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Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society

Clement Muinde Mbatha , Bonaventure W. Kerre, Ahmed Ferej, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge, Koech Cheruiyot Fred
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 353-359. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-20
Received April 19, 2020; Revised May 21, 2020; Accepted May 28, 2020

Abstract

Implementation of Vocational Education and Training (VET) within Prison institutions is dependent on several factors. One of the key drivers for successful implementation of VET is the learning strategies employed. Researches indicate that most incarcerated individuals have low academic standings within society. As such, approaches in learning have to conform to the trainees’ needs and education standards. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of learning strategies used in VET in Kenyan Prisons with a specific case study of Shimo La Tewa Maximum Security Prison and Shimo La Tewa Medium Security Prison. A descriptive research design was adopted to integrate different components of the research and questionnaire instruments were used for data collection. A Predictive Analytic Software (PASW) was used for data analysis where quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive, frequencies and percentages. A regression model was fitted to establish the relationship between prisoners’ integration back into the society and the learning strategies used in VET implementation in prison. The study findings indicated that there is a direct association between learning strategies used in VET implementation and integration back into the society with a regression model significance at (p<0.05) and (R=57%). The specific learning strategies investigated were behavioral and cognitive learning; both were found to be generally applicable among the inmates yet in terms of specific methods, the study found the level of agreeability varying. In conclusion, the study determined that there is need to enhance the capacity of learners by adopting appropriate strategies that impart skills and enhance the trainee confidence to gain formal employment. This way, the chances of re-offense is greatly reduced by appropriate training methods.

1. Introduction

The enhancement of a skillful workforce is instrumental in sustaining the social and economic development of a country 17. Vocational Education and Training (VET) is among the different strategic directions that the government of Kenya enacted to improve on the technical skills of its workforce. However, according to Ngure 17, previous researches on the training indicated that the adopted system for the delivery VET did not instill skills requisite for the prevailing job market. In his recommendations, he suggested that a review in the implementation process was necessary. This research sought to identify the efficiency of different learning strategies used in the implementation of VET in Kenyan prisons with a specific case analysis of Shimo La Tewa Maximum Security Prison and Shimo La Tewa Medium Security Prison Correctional institutions located in Mombasa County, Kenya. An empirical review of previous researches on the efficiency of the learning strategies informed on the success or failures of the VET strategies used in Kenyan prisons in comparison to the study findings.

VET prison programs are integral to ensuring that reformed prisoners can constitute a formidable workforce in their efforts to reintegrate into society. Further, the programs are critical in the pre-occupation of the prisoners within the confines of the correctional facility to reduce their tendency to commit a crime 7. Giles, et al. 7 further found that the education levels and prior career experience among the incarcerated Australians were relatively low. The low levels of education do not only plague Australia but also Kenya where a majority of those incarcerated have low levels of education 16. Among the incarcerated individuals arrested for fraud in Turkey between the years 1990-2011, 61% were primary school dropouts and high school graduates were about 17%. In terms of economic crimes, 73% of those incarcerated were primary school dropouts 20. The same observation was also made in the United States where more than 75% of state prison inmates had no high school diploma and the same observation was made for 59% of federal prison inmates 10.

To increase efficiency in the roll-out of VET in prisons, it is necessary to construct the teaching delivery methods in a manner that is likely to appeal to prisoners of different education levels 7. This is because the absorption rate for the different VET courses rolled out is highly dependent on the literacy levels of the learners. As such, there is a need to devise or define approaches that best suit the education standards of the prisoners. This can be achieved through the adoption of modern and innovative learning strategies that entice prisoners to learn. Hawley, Murphy, & Souto-Otero 7 further indicated that the attainment of proper learning initiatives requires the institutions to provide the prisoners with an accommodative environment. Otherwise, the efforts to prevent recidivism are derailed and the whole process of correction is rendered ineffective.

2. Importance of VET for Prisoners and Crime in General

International convention on education advocates for the prisoners' right to education as it does for all the other citizens 7. The United Nations, in the realization of the threats of crime in member countries, devised minimum standards to guide how member states could offer the best rehabilitation strategies. Ngure 17 noted that the reduction of crime in any society is dependent on the ability of people to access meaningful employment. The need to empower people with the technical skills or professional skills to compete for jobs in the society is therefore necessary. However, research has established that individuals whose levels of education are low tend to commit more crimes compared to those of higher education levels 7; 16; 20. It is for this reason that the government of Kenya realized the need to roll out education programs for the youth who did not access college education as well as for prisoners. The 2010 Kenyan Constitution under Article 55 further provides for this provision where every Kenyan and especially the youth are accorded the right to education 16.

The cost of crime within the justice system and society is high. According to Hawley et al. 9, the cost of sustaining the criminal justice system and the incarceration of prisoners was estimated to be over €71 Million per annum. Much as the costs are derived from the exchequer, a significant proportion of the money is also paid for by the victims of crimes and the perpetrators. The cost of uniform crime in the United States was estimated at $206,698Million in the year 2012 5. This was much less compared to the national crime victimization report which was about $312,073 million recorded in the same period 5.

The quantification of the cost of criminal justice in Kenya is not yet optimal. According to Natasha 15, quantifying the cost of criminal justice in Kenya remained low because of a variety of challenges. The greatest of all concerns echoed in the inefficiency of the government to contain crime. This has led to an increase in crimes which in turn taints the nation's ability to provide a conducive environment for business development. Besides the inefficiency in fighting crime, the Kenyan police department was on the spot for inconclusive determination of reported crimes, and the transition of perpetrators to the court process was found to be lacking. Despite the gap in cost estimation, Natasha 15 indicated that the costs of crime in Kenya amounted to other non-quantified consequences. The findings of Natasha’s research estimated the cost of a crime excluding life loss as a result of crime. The cost of crime prevention in business and covered loss standard of Ksh. 44,000 and Ksh. 60,000 respectively 15. Despite the measures that businesses put up to prevent crimes, the banking industry recorded a loss of up to $ 100 Million within the first 7 months of the year 2004. These findings surpassed a five-year total loss of about Ksh. 288 Million indicating that the crimes had spiraled in a year. The costs of high recidivism rates weigh down efforts taken in reducing crime in Kenya. According to Okoth 18, the Kenya correctional system served as a breeding ground for criminal behaviors such as drug and substance abuse. Such behaviors, if sustained, increased the likelihood of an individual to reoffend instead of proper restoration. Such individuals who engage in drug abuse have a tendency to engage in criminal behaviors to sustain their proclivities towards drugs. This exposes the inadequate capacity of correctional institutions to help criminals recover from criminal behavior.

According to Oruta 19, the rates for recidivism among incarcerated individuals in Kenya was estimated at 75% and that there was a chance of 50% re-incarceration rates within two years after release. The high rates are attributed to inadequate prisoner reintegration infrastructure and lack of resources to help them achieve economic independence. Because of this, the cyclical crime routine haunts the judicial system because of its inability to instill effective corrective measures and failures on the community for failing to provide programs to accommodate and encourage positive behavior. To correct this, the need to re-evaluate the approaches used in rolling out VET needs reviewing and stringent drug abuse policies implemented in order to guard against recidivism. On a supplementary note, the findings by Mwangi 17, indicated that there is a need to boost the confidence that the society has on released individuals as this shapes the manner of reception they get once released. Also, he identified that the training programs did not instill competent skills in the prevailing job markets because of two major reasons. One is the issuance of irrelevant courses and the second is a lack of proper and appropriate instruction/learning techniques.

3. Learning Strategies

Individuals with low academic standings in society perpetrate a huge proportion of criminal incidences 9. The crime statistics in Kenya, the United States of America, and Australia indicated a large proportion of incarcerated individuals had low literacy and education levels. Because of this, considerations for implementing the training curriculum as a factor of reducing recidivism must center on this premise. According to Maina & Mugambi 12, prisoners’ literacy levels have a huge impact on the successful delivery of Vocational Education and Training programs in Kenya. The study proposed two types of learning strategies; the cognitive and behavioral learning strategies.

Available literature shows that there are different learning strategies used by learners, some are used consciously while others are used unconsciously in transferring of new knowledge and skills 1. However, there is no documented study on particular learning strategies employed by prisoners on vocational training in Kenya. Bouffard & Bergeron 3 state that learning strategies are broadly classified as cognitive and behavioral strategies. Several studies conducted on learning strategies are from teacher’s perspective without much emphasis on students’ perspectives. This study evaluated the learners’ perspective 4. Once instructors are aware of effective learning strategies, they will be able to employ the learning strategies appropriately and effectively in addition to recognizing learners’ strengths and weaknesses thus adjust instruction accordingly which ultimately leads to achievement of knowledge and skills 6.

3.1. The Cognitive and Behavioral Learning Strategies

The American Psychological Association in an effort to declassify different learning patterns delineated two forms of learning: Cognitive learning and behavioral learning. Cognitive learning is basically a learning strategy that targets at imparting skills to learners by enhancing their thinking and constructive skills 8. Behavioral learning on the other hand, is learning that is acquired by individuals by emulating the habits of others. The separation of cognitive learning strategies and behavioral learning is often hard because in behavioral learning, people acquire and emulate that which their brain is attracted to. The same is for cognitive learning; both are brain thought and cognitive processes.

The cognitive and behavioral learning strategies have been widely used in corrective systems in the world over. According to Grant 8, some of the cognitive-behavioral approaches used include the Reasoning and Rehabilitation, Moral Reconation Therapy, and Thinking For a Change therapy. These theories, where applied, yielded different results. However, Grant 8 concluded that the methods applied generally reduced the rate of recidivism among the youth populations they studied.

Cognitive learning is a procedural endeavor. While there is a need to understand that there are different methodologies to effect it, the learning process remains relatively the same. Since the learners take in information and then process them, the response or output may vary considerably from one person to another. The response or outcome is determined by how much attention the learner accords to the inputs, how much observations the learner makes, how the information is interpreted, organization of the information, storage, and ability to retrieve the acquired information.

The linkages between learning strategies and misconduct are explicated through institutional factors and individual factors. There is a strong correlation between misconduct in prison and the learning strategies used. The learning strategies and their efficiencies are determined by the institutional support provided by the prison 8. Prison education notably reduced the rate of prison misconduct where the institution supported prison education and training. Further reviews and researches also indicated that those who had undertaken prison education reduced the chances of prisoners to re-offend.

Implementing the cognitive and behavioral learning theory is depended on several factors. According to Yilmaz 21, identified these factors. One, the teaching approaches used must be related with authentic situations to enhance problem-solving. That is, the learning processes must be coupled with practical contexts to enable learners to accomplish different tasks and responsibilities in learning. Such approaches as building a house, molding sculpture, metal calving, among others. Secondly, the instructions used in teaching should match the learner’s level of development within the context presented to him or her. Third, the teachers or instructors must create social partnerships that can help the students to learn from one another. Finally, individual assessments should be encouraged as the learners can challenge themselves to consistently in the skills and knowledge acquired.

Scans 22 identified three foundational skills that people need to possess if they are to be successful in the world of work. First, basic skills such as reading, writing, speaking and listening. Second, thinking skills are needed in the continuously changing market and work environment. They include problem-solving, decision-making, reasoning, and creativity. Third, personal qualities reflect the importance of relationship and ethics such as self-management, integrity, and sociability. The second factor excellent vocational education curricula must contain is effective teaching methods 11. The classroom learning of the vocational education curriculum should reflect both school environment and the reality of the job site 23. In other words, planned instructional strategies in the curriculum need to be relevant to the real world of work. Also, teaching strategies should be trainee-oriented, so that trainers can pay attention to issues such as the reading comprehension level of their trainees. Finally, Keiser, Lawrenz, and Appleton 11 emphasize that vocational education should reflect the reality of the job site.

4. Materials and Methods

Study design, Scope and Sample Selection- This paper is an extension of Mbatha, Kerre, Ferej, & Katainges’s 13 study protocol titled “How Effective is Vocational Education and Training for Rehabilitation in Kenyan Prisons?”. In this paper, an evaluation is made on , the role of learning strategies used in VET and the direct impact that it influences prisoners’ integration back into society after serving their sentences. The study was done in two prisons in Kenya; Shimo La Tewa Medium Term Prison and Shimo La Tewa Main Prison. The sampling frame included prison trainees, VET trainers in prison, Ex-convicts, and prison administrators. The distribution of respondents according to these categories is as shown in Table 1. The study design chosen for the study was a descriptive research design. Babbie 2 posited that descriptive survey design is best applied where a researcher seeks to draw inference from a population subset in order to make inferences about the larger population. Given that the two prisons are subsets of the larger number of prison institutions in Kenya, the study design was adopted.

Research instruments- The questionnaire instrument was used as the primary data collection tool. The choice to use the questionnaire was informed by the flexibility associated with it. It facilitates the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data through the structuring of open-ended questions and closed questions respectively. However, different questionnaires were handed to different response sets because of the distinct nature of relationships. As such, there were questionnaires drafted specifically for trainers, trainees, office administrators, and the ex-convicts in the world of work.

Ethical Considerations- After developing the study protocol, the researcher sent a request for research authorization to the National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI). The body’s main mandate is to regulate scientific researches by setting up minimums standards of quality and relevance. Besides this, the body serves as an advocate for policy drafting to the government based on the study recommendations and findings deduced from various scientific studies. The researchers sought authorization to execute the study from the Kenya Prison Service Headquarters and the institutions targeted for the research. The two bodies endorsed and granted permission to undertake the research. A voluntary participation note was supplied to the study participants enclosed within the questionnaire. In the note, assurance of data confidentiality and anonymity was written and the participants entered the study with prior consent.

Data analysis and presentation of study findings- The collected information was coded using Predictive Analytical Software (PASW). This was followed by a rigorous data cleaning exercise before analysis. The analysis was done using the PASW. Quantitative data were analyzed using either or a combination of frequencies, absolute numbers, and percentages. The study utilized the regression model to draw statistical inference about the study hypothesis and to determine whether there was a significant relationship in VET learning strategies and its impact in the reintegration of prisoners into society. The qualitative data, on the other hand, was transcribed from the questionnaires and grouped into subthemes to provide context of the respondents’ positions on pertinent topics of the study.

5. Results

In terms of the learning strategies employed, two categories were examined. Cognitive strategies were pictorial presentations, use of sketches and diagrams, video tutorials and observations. The behavioral learning strategy was also examined based on four forms of learning. The four forms of learning included discussions, direct instructions, demonstration, and experimentation. The respondents were required to provide answers depending on which scale of agreement they thought the learning strategies could help them in the world of work. According to the findings of the study and references made to Table 2, more prisoner trainees were inclined toward behavioral learning compared to cognitive learning. Demonstration was favored by 135 (38.8%) respondents who strongly believed it was more effective in preparing them for the world of work. The second best-rated method amongst the behavioral learning was discussions with 100 (28.7%) respondents strongly believing that it did prepare them for the world of work. With regard to the use of sketches and diagrams, there was no significant variation as shown in Table 2.

The types of learning strategies used were classified into three major groups; cognitive learning strategies, behavioral learning strategies, and institutional supported learning strategies. The two major types of learning identified for the study are cognitive and behavioral. However, the institutional capacity to provide a good learning environment is modeled by the different strategies and approaches taken up by the institution. In measuring the effectiveness of each strategy, a five-point Likert scale measure of agreeability in the efficiency of the learning strategies and their impact on helping inmates in their preparation to integrate back into the society was used with strongly agree to be on a scale of 5 and strongly disagree on a scale of 1. In cognitive learning strategy, video tutorials were agreeable in terms of helping inmates to integrate into society (M=3.08, SD=1.395). The other strategies were less agreeable: pictorial presentations/representations (M=2.97, SD=1.438), sketches and diagrams (M=2.98, SD=1.46), and observational learning (M=2.95, SD=1.405). See Table 3. Behavioral learning played a significant role in helping prisoners to reintegrate into society. The mean agreeability scale results were as follows; Discussion (M=3.16, SD=1.419), demonstration (M=3.53, SD=1.264), direct instructions (M=3.69, SD=1.273), and experimentation (M=3.12, SD=1.412). The institution supported learning was also evaluated based on four variables that helped promote learning in the institution. The findings from Table 3 showed that only two variables were agreeable; support for curriculum updates (M=3.06, SD=1.38) and hiring of trainers (M=3.03, SD=1.379).

5.1. Regression Analysis

To determine the degree of linear relationship between learning strategies and the integration of prisoners back into the community, a linear regression model was used. The model summary in Table 4 indicated that the degree of variation that the regression models explains about the predictor variable and the dependent variable. The model accounts for 32.5% of the total variation based in the R square statistic. However, the level of linear relationship between the learning strategies and integration back into the society was estimated at 57% as indicated by the R statistic. R is the correlation coefficient and R square is the coefficient of determination that explains the proportion of variation of the dependent variable explained by the linear regression model.

Even though the degree of linear relationship is relatively low as per Table 4, a 2D graph was constructed to better explicate the findings. The degree of linearity as seen in Figure 2 is quite good. The distribution of residuals clustered most evenly around the regression line indicating a good model fit between the dependent and predictor variables.

Table 5 presents the Analysis of Variance Table on regressing the dependent and predictor variables. The results indicate that the model was a significant predictor of integration of prisoners into the society at F (1,346) = 166, p=0.000 at 95% level of significance.

5.2. Regression Coefficients

The linear regression model was built based on correlation coefficients and was as follows;

(1)

= Integration of prisoners back into society

is the linear regression coefficient

= Learning strategies used in VET.

The regression equation deduced from Table 6 indicated the coefficient of learning strategies concerning the integration of prisoners back into the society was 0.434. This means that for a unit increase in the score in the integration of prisoners back into the society, there is an increased contribution to it by learning strategies by a factor of 0.434.

6. Discussion

The leading learning strategies employed in rolling out of VET is majorly interactive. For purposes of proper guidance in the study, a listing of five main strategies was done for the respondents to pick on that which they believed suited the commonly used strategies. To avoid limitations in terms of choice, the study provided a leeway for the respondents to pick on multiple teaching approaches. The responses could be rated to be inclined towards concrete experience and practical application of the information acquired. With this regard, the responses given by the trainees identified the different strategies that should enable the trainers to gain maximally with the hope to aid in society integration once released to the society and also to the world of work.

The institutional set up to facilitate the delivery of VET is a key determinant and is pivotal in ensuring the structured administration of Vocational Education Training program in prisons. According to Kenya Prison Services 26, several policies have been set up to ensure that strategies for VET are well and running in Kenya especially in male prisons. To implement these policies successfully, as per the study findings, the National Industrial Training Authority (NITA) was found to be a key institution driving the VET agenda in Kenyan Prisons. As noted earlier, the key responsibility of the institution is to provide guidance and providing relevant curricula that help the inmates. Through their periodic evaluation and curriculum review, different elements of course work is updated based on relevance; this was as reported by several key informants. This means that the program requires changes depending on the prevailing market, labor conditions, and demand. This way, when the prisoners are released, they should have the necessary skills to help them gain meaningful employment. The implementation of the curricula is however indifferent. Most of the instructors and even the inmates did not have an idea of the existence of VET curricula and did not even know of the existence of the oversight authority. Much as literature by Mattucci 24 identified the training in female prisons to be biased in terms of curriculum execution, there is a general lack of implementation of the training curricula in male prisons as well. The barriers that 25 identified to affect women also do apply to male prisoners though to a lesser extent compared to their female counterparts.

Despite the little knowledge of the existence of NITA training curricula, most of the strategic courses run in the prisons are relevant to the strategic programs that are defined within its provisions 26. Among other vocational rehabilitation programs, including livestock production, which includes dairy production, rabbit rearing, beekeeping, fish farming, floriculture, sericulture, mushroom production, carpentry, garment making, upholstery, metalwork, soap making, saloon management, cosmetology, masonry, painting, knitting, pottery and brick making. The study strategies that were found to be prevalent in the prison of study were mat making, electrical installation, carpentry, tailoring dressing making, and upholstery. Earlier on, it was noted that the choices of programs taught are of a varied magnitude and the findings show some degree of bias in terms of choices made by prisoners and lack of clear roadmap towards the implementation of these strategies.

7. Conclusion

In evaluating the learning strategies used in VET, most of the prisoners were found to draw more preference to behavioral learning than on cognitive learning. However, variations across the different forms of behavioral learning were noted. Demonstration and discussions were widely considered to be influencing the preparation of trainers for world of work than other forms of behavioral learning. This dissertation earlier on noted that the respondents favored practical oriented learning. These practices of behavioral learning which were examined alongside experimentation and direct instructions are inclined toward practical learning and application of skills acquired. Theoretical understanding of the courses was found to be a major driver of the successful implementation of VET along with practical application and use of the acquired learning skills to aid the trainees in world of work and therefore aid in the society integration..

References

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Clement Muinde Mbatha, Bonaventure W. Kerre, Ahmed Ferej, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge and Koech Cheruiyot Fred

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Clement Muinde Mbatha, Bonaventure W. Kerre, Ahmed Ferej, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge, Koech Cheruiyot Fred. Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp 353-359. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/5/20
MLA Style
Mbatha, Clement Muinde, et al. "Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society." American Journal of Educational Research 8.5 (2020): 353-359.
APA Style
Mbatha, C. M. , Kerre, B. W. , Ferej, A. , Kitainge, K. M. , & Fred, K. C. (2020). Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 353-359.
Chicago Style
Mbatha, Clement Muinde, Bonaventure W. Kerre, Ahmed Ferej, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge, and Koech Cheruiyot Fred. "Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 5 (2020): 353-359.
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[1]  Anderson, K., & Overy, K. (2010). Engaging Scottish young offenders in education through music and art. International Journal of Community Music, 47-64.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. 11th Ed.Belmont CA: Wadsworth/Thomas. Benda, B.B. (2005). Gender Differences in Life-Course Theory of Recidivism: A Survival Analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49(3), 325-342.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Bouffard, J. A., & Bergeron, L. E. (2006). Reentry works: The implementation and effectiveness of a serious and violent offender reentry initiative. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 1-29.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Broucek, W. G. (2005). An examination of core self-evaluations (CSE) in an academic setting: Does CSE generalize to students? Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC).
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Chaflin, A. (2015). Economic Cost of Crime. The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Collins, M. (1988). Prison education: A substantial metaphor for adult education practice. Adult education quarterly, 101-110.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Giles, M., Le, A. T., Allan, M., Lees, C., Larsen, A.-C., & Bennett, L. (2001). To train or not to train:The role of education and training in prison to work transitions. NCVER.
In article      
 
[8]  Grant, D. (2017). The Use and Impact of Correctional Programming for Inmates on Pre- and Post-Release Outcomes . Minnesota: National Institute of Justice.
In article      
 
[9]  Hawley, J., Murphy, H., & Souto-Otero, M. (2013). Prison Education and Training in Europe. European Commission.
In article      
 
[10]  Hjalmarsson, R., & Lochner, L. (2013). Impact of Education on Crime: International Evidence. CESifor DICE Report.
In article      
 
[11]  Keiser, J., Lawrenz, F., & Appleton, J. (2004). Evaluation of materials produced by the ATE program. NSF.
In article      
 
[12]  Maina, P. W., & Mugambi, M. M. (2019). Factors influencing implementation of inmates’ vocational training projects in Kenya prisons service in eastern region: A survey of prisons in eastern region. International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management, 3(3), 210-234.
In article      
 
[13]  Mbatha, C. M., Kerre, B. W., Ferej, A., & Katainge, M. K. (2019). How Effective is Vocational Education and Training for Rehabilitation in Kenyan Prisons? A Study Protocol. American Journal of Educational Research, 7(10), 677-693.
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