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Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda

Akimanizanye Annonciata, Muhimpundu Nadege
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 242-250. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-3
Received April 01, 2020; Revised May 03, 2020; Accepted May 10, 2020

Abstract

Preschool education is the very important for children's development. It is likely agreed that parents play a vital role in success of preschool education. Parents’ perceptions towards early childhood education are very useful for an effective, innovative and successful program. However, a very little is known about Rwanda. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating parents’ opinions on importance of preschool education. The semi structured interview was used to collect data both in Kigali city (to capture urban situation) and in eastern province (representing rural situation) while a qualitative approach was employed to provide extensively a deeper understanding of the respondents. Results show that 78% of all interviewees in rural area were not aware of preschool importance while in urban area parents were much concerned about their kids future. In Urban 95% of all respondents agree that preschool is very necessary. For a deeper understanding, the parents perceptions influencing factors were discussed. A strong association between perceptions level and parents socioeconomic status, education background, living area (rural/urban) was found. The study recommended awareness campaigns for parents around the country to the importance of preschool education.

1. Introduction

Early childhood Education is the period in which personality is formed, as well as social skills, patterns of thinking, moral values, and the ability to cooperate with others and natural surroundings. Preschool school education at early childhood has attract attention globally 1. According to the report by 1 UNESCO stated that educating for sustainability should begin very early in life. It is in the early childhood period that children develop their basic values, attitudes, skills, behaviours, and habits, which may be long-lasting. Studies have shown that racial stereotypes are learned early and that young children are able to pick up cultural messages about wealth and inequality.

Similarly, Early Childhood Education is about placing a sound intellectual, emotional, psychological, social and physical basis of development and lifelong learning; it has enormous potential in fostering values, attitudes, skills, and behaviors that support sustainable development. At no other age has the child a greater need of an intelligent help, and any obstacle that hinders his creative work will decline the chance he has of achieving perfection. 2 argues that the early years is a remarkable period of growth and development in the lives of children. The researcher confirmed that the children initially deserve a good start in life. Their home experiences with the neighborhood and issue related to child care in their early educational practices such as in preschool that has an effect on how successfully they will enhance in life later on. For example, in case of those children that might have warm and sensitive care they might grow up in trust, and they likely eager and get along with other children as well 3. To establish a foundation for well being then the early years of children are regarded as years of extreme vulnerability and essential potentials, during which protection care are provided 4.

In the research by 5 revealed that parents believe that preschool contributes to a child social and emotional development. Children need to grow up with the capacity for love, joy, fulfillment, responsibility, and self-control and again they believe that there are benefits of preschool such as academic reading skills including listening to reading, knowing how to write and identifying letters and small words. Early childhood is the most important period in the development of an individual. It is a period when there is a rapid development of intelligence, personality, and social behaviour 6. Moreover, the skills obtained from preschool attendance include pre-reading strategies, such as oral language and phonological awareness, and pre-writing skills. These skills and practice of them increased the possibility for students to have successful reading experiences in school 7. Generally, it is important to point out that the government together with stakeholders are doing their best to develop education sector but preschool education in Rwanda still has a long journey to go. Apart from low infrastructures, deficit of qualified teachers, insufficient materials needed, some parents in rural area don’t understand very well the importance of preschools. Moreover, preschool should use its opportunity to apply pedagogical and educational programs that will suit the needs of a society in change. Encouraging the interaction with the community and natural surroundings will equip the adults of the future with the ability to handle challenges while sustaining an approach which includes open dialogue and respect. Therefore, the parents’ perceptions to provide the best care to their children needs to be improved through a holistic and integrated approach to support the children, particularly those from poor and vulnerable families.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

Preschool education in Rwanda is growing but it still has a long journey to go. Preschool education in Rwanda is not compulsory and it is not fee-free tuition. Parents’ perceptions guide their decisions to take their children to school. Nowadays, setting an eye around the country are still the kids walking around the street instead of going to school. It argued that if the family is the mother of the social group, then the school is the godmother of social development: parents, students, and teachers form an inevitable triangle of educational development 8. This study reflects to the fact that the parents might be the reason because they are the ones who are in charge of their children enrolment to preschool education, and this made the researcher wonder if the parents are aware of the importance of preschool education in Rwanda.

The report by Ministry of Education 2014 revealed the number of children who attended preschool dropped from 150,000 in 2009 to 142,471 in 2013. Public schools accounted for only 363 pupils enrolled in 2013 from 874 pupils in 2009. Most schools scored poorly in terms of resources such as suitable games and learning materials for pupils.

The report by Save the Children in 2015 found that general funding to education has reduced from 21% in 2006 to 12.3% in the year (2015-2016) 9.

According to the 2016 edition of the Ministry’s Education Statistical yearbook, The Pre-primary Net Enrolment Rate increased from 12.7% in 2012 to 17.5% in 2016 leading to an increase of 4.8%. Despite a continuous increase over the years, the 2015/20165 ESSP target of 25% was not realized in 2016. It has been found only 17.5% of the population in the age of Pre-primary are attending pre-primary schools. Therefore calls for more effort to attain the 2017/2018 ESSP target of 28% 10. UNICEF Rwanda which has the aim of improving all children’s well being, with a particular focus on children aged 0 to 6 years old, in its annual reported 2017 Early Childhood Development had large inequalities which were described by the statistics whereby only two percents of the poorest children access ECD services compared to 40 percent of the richest 11.

2. Assumptions of the Study

This study assumed that people believe that parents do not enrol their children in pre-school because of lack of awareness or ignorance is not valid since parents may have other reasons, so it is important to educate the people on the importance of Preschool education. It assumed that parents play a big role in the development of a child either psychologically or mentally from birth to adult, parents’ perceptions can affect children’s education directly or indirectly. Parents’ perceptions can change the education sector.

3. Parents’ Perceptions of Preschool Education

Rwanda as a developing country, poverty has been the excuses to parents to the delay of taking kids to school, on the other hand as it is revealed that levels of poverty did not predict the quality of programs; rather, a teamwork approach and school leadership support did 12. It has been noted that Parental beliefs and expectations toward education also influence the type of home environment that they provide for their children which may influence their motivation and literacy skills. Besides, the research by 13 revealed that busy professional parents value schooling but are sometimes so absorbed by their careers and personal interests that they are disengaged from close involvement in their children’s lives.

To compensate, they take their children in the best schools, thus entrusting their children to what they see as competent, hired professionals. They do the same in other aspects of their children’s lives, providing experiences for their children through program and services they employ. These talented, well-connected parents possess financial resources, education, social contacts, and professional skills. They must be re-engaged with their children by means that are nearly spiritual. A study conducted by 14 found that parents’ beliefs and expectations of their children’s academic achievement were related to the level of education parents had achieved, as well as socio-economic factors. On the other hand socio demographic factors have been found to be associated with perceptions, expectations and satisfaction 15. It is critical that researchers examine the parental perception of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of Early Childhood programs.

The good communication between parents and the school should be appreciated or supported by the educational stakeholders in early childhood education. Many parents have got different perceptions of pre-school education in rural and urban areas on the provision of education to young children. The research written by 16 shows that Parents from urban areas pay more attention to the knowledge scope learned in kindergartens than rural areas but in rural areas, most of the parents choose to give more time for children to play instead of learning knowledge. Therefore, preschool education plays significant role as it helps children in successful completion of primary education. It provides the foundation for all-around development and enables the child to understand various issues 17. Children at this stage need to be encouraged to develop positive attitude through child to nature and the child to child interaction education is to be designed carefully to provide wholesome growth and development of children. Parents play an important role in the early childhood care and education. Parent involvement is linked to children’s total learning. The greater parent involvement in children’s learning positively affects the school performance including higher academic achievement 18. Parents believe that three to six is the right age for the child to receive preschool education as the child is able to understand things well 19. In his analysis 20 on Exploring Parental Perceptions and Preferences revealed that some parents in Turkey considered play like the way of learning in pre-school education. It also shows that parents see play as an important daily routine and most important for them to play with their children every day. Across the globe, researchers gathered data to determine parents’ views and beliefs about preschool.

In Turkey, 21 interviewed 35 parents whose children attended private preschool institutions to seek their views about early childhood education. Four themes focused; the importance of preschool, the age of preschool, characteristics of preschool institutions, and the expectations of parents. Şahin argued that the majority of the parents believed preschool improved their child’s social skills and understood the characteristics of preschool programs. They did not find a reliable view of the age at which a child should start preschool. Also, the study suggested that further research is needed to determine parent views about both private and public preschool programs. A qualitative study by 22 examined the relationship between parent and child characteristics, such as the parents’ level of education as it related to children's literacy interest. Parents in this study indicated they wanted their children to succeed in school and to exhibit positive social behaviours. Parents of 61 pre-schoolers from predominately low-income families who were enrolled in the local preschool reported their expectations of preschool. Parents' expectation of their child's achievement in school significantly correlated with their child’s literacy interest.

23 revealed that parental beliefs about children's literacy motivation are related to their literacy practices at home. A sample of 315 parents of preschool-aged children participated in this qualitative study. The results revealed that parental perceptions of their children's literacy motivation were significantly related to their home literacy practices. Besides, International Journal of Research Studies in Education (2014) revealed that parents are important stakeholders when demanding quality childcare services and it show that it is necessary for the parents’ to be involved in preschool education for quality education.

4. Data and Methodology

The current study was designed to solve the following research questions:(1) What are the perceptions of Rwandan parents towards the importance of preschool education?, (2) What are the factors that influence parents’ perception of the importance of preschool education? (3) What can be done to improve parents’ perceptions of the importance of preschool education? 24 stated that basic qualitative research was used to understand the meaning of a phenomenon for participants through interviews, observations and document reviews. The respondent in this study was parents, teachers, and head teachers. This study adopted a qualitative approach which was aimed to provide extensively a deeper understanding of the respondents. The semi structured interview was used to collect data. Purposive sampling was employed to get the target respondents and some criteria were involved such as their ages, education background, occupation, religion, living area (rural/urban), having kids in preschool or not. The 200 respondents agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consent, but only 180 data were analyzed due to social disruptions that made other 20 to be unqualified (Among the 180 qualified respondents, parents (n=132), Teacher (n=36) while Head teachers (12) . The data from the interview were collected using a semi-structured interview technique. The interview protocol was used to collect data. At first, they were three drafts of the protocols for parents; teachers and head teachers contained 7 to 10 open-ended questions to elicit parents’ views about preschool education. They were reviewed by four researchers, some questions were removed and others were rewritten to increase their clarity. The participants were informed about the aim of the study and then asked whether they wanted to participate in the study. The duration of interviews varied from 20 to 30 minutes. Data from the interview were recorded using audio recorder and those who refuse to be recovered note-taking were used the same as data collected from observation. Then after, Data were transcribed into word text, coded manually, organized into themes, and analyzed thematically following qualitative procedures of the data analysis. The study was guided by Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s Parent Involvement Model. Parent involvement is a critical factor in children’s educational lives; therefore, there is an interest to know much about the psychological factors that motivate parents’ involvement practices. 25 presented a comprehensive model from the perspective of parents about the parent involvement process grounded in psychological and educational research 26 which has been empirically tested by different researchers 27. Based on a psychological perspective, this model deals on both specific types of parent involvement and explain why parents choose to be involved 28. Moreover, it also presents how they choose specific forms of involvement, and how parent involvement makes a difference in their children’s education 29

4.1. Data Quality Control

To ensure validity, the researcher used multiple sources of information including documents analysis and interviews. Before the interview, the researcher explained the purpose of the study to the interviewees and the informed consent was signed by interviewees. Data collected from the interview were recorded and transcribed. Then they were given back to the interviewees to check if what is written is the same as they said. The transcripts were analyzed after getting feedbacks from interviewees. Moreover, content validity was employed whereby the researcher with the help of experts read through the transcribed responses from the interview to ensure that the responses were answering the questions asked. Items those were not adequate in terms of generating the required information as per the study objectives dropped and replaced with new ones. As for the protection of anonymity, the researchers used pseudonyms by attributing letters to respondents instead of their real names 30.

5. Findings and Discussions

In relation to the interview, the level of education have impact in parents decision for children joining preschools particularly parents from in rural area and those who were not educated were not aware of the importance of preschool contrary to the educated parents and those who are in urban area were supporting preschool education to play a remarkable change in their children’s life. parents were required to work hand in hand with the school and do the follow-up, since some of them were found to be busy and forget about children’s education. During the interview also poverty was pointed out by many respondents to be one of the challenges that hinder them to enrol their children. Finally, fee free preschool was highly pointed out to be one of the best solutions since the big problem is financial support. Involving parents in school activities and a home visit has argued also to be the other method to raise parent positive perceptions. The study concluded that inculcating discipline of good manners is a shared responsibility between the parents and the school so that the children grow with the desired aims oriented towards serving the wider society in the nearest future.

5.1. Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance Preschool

The findings show that the decision of taking children to preschool was based on some factors related to the level of education, socio-economic, residential areas and religious beliefs of the parents. Parents with a low level of education were not aware of the significance of preschool in children’s development. In his study, 31 found that the beliefs and expectations of the parents on their children’s academic achievement were much related to the level of their education as well as their socio-economic factors.

Parents’ level of education affects children entering into schools as the learned parent prepared to send their children to school in order to get the necessary preparations for primary education enrolment and this has revealed positive perceptions about preschool, they are willing to take their children on the best preschool and fight for good foundation of their children. Those parents were motivated by the educational background so they were helpful to school activities. Compared to the uneducated ones they insisted on the fact that on their age they didn’t’ attend preschool but they were successful in primary school, which can’t be the excuse because today is different from the past and this was recorded by 32, that the low level of parent education and income apparently affects the enrolment of children and their academic achievement.

Both 33 found that preschool has the potential to develop some form of academic keenness skills in children and this lay the foundation for early learning. However, cooperation and integration with parents are regarded as a crucial part of quality preschool education and the creation of the most appropriate environment for the child’s development. Parents are regarded as the first teacher at home. With regards to parents in urban residential areas, it was found that most of the time the parents are busy working, they have no time to pay attention or take care of their children, and therefore they prepare to take their children to preschool as a place to keep their children. This indicates that they don’t care about any advantage from preschool, but they want where to keep their children.

Parents in the rural residents were not aware of the importance of preschool education to their children hence; they don’t see any advantage to enrol their children to preschool. One of the reasons was lack of awareness and motivation; another is quality of education which is still low in the rural area whereby anyone who finished secondary school in any program is taken to teach preschool. The findings also show that the majority of teachers were not aware of the preschool curriculum. These were because most of the teachers in preschool are not qualified in teaching and were not trained about the preschool program. Most of them are graduates from other field and because of lack of employment; they prefer joining the teaching profession. There were some schools which don’t care on the quality of teacher but care on the cheap salary, which made the quality of education they are giving because you give what you have, if you have nothing then you will give nothing.

The study findings confirmed that the majority of the teachers’ were not aware of the meaning of curriculum and its use in preschool education, which illustrates that they did not participate in pre-school curricula. In contrast, some teachers were not aware of the parents’ role in establishing the curriculum.

This could probably be because some teachers might not have been aware that parents were expected to participate when the pre-school curriculum was being revised. Parents on their part most probably considered that it was the task of the school to implement the curriculum without consulting them.

34 pointed out that the professionalism of practitioners is an important criterion when choosing a kindergartens teacher. They also stated that parents can be assessed through interaction with good practitioners and that could significantly contribute to the good quality of the children and this would create an atmosphere of children positive attitudes towards learning.

5.2. Factors Influencing Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool

The findings established that poverty was one of the main factors that influence parents’ decisions, whereby the parents who are aware of this importance, their children found a home because they can’t afford preschool. The below table show parents monthly income both in rural and urban area.

This was similar to what Save the Children 35 reported as the main challenge to the children from poor families who can’t afford the costs because preschool is not fee-free.

Similarly, 36 reported the same observations over Japan. 37 on their study on the socio-economic problems affecting early childhood education in Gasabo District which is situated in the capital city revealed that some parents were willing to participate in educating their children. Nevertheless, some parents were not able to pay the charges imposed on them due to the insufficiency of the fund.

According to Ntahombyariye & Maniragaba study in Gakenke District which has a big part of rural area on factors that hindered the effective implementation of early childhood education established that parents’ involvement in pre-school education was low because they were expected to pay a certain amount for tuition fee which they were not afforded to pay.

It was observed that teaching materials were not enough especially in public preschool where the children don’t have the playground, toys and classroom materials. From the interview with teachers shows that it is hard for them to teach without materials since preschool is more of practical and the use of different materials such toys, flashcards, etc. from the interview teachers claimed that it is hard for them to teach the young children without materials, and it creates misunderstanding and confusion to the students since preschool they learn through senses, seeing, touching, and listening. On the other hand, this affected highly the quality of education because of lack of awareness on the needs of preschool children. The findings also found some parents who are not aware of the importance of preschool. In contrast, 38 postulated that in Singapore, the majority of parents have positive perception on the importance of preschool education especially in the issue of good educational policy that can facilitate young children to acquire basic skills. The current study much needs to be done to raise parents’ awareness about preschool education.

5.3. Ways to Enhance Positive Perception Towards Preschool

The findings from this study stated that apart from parents meeting, the home visit can be a good way to interact with parents and discuss the development of children’s education. It can be helpful for teachers to integrate parents in children’s education. The research by 39 revealed that supporting families is a reasonable way to impact children’s development positively. Findings from the interview, teachers expect working hand in hand with parents since parents are the first teachers. As specified by 40, children are more successful in school when parents have a good relationship with their children’s teachers and are involved in the school. Regular communication between the parent and teacher could thus motivate children to excel in school, produce better school attendance and improve behaviour at home and at school. The study pointed follow up and effective communication between parents and teachers to be very crucial in preschool. The findings highlighted cooperation between parents and teachers to ensure what is learnt in school can be revised at home so that the difficult which might happen in school can be solved through practice. The study by 41 show that there is a need for Parents to engage in children’s education in order to higher them in holistic development. Awareness of the importance of parent engagement in Singapore education issues was high this helped the students to acquire quality education. Similar study by 42 on parents’ perspective on the quality of kindergarten pointed out parents’ involvement and cooperation with practitioners to be important for the good quality kindergarten.

The findings also show that parents who were caring, helping to do homework, participated in school activities had positive perceptions on the importance of preschool. The findings also show that performance was much better than the students who have careless parents.

Similarly, the study conducted Gasabo district revealed that parents delayed or didn’t understand their responsibilities and participation at home 43. Some parents are found to be very busy working and don’t have time to help their students with school works. Children’s education needs much attention from family, school, and community in general.

The findings related to how positive perceptions should be improved on financial support, many people reported fee free preschool to be one way which can raise parents positive about preschool. The study by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research on their first published survey about parent views of how they experience Free ECE. Overall, parents were highly positive about Free ECE. Most parents accessing Free ECE have made family savings, some considerable, and we're seeing favourable impacts on their family finances. Some parents said Free ECE made a difference between their child attending ECE or not attending, others that the savings were put to use on extra enriching activities for their child and other expenses 44.

The findings highlighted professional development of preschool teachers to be a good way to improve teachers capability of teaching. In the study by 45 revealed: “enhancing capacity to offer high-quality service options, develop strong partnerships, and increase staff professionalism” (p. 15). Outdoor games and other practical activities has been revealed to enhance children success which is in agreement with a study by 46.

6. Summary

The current study revealed that some parents are not aware of the importance of preschool, rather they take preschool as a safe place to leave their kids. So, the educational campaigns around the country have pointed out to raise parents’ awareness of the importance of preschool. The findings show that some parents realize preschool to be important on children’s development but some of them were not involved in school activities. Based on the main research questions (1) What are the perceptions of Rwandan parents towards the importance of preschool education?, (2) What are the factors that influence parents’ perception of the importance of preschool education? (3) What can be done to improve parents’ perceptions of the importance of preschool education? We summarize the answers from the study respondents in the below table.

Another finding revealed that there is a huge difference between a child who attend preschool and another who did not attend it . This difference was seen in behaviour, social life, achievement in class, etc. The findings revealed also that apart from political issues, natural calamities, and diseases; poverty (lower monthly income) is also a big challenge whereby many schools are lack of adequate materials, professional teachers because paying them cannot be easy and most of the parents didn’t enrol their children because they can’t afford. Generally, poverty is remarkable in each and every corner. Preschool fee-free policy, collaboration, communication, and cooperation through a home visit and school activities between family and school were found to raise positive perceptions of parents.

7. Conclusion and Policy Recommendations

The findings from this study show that 78% of all interviewees in rural area were not aware of preschool importance while in urban area parents were much concerned about their kids future. In urban 95% of all respondents agree that preschool is very necessary. For a deeper understanding, the parents perceptions influencing factors were discussed. A strong association between perceptions level and parents socioeconomic status, education background, living area (rural/urban) was found.

Preschool fee-free policy, collaboration, communication, and cooperation through a home visit and school activities between family and school were found to raise positive perceptions of parents towards importance of preschool education. On another hand, It has been found that the implementation of preschool education in Rwanda has faced diverse challenges such as poverty (lower monthly income), lack of adequate materials, lack of professional teachers at preschool level etc. However, there is no problem without a solution. Here are some recommendations for those challenges:

a) The government should take into consideration of preschool fee-free because poverty has found to be on the top of issues affecting parents’ to put their kids in preschool.

b) The study recommended awareness campaigns for parents around the country to the importance of preschool education.

c) Lastly, in order to have a well-educated society, the quality of education is very important, there is a need to train professional teachers and give them adequate materials at preschool level.

Public school in rural has been found to have no enough teaching material to use and as preschool plays a big role in child development . Generally, It is highly recommended that Preschool education has to be more practical than being theoretical.

Limitations for the Study

The study was supposed to interview some curriculum designers, but because of limited time and availability of curriculum designer and financial support, the study wasn’t able to get data from them.

Conflict Interest

The authors declare that there is no potential conflict of interest of whatsoever.

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely express their special gratitude to Zhejiang Normal University and University of Science and Technology of China for providing the necessary facilities to carry out our study. Specials thanks to all respondents.

References

Appendix

Dear respondent,

We are out research on Parents’ perception of the importance of preschool in Rwanda. Your point of view on the role of preschool education. The interview is anonymous and no answers will be considered correct or wrong. All answers will be kept strictly confidential. The results of the research will be purely for academic purpose only. we, therefore, request you to feel free and answer as correctly and honestly as possible.

Thank you in advance for your participation and your willingness to be interviewed.

I. Background information

a. Sex: b. Age:

c. Occupation; d. Religion

e. Rural or Urban f. Education level;

Interview Guide for Parents
Questions for Interview

1. Do you have kids aged between 3 to 6 years old?

2. What do you know about preschool?

3. What do you think about preschool education?

4. What was pushing you to take your kids to preschool?

5. What was your first impression after taking your kids to preschool?

6. Do you think children should attend preschool before going to primary education?

7. What were you expecting before deciding to take your kids to preschool?

8. What is your contribution as a parent to preschool education?

9. As a parent, what do you suggest to be improved in preschool education?

Interview Guide for Teachers

I. Background information

a. Sex: b. Age:

c. Class: d. education level:


Questions for Interview

1. Which class (es) do you teach?

2. How do you think about preschool education?

3. As a teacher, do you think children should attend preschool before going to primary education?

4. Considering student performance, do you see any difference between children who attended preschool before going to primary and those who did not?

5. As a teacher what do you expect from parents who have kids in preschool education?

6. What do you think are the factors that influence parents to enrol or not their children in preschool?

7. What do you think can be improved in preschool education?

Interview Guide for School Administrators

I. Background information

a. Sex: b. Age:

c. School: d. Position and education:


Questions for Interview

1. How do you think about preschool education?

2. As an administrator, what do you think are the factors that influence parents to enrol or not their children in preschool?

3. As an administrator, do you think children should attend preschool before going to primary education?

4. How do you see the preschool curriculum?

5. What do you suggest can be included in the preschool curriculum?

6. How do parents participate in school activities in your school?

7. What do you think can be improved in preschool education?

8. What can you suggest parents who have kids in preschool?

9. What can you suggest parents who don’t have kids in preschool?

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[24]  Merriam, S. B, Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. MIGEPROF, Minimum standards and norms for early childhood development services in Rwanda. Kigali. 2016.
In article      
 
[25]  Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M," Why do parents become involved in their children’s education?," Review of Educational Research, 67, 3-42. 1997. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., & Sandler, H. M, In E. N. Patrikakou, R. P. Weisberg, S. Redding, & H. J. Walberg, (Eds.), School-family partnerships for children's success (pp. 40-56). NY: Teachers College Press. 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Epstein, J. L., & Sheldon, S. B, "Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement," The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 308-318. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670209596604
In article      
 
[27]  Allexsaht-Snider, M, Theoretical and conceptual frameworks for family involvement: Pre-service and in-service teachers' perspectives. Paper presented at the symposium Models of Teacher Education for Enhancing Parental Involvement in Education, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April 25, 2000.
In article      
 
[28]  Fan, X., Chen, M, "Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis," Educational Psychology Review 13, 1-22.2001. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009048817385
In article      
 
[29]  Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M, "Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference?," Teachers College Record, 97, 310-331.1995.
In article      
 
[30]  Merriam, S. B, Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2009.
In article      
 
[31]  Davis-Kean, P, "The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The Indirect Role of Parental Expectations and the Home Environment," Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304. 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  Tobishima, S, Family Structure and Children's Academic Achievement in Japan: A Quantile Regression Approach, Educational Studies in Japan: International Yearbook, n12 p107-119 Mar 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Manigo. C. & Allison. R, Does pre-school Matter? Understanding the Lived Experiences of Parents and their Perceptions of Pre-school Education, 2017.
In article      
 
[34]  Marija Malović & Sanja Malović, Research in Pedagogy, Vol. 7, Issue 2 (2017), pp. 200-220.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Tina Yu, Country Director - Save the Children in Rwanda Investing in early childhood education for a better Rwanda report, Kigali 2 June 2016.
In article      
 
[36]  Hosokawa R, Katsura T, "Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study," PLoS ONE 13(5): e0197961.2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Tuyisenge Stephanie, Determinants of Parents involvement in their school childrens education in Gasabo district. Thesis. E55EA/20203/2012, Kenyatta University.
In article      
 
[38]  Mathew Mathews, Leonard Lim and Teng Siao See, Parents’ Perceptions of the Singapore Primary School System IPS Working Papers No. 27, July 2017.
In article      
 
[39]  Bromer, J., Paulsell, D., Porter, T., Henley, J., Ramsburg, D., & Weber, R, Family-sensitive caregiving. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K. Tout, & T. Halle (Eds.), Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings (pp. 161-190).2011. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
In article      
 
[40]  Deborah, D, Supporting parent, Family and Community involvement in your school. Portland: NWREL.2000.
In article      
 
[41]  Manzon, M., Miller, R., Hong, H., & Khong, L, Parent Engagement in Education (NIE Working Paper Series No. 7). Singapore: National Institute of Education. 2015.
In article      
 
[42]  Marija Malović & Sanja Malović, Research in Pedagogy, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2017, pp. 200-220.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  Kagabo DM, Kirk CM, Bakundukize B, et al, "Care-seeking patterns among families that experienced under-five child mortality in rural Rwanda," PLoS One. 2018; 13(1): e0190739. Published 2018 Jan 10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  L. Mitchell, Democratic Policies and Practices in Early Childhood Education, International Perceptives on Early Childhood education and Development 24, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1793-4_1.
In article      
 
[45]  Paulsell, D., Del Grosso, P. Bernstein S., & Bandel E, Approaches to measuring early head start-child care partnerships: Recommendations and considerations. OPRE Report #2015-62. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September 2015.
In article      
 
[46]  Jayasuriya, Avanthi & Williams, Marcia & Edwards, Todd & Tandon, Pooja, Parents’ Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play. Early Education and Development. 27. 1-14. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2016.1156989.
In article      
 

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Akimanizanye Annonciata, Muhimpundu Nadege. Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp 242-250. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/5/3
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Annonciata, Akimanizanye, and Muhimpundu Nadege. "Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda." American Journal of Educational Research 8.5 (2020): 242-250.
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Annonciata, A. , & Nadege, M. (2020). Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 242-250.
Chicago Style
Annonciata, Akimanizanye, and Muhimpundu Nadege. "Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 5 (2020): 242-250.
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[14]  Pamela E Davis-Kean, "The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment," Journal of family psychology 19 (2), 294, 2005.
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[19]  James P Comer, Norris M Haynes, "Parent involvement in schools: An ecological approach," The Elementary School Journal, 91 (3), 271-277, 1991.
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[20]  Şahin, B. K., Sak, R., & Şahin, I. T, "Parents’ views about preschool education. Procedia," Social and Behavioral Sciences,89,288-292.2013.Retrievedfrom
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[23]  Sackes, M., Isitan, S., Avci, K. &Justice, "Parents’ perceptions of children's literacy motivation and their home-literacy practices: What’s the connection?," European Early Childhood Education Research Journal.
In article      
 
[24]  Merriam, S. B, Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. MIGEPROF, Minimum standards and norms for early childhood development services in Rwanda. Kigali. 2016.
In article      
 
[25]  Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M," Why do parents become involved in their children’s education?," Review of Educational Research, 67, 3-42. 1997. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., & Sandler, H. M, In E. N. Patrikakou, R. P. Weisberg, S. Redding, & H. J. Walberg, (Eds.), School-family partnerships for children's success (pp. 40-56). NY: Teachers College Press. 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Epstein, J. L., & Sheldon, S. B, "Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement," The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 308-318. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670209596604
In article      
 
[27]  Allexsaht-Snider, M, Theoretical and conceptual frameworks for family involvement: Pre-service and in-service teachers' perspectives. Paper presented at the symposium Models of Teacher Education for Enhancing Parental Involvement in Education, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April 25, 2000.
In article      
 
[28]  Fan, X., Chen, M, "Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis," Educational Psychology Review 13, 1-22.2001. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009048817385
In article      
 
[29]  Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M, "Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference?," Teachers College Record, 97, 310-331.1995.
In article      
 
[30]  Merriam, S. B, Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2009.
In article      
 
[31]  Davis-Kean, P, "The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The Indirect Role of Parental Expectations and the Home Environment," Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304. 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  Tobishima, S, Family Structure and Children's Academic Achievement in Japan: A Quantile Regression Approach, Educational Studies in Japan: International Yearbook, n12 p107-119 Mar 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Manigo. C. & Allison. R, Does pre-school Matter? Understanding the Lived Experiences of Parents and their Perceptions of Pre-school Education, 2017.
In article      
 
[34]  Marija Malović & Sanja Malović, Research in Pedagogy, Vol. 7, Issue 2 (2017), pp. 200-220.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Tina Yu, Country Director - Save the Children in Rwanda Investing in early childhood education for a better Rwanda report, Kigali 2 June 2016.
In article      
 
[36]  Hosokawa R, Katsura T, "Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study," PLoS ONE 13(5): e0197961.2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Tuyisenge Stephanie, Determinants of Parents involvement in their school childrens education in Gasabo district. Thesis. E55EA/20203/2012, Kenyatta University.
In article      
 
[38]  Mathew Mathews, Leonard Lim and Teng Siao See, Parents’ Perceptions of the Singapore Primary School System IPS Working Papers No. 27, July 2017.
In article      
 
[39]  Bromer, J., Paulsell, D., Porter, T., Henley, J., Ramsburg, D., & Weber, R, Family-sensitive caregiving. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K. Tout, & T. Halle (Eds.), Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings (pp. 161-190).2011. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
In article      
 
[40]  Deborah, D, Supporting parent, Family and Community involvement in your school. Portland: NWREL.2000.
In article      
 
[41]  Manzon, M., Miller, R., Hong, H., & Khong, L, Parent Engagement in Education (NIE Working Paper Series No. 7). Singapore: National Institute of Education. 2015.
In article      
 
[42]  Marija Malović & Sanja Malović, Research in Pedagogy, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2017, pp. 200-220.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  Kagabo DM, Kirk CM, Bakundukize B, et al, "Care-seeking patterns among families that experienced under-five child mortality in rural Rwanda," PLoS One. 2018; 13(1): e0190739. Published 2018 Jan 10.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  L. Mitchell, Democratic Policies and Practices in Early Childhood Education, International Perceptives on Early Childhood education and Development 24, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1793-4_1.
In article      
 
[45]  Paulsell, D., Del Grosso, P. Bernstein S., & Bandel E, Approaches to measuring early head start-child care partnerships: Recommendations and considerations. OPRE Report #2015-62. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September 2015.
In article      
 
[46]  Jayasuriya, Avanthi & Williams, Marcia & Edwards, Todd & Tandon, Pooja, Parents’ Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play. Early Education and Development. 27. 1-14. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2016.1156989.
In article