extra facility for extra time, manage what teachers want to change, and do not behave from the political and social perspective… (Lekhnath). Lead the team, solve the problems of teachers who have seen in the classroom, respect their opinion from HMs… (Bishnu).

TR. TR of selected schools perceived the way of influence in the teacher-staff to complete the task performance are representative of this theme:

He said to follow rules and regulation of education act, to solve incidental cases of school by wisely, to be made the sound educational and psychological environment in school for doing teaching-learning activities, respect to all and identified to all personal capabilities of their teamwork… (Humnath). Making Co-operative environment in school, flexibility and plan based activities are most important for influencing the teacher-staff… (Om Narayan). Out of these skilled managers, leading teachers and directors… (Pramisha).

4.2. How HMs Set Organizational Vision and Goals?

The participants provided an abundance of examples regarding how HMs set the organizational vision for better outcomes, participants stated:

HMs. Stockholders meeting, in-depth formulation of the school improvement plan, making one, three and five-year plan, the involvement of teacher-staff in build plan… (Shiva). Following the system of encouraging staff to do better than the existing situation, building team spirit to make the decision and performing duties … (Chandrakanta). Discuss with teachers and SMC and plan own self, perform own self first, HMs should work more than the followers … (Kamal).

SMC Chairman. SMC chairman of selected schools provided the information about the way of how HMs set the organizational vision and goals of the schools are:

Organizing regular meeting, Visit and learn from the best performing schools, Apply the best practices, making planning committee from teachers staff …(Shovakar). Discuss with the parents, do according to act or direction, a draft of plan discusses in SMC meeting … (Lekhnath). Plan according to rule and law, in time discussion, make subunit from teacher-staff and demand the plan from them and well discusses … (Bishnu).

TR. TR of selected schools provided the information about the way of how HMs set the organizational vision and goals of the schools are:

The school environment should be psychologically treated, sharing all feeling and activities to all, belief their juniors and feel we selves, responsibility should be a delegate, secure their staffs and develop humble environment as possible, be regulate based on rules and regulation as strictly.… (Humnath). Need to make a school improvement plan, cooperation between school and stakeholders… (Om Narayan). Leadership, control, and communication… (Pramisha).

4.3. How HMs Inspire for Team Work and Organizational Commitment?

The participants provided an abundance of examples regarding how HMs inspire for teamwork and increase the organizational commitment in school participants stated:

HMs. Create related committee and provide the responsibility with the right man in the right place, provide extra time allowances, Appreciate in the group for best and to remain alone for mistake … (Shiva). Provide group responsibility, motivating trough praise, prize and giving position in administration and another committee… (Chandrakanta). Develop an interpersonal relationship, show model own self, be a mentor, monitor and provide feedback with respect them … (Kamal).

SMC Chairman. SMC chairman of selected schools provided the information about the way of how HMs set the organizational vision and goals of the schools are:

Information should be delivered regularly, find out the weakness of teacher-staff and provide feedback, do the work with staff, distribute the dream, Respect their profession … (Shovakar). Discuss with teacher-staff, handover the responsibility, division the work, support on difficulties … (Lekhnath). Demand for work commitment from the teacher in a democratic way, provide equal opportunity among teacher-staffs, removing the barrier which comes in their work, regular reward, punishment and feedback … (Bishnu).

TR. TR of selected schools provided the information about the way of how HMs set the organizational vision and goals of the schools are:

By sharing ideas, by Motivating to provide facilities and incentives, develop the feeling concept of us and our school.… (Humnath). Every time and everywhere headmasters listening to all the problems occur in teacher-staff… (Om Narayan). Coordinating, cooperating and awarding and providing appropriate responsibilities… (Pramisha).

4.4. How HMs Empower, Communicate and Respect the Innovation?

The participants provided the way of empowering, communicate and respect the innovation the teacher-staffs for improving the school participants stated:

HMs. Making the environment to learn more, inspire for further study, and provide leave for their examination, daily manage the short informative seating for delivering information, respect the creativity … (Shiva). Training by the senior available teacher in School, provide training every month, respect the learning desire of teacher-staffs, and inform through notice board … (Chandrakanta). The skill-based training should be conducted from the resource person, allow presenting the skill and ability of teacher-staff in the group and listen to them, share the information of HMs meeting held in Municipality, and interpersonal communication in an issue … (Kamal).

SMC Chairman. SMC chairman provided the way of empowering, communicate and respect the innovation the teacher-staffs for improving the school participants stated:

The direct and indirect responses of teacher-staffs, by making a yearly plan for empowering, provide information through the channel like as a subject co-ordinate, praise for the innovative or creative work of teacher-staffs … (Shovakar). Regular discussion on any topics with teacher-staff, distribute the single and group responsibility, apply the good information management system, use the technology like as social media group… (Lekhnath). Making the reading culture in leisure time, wakeup the hunger of knowledge and skill among teacher staff, HMs show the interest of learning new things, discuss the facing problems with teacher-staffs and support to way-out form, inform on attendance time one by one or inform from the notice board, respect the innovative teacher-staffs in prayer time, provide a prize in annul function … (Bishnu).

TR. TR of selected schools provided the information about the way of how HMs set the organizational vision and goals of the schools are:

Provide extra facility for empowering knowledge, the skill of teacher-staffs, build the group and personal communication with stockholders, respects the innovation from appreciation and giving prize in annual function … (Humnath). Find out the resources and allocation the budget for empowerment the teacher-staffs, communication gap increase the conflict so necessary to remove it and provide real information among stockholders through different ways, Give the forum to express the creative or innovative work of teacher-staffs on the regular meeting… (Om Narayan). Providing equal opportunity for empowering the teacher-staffs. The mistake of teacher-staffs' should be corrected by HMs in one to one basis, Invest for empowering and innovativeness because teacher-staffs empowerment increases the organizational successes, inform in on the time, late informed increase undesired on work among the teacher-staffs, help to recognize the creative teacher-staffs among their group, stockholders and their community … (Pramisha).

5. Discussions

This study aims to explore the perception of headmaster's Transformational Leadership on the community secondary schools in Nepal which enhance the improvement of the school through Transformational Leadership. Findings are presented under three pre-determined themes as mentioned in the conceptual framework 37. Concerning Transformational Leadership HMs, SMC member, and TR are answered the way of transformational process in the community school. The outcome-focused habit, teachers' motivation, participative leadership, and participative decision-making system have a positive impact on the teachers' beliefs. A principal can expect that the beliefs in teachers have will make a modest and significant contribution to boosting organizational success 38. Moreover, in the context of community school of Nepal teacher-staffs were motivated seeing their principal doing with integrity what they say was important, demonstrating consistency between actual leadership behaviour and their preferences and expectations 37. Most of the participants opined their view teacher-staffs inspiration and motivation is the key instrument of transformational leader for the task performance. Stockholders meeting, in-depth formulation of the school improvement plan, making different years' plan, the involvement of teacher-staff in building plan is the key factor for setting organizational vision and goals.

Furthermore, distributed responsibility may be an attractive tool for organizational commitment and better task performance because it spreads Leadership across the organization and empowers the teachers to develop their leadership capacities 36. Most of the participants describe their opinion about task performance and organizational commitment from the providing positive feedback, constructive criticism, interpersonal communications, provide the praise in public, show the democratic behaviour, and listen carefully the teacher-staffs. In these themes, Berkovich & Eyal 39 opined that empathic listening by the HMs is related to greater endorsed emotional reframing and the HMs can help the teachers-staffs to deal with emotional distress by encouraging open two-way dialogue. In this study, participants deliver their perception of HMs transformation Leadership in their school. Data represented on the way of empowerment, communicate and respect the innovation of teacher staffs HMs answered on the making of the environment for learning more, inspiring for further study, and providing leave for their examination. It is also important, for daily management of the short informative seating for delivering information, respect the creativity. However, in this question SMC member said that by making a yearly plan for empowering, providing information through the channel like as subject co-ordinate, praising for the innovative or creative work of teacher-staffs. It shows the HMs perceived one thing but practised other things.

6. Conclusion

The answer to the question of which types of leadership practice is best is determined by the context of that situation. However, transformational leadership of HMs increase the potentiality of flowers and organization. Only a transformed leadership can understand the situation and systematically mobilize the group. In this study, it is possible to understand how the HMs are worked to make the school success as a transformed leader.

This study focuses on exploring the perception of HMs Transformational Leadership from HMs, SMC Chairman, and TR in the process of strengthening the organization by overcoming various complexities, teacher expectations, policy and programs. This study has shown the participants have an understanding of Transformational Leadership but this study adheres to the school's norms and standards for further study to see if their practice is consistent. If the HMs are found to have compromised on these expectations, norms and values, it can be twice as difficult to regain the teachers' trust in as the principal's integrity.

It is not the drought that purposefully selected schools are transformed by the HMs through their Transformational Leadership but when the same question reached in the teacher representative and the chairman, different answers were seen, so it is suggested for future research in the practice of transformational leadership. Besides, future studies should focus on comparative studies in similar contexts that could potentially point out differences between stakeholders and create a dialogue on how to address inequalities among academic leaders.

This research focuses on three government rewarded community schools in Devdaha Municipality, Rupandehi district, Province no.5 of Nepal. In the coming days, it is necessary to research different districts of the country regarding the transformed leadership and obstacles to HMs Transformational Leadership.

This research has become valuable as it focuses on how community schools' HMs leadership leads to improve community schools. Research shows that HMs who is the key person to improve community schools. The transformational leadership can improve community schools easily so that, the concerned body should provide training or Leadership course to that person who will be appointed as headmaster in the community schools. In Nepal, HMs appointed based on seniority and their level. This research contributes to change this policy if HMs are appointed by the Leadership ability, schools are improved in a short period.

Acknowledgements

Intellectual work is as not easy to accomplish as it is easy to listen to. I am indebted to the Honorable Associate Professor Dr Chandra Kumar Laksamba, Dr Jeevan Khanal and Yashoda Chaulagain, for their continuous inspiration, support, and improvement in preparing this journal article. I am very grateful to Associate Professor Dr Jiban Khadka of Nepal Open University for providing necessary reading materials for me. Likewise, I always remember the HMs, the chairperson and TR of the SMC of the Yugjyoti, Kerwani and Siktahan secondary school, who easily allocated their time for responding my research questions and helping to complete this study. I am equally grateful to the Mayor Hira Bahadur Khatri, Deputy Mayor Bidhyalaxmi Gurung, education secretary Tikaram Sharma, educational branch officer Narayan Prasad Pokhrel of Devdaha Municipality. Likewise, my thanks go to Hiranyalal Lamsal for supporting me on correction of English language of the paper. Finally, yet most importantly, my special thanks goes to all the team of Nepal Open University's supportive professor, Lecturers, officials' staffs and friends for providing necessary guidance to complete the research article.

Notes

1. Stockholders are known as related personals they are School Management Committee Members, Parents Teachers Association Members, Teachers, Parents, Students, Educational officers, local governmental representative of schools and other educational personals who involved in schools.

2. Yogjyoti secondary school is the best community school, which is located in ward No. 6 of Devdaha Municipality. This schools HMs and SMC chairman has achieved the National Education Award from Government of Nepal.

3. erwani Secondary School is a transformed community school, located in ward No. 5 of Devdaha Municipality and this school transformed in a short period. This school is awarded as the best community school from local Government 2076 BS.

4. Siktahan Secondary School transformed community school, located in ward No. 12 rural area of Devdaha Municipality. This school is awarded as the best community school from local Government.

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In article      View Article
 
[24]  Sribenjachot, S., & Chan, P. (2007). Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership: A Path Analysis of the Direct Selling Industry in Thailand. In Asia and Pacific DSI.
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[25]  Inoguchi, T. (2005). Values and lifestyles in urban Asia: A cross-cultural analysis and sourcebook based on the Asiabarometer survey of 2003.
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[27]  Awamleh, R., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness: The effects of vision content, delivery, and organizational performance. Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 345-373.
In article      View Article
 
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[29]  Bryant, S. E. (2003). The Role of Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Creating, Sharing and Exploiting Organizational Knowledge. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(4), 32-44.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Dvir, T., & Shamir, B. (2003). Follower developmental characteristics as predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 327-344.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Judkrue, A. (2012). The influence of transformational leadership style on organizational success: A study on MNCs in Bangkok, Thailand. International Conference on ICT and Knowledge Engineering, 14-18.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Bloomberg, L. D., & Volpe, M. (2019). Completing Your Qualitative Dissertation (Fourth Edi). SAGE Publications.
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[33]  Hariri, H. (2011). Leadership Styles, Decision-making Styles, and Teacher Job Satisfaction: An Indonesian School Context. James Cook University, Australia.
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In article      View Article
 
[37]  Khanal, J. (2019). School Leadership: Evidence From A Post-Conflict Post-Earthquake Country in South Asia. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 00(00), 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Handford, V., & Leithwood, K. (2013). Why teachers trust school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 194-212.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Berkovich, I., & Eyal, O. (2017). The effects of principals’ communication practices on teachers’ emotional distress. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 46(4), 642-658.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Nirmal Dhungana

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Normal Style
Nirmal Dhungana. Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 9, 2020, pp 633-642. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/9/4
MLA Style
Dhungana, Nirmal. "Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal." American Journal of Educational Research 8.9 (2020): 633-642.
APA Style
Dhungana, N. (2020). Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(9), 633-642.
Chicago Style
Dhungana, Nirmal. "Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 9 (2020): 633-642.
Share
[1]  Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership Theory and Practice. In Sage Publications (Seventh). George Mason University.
In article      
 
[2]  Fleishman, E. A., Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Levin, K. Y., Korotkin, A. L., & Hein, M. B. (1991). Taxonomic efforts in the description of leader behaviour: A synthesis and functional interpretation. The Leadership Quarterly, 2(4), 245-287.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Luitel, B., Phyak, P. B., Devkota, B. K., Acharya, G. S., Limbu, G. P., & Sahi, B. B. (2018). A Study on Identifying Ways for Managing School Level Teachers in the Federal System.
In article      
 
[4]  Huber, S. G., & West, M. (2002). Developing School Leaders: A Critical Review of Current Practices, Approaches and Issues, and Some Directions for the Future. Second International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration, 1071-1101.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Bell, L., & Rowley, A. (2002). The impact of educational policy on headship in primary schools in England, 1994-2001. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(3), 195-210.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Rutherford, C. (2006). Teacher leadership and organizational structure: The implications of restructured leadership in an Edison school. Journal of Educational Change, 7(1-2), 59-76.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Education Act, (2018). http://www.lawcommission.gov.np.
In article      
 
[8]  Qutoshi, B., Khaki, S., & Alam, J. (2014). The Role of a Principal / Headteacher in School Improvement: A Case Study of a Community-Based School in. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 8(2), 86-96. http://www.ue.edu.pk/jrre.
In article      
 
[9]  Supovitz, J. A., & Tognatta, N. (2013). The Impact of Distributed Leadership on Collaborative Team Decision Making. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(2), 101-121.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Moos, L. (2013). Comparing Educational Leadership Research. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(3), 282-299.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Moos, L. (2011). Sustaining Leadership Through Self-renewing Communication. In L. Moos, O. Johansson, & C. Day (Eds.), How School Principals Sustain Success over Time (14th ed., Vol. 14, pp. 127-150). Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Eacott, S. (2015). Educational leadership relationally: A theory and methodology for educational leadership, management and administration. In Educational Leadership Relationally: A Theory and Methodology for Educational Leadership, Management and Administration.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  ERCC, N. (2012). A Study on The Status of Teacher Management in Community School in Nepal (Issue June).
In article      
 
[14]  Mulford, B. (2006). School Leaders: Challenging Roles and Impact on Teacher and School Effectiveness. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 9(1), 11-31.
In article      
 
[15]  Bailey, J., Axelrod, R. H., & Burns, J. M. (2001). Leadership lessons from Mount Rushmore: an interview with James MacGregor Burns (vol 12, pg 113, 2001). Leadership Quarterly, 12(4), 553.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Khadka, J. (2017). Perceived Relation Between Principals’ Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles, and Their Effect On School Performance. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kathmandu University of Nepal.
In article      
 
[17]  Hall, K. A., Ozerk, K., Zulfiqar, M., & Tan, J. E. C. (2002). “This is our school”: Provision, purpose and pedagogy of supplementary schooling in Leeds and Oslo. British Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 399-418.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2017). Transformational Leadership. In Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers (Vol. 15, Issue 6).
In article      
 
[19]  Suresh, A., & Rajini, J. (2013). Transformational Leadership Approach in Organisations -Its Strengths and Weaknesses. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2(3), 155-160.
In article      
 
[20]  Avolio, B. J., & Oaks, T. (2000). Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 12(1), 66.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Birla, K. M. (2005). Transformational leadership, and learning organizations. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 2(4), 321-326.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Hartsfield, M. (2012). The Spirit of Transformational Leadership: Emotions or Cognition? School of Leadership Studies, 4(2).
In article      
 
[23]  Chi, N. W., Chung, Y. Y., & Tsai, W. C. (2011). How Do Happy Leaders Enhance Team Success? The Mediating Roles of Transformational Leadership, Group Affective Tone, and Team Processes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(6), 1421-1454.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Sribenjachot, S., & Chan, P. (2007). Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership: A Path Analysis of the Direct Selling Industry in Thailand. In Asia and Pacific DSI.
In article      
 
[25]  Inoguchi, T. (2005). Values and lifestyles in urban Asia: A cross-cultural analysis and sourcebook based on the Asiabarometer survey of 2003.
In article      
 
[26]  Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1995). Emotion in the Workplace: A Reappraisal. Human Relations, 48(2), 97-125.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Awamleh, R., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness: The effects of vision content, delivery, and organizational performance. Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 345-373.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Masters, R. D., & Sullivan, G. (1989). Facial Displays and Political Leadership in France. 19(1), 1-30.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Bryant, S. E. (2003). The Role of Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Creating, Sharing and Exploiting Organizational Knowledge. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(4), 32-44.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Dvir, T., & Shamir, B. (2003). Follower developmental characteristics as predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 327-344.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Judkrue, A. (2012). The influence of transformational leadership style on organizational success: A study on MNCs in Bangkok, Thailand. International Conference on ICT and Knowledge Engineering, 14-18.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Bloomberg, L. D., & Volpe, M. (2019). Completing Your Qualitative Dissertation (Fourth Edi). SAGE Publications.
In article      
 
[33]  Hariri, H. (2011). Leadership Styles, Decision-making Styles, and Teacher Job Satisfaction: An Indonesian School Context. James Cook University, Australia.
In article      
 
[34]  Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research, Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). PEARSON.
In article      
 
[35]  Louis Cohen, L. M. and K. M. (2018). Research Methods in Education (Eight). Routledge.
In article      
 
[36]  Khanal, J., Perry, F., & Park, S. H. (2019). Leadership practices of principals of high-performing community high schools: Evidence from Nepal. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 1(20).
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Khanal, J. (2019). School Leadership: Evidence From A Post-Conflict Post-Earthquake Country in South Asia. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 00(00), 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Handford, V., & Leithwood, K. (2013). Why teachers trust school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 194-212.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Berkovich, I., & Eyal, O. (2017). The effects of principals’ communication practices on teachers’ emotional distress. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 46(4), 642-658.
In article      View Article