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Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria

Apeh H.A. , Usman M.B., Idris M.A.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 347-352. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-19
Received April 19, 2020; Revised May 21, 2020; Accepted May 28, 2020

Abstract

The study investigated teacher's job stress as a psychological predictor of senior secondary school teachers' effectiveness in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey design. One hundred and sixty-eight participants (principals and teachers) were drawn from the sampled schools. Two self-designed instruments namely: Teachers' Job Stress Scale (TJSS) and Principals' Assessment of Teachers Instrument (PATEI) were duly validated and tested for reliability were used to obtain information from the participants. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Regression and t-test). The study revealed that teacher's effectiveness was poor and job stress low. There was negative and no significant relationship between teachers' job stress and effectiveness. Thus, increase in stress may not lead to increase in teaching effectiveness. There was also no gender difference in job effectiveness and stress among teachers. It is recommended that; stressing conditions be addressed and necessary palliatives be made available to relieve the teacher and thus improve overall teaching effectiveness.

1. Introduction

Effective teaching is a term synonymous with teaching (teacher) effectiveness and was defined by Afe 1 as the type of teaching characterized by exhibition of intellectual, social and emotional stability, love for children and positive disposition towards the teaching profession and ability to inspire good qualities in students. According to Vogt 2, teaching effectiveness is the ability of instruction to inspire students of different abilities while incorporating instructional objective and assessing the effective learning mode of the students. Evans 3 also opined that teaching effectiveness is a measure of the extent of realization of the instructional objectives; it is a net growth in intellectual aptitude and skills as measured by student achievement. Sanders’ 4 and Wenglinsky’s 5 work asserted that teacher effectiveness is the single biggest contributor to students’ success.

In assessing teacher effectiveness, Owoyemi and Adesoji 6 attended to three key characteristics of effective teachers; personal qualities, teaching skills and subject matter mastery. Owoyemi and Adesoji 6 stated that when personal qualities are emphasized, effective teachers/instructors are described as enthusiastic, energetic, approachable, open, imaginative and possessing a high sense of humor. When teaching skills and mastery of the subject matter are emphasized, effective instructors are described as being masters of the subject matter, organized and emphasizing important concepts, able to clarify ideas and point out relationships, able to motivate students, able to pose and elicit useful questions and examples, creative or imaginative, and reasonable and fair.

Lumpkin and Multon 7 described effective teachers as those who use variety of instructional approach; who engage in professional endeavours and developmental activities to enhance their teaching; who seek feedback from students and make changes in instruction in response to those feedback and who value interrelationship between teaching and research. The argued that knowledge itself does not make one a good teacher but rather combination of knowledge of subject matter with other variables such as preparation of teaching materials, setting of clear objectives, enthusiasm, and ability to present learning materials clearly, that make an effective teacher. This implies that effective teaching involves a multiplicity of variables, but all these variables rest, and are highly dependent on the depth of the teachers’ knowledge.

The review of related literature reveals that several factors are responsible for teacher effectiveness that could range from personal social, psychological, professional to institutional variables. Postlethwaite 8 posited that these factors include but not limited to teacher-variables environment/family-variables and school-variables. Of all these factors, the ones that are touted to exert most influence on the learning outcome are the teacher-variables as the teacher is the implementer of the curriculum 8. Adeyemo and Ogunyemi 9; Dorman 10 have identified teacher’s job stress as one of the cardinal factors militating against their effective performance in schools. Internally within the institution, the factors like fewer rewards, work over- load, existence of too many students, tight institutional policies, poor relationship with boss and colleagues and less carrier progression put pressure on teachers and ultimately cause stress 11, 12. On the other hand, the factors which are outside the institution include demanding parents, tight governmental rules regarding education sector, ever changing educational policies or reforms and downsizing. These factors, put pressure on the teachers by causing stress among them 13.

Teacher’s job stress is known as stress at work. It occurs when there is discrepancy between the demand of the work place and that of the individuals 14. Teacher stress is a serious work hazard which has the power to bring crisis on the teacher. In recent times, many studies have examined teachers stress in the teaching job, and have suggested that teacher experience disproportionately high level of stress 9, 15. Darling-Hammond 16 reported that 30% of novice teacher exit the profession prior to their 50 years. The major reason given for this exit was the level of occupational stress experience by the researchers. Increase in work load, a hostile environment, large classes, delay and non-payment of salary, poor condition of service, poor working environment, parents’ insults and assaults and time pressure have been identified as source of teachers’ job stress 17.

Studies like Akbar & Akter 18 and Ofoegbu & Nwadiani 19 observed that that variance in academic staff job performance was as a result of gender and stress. This implied that, stress could explain the variability in the academic staff job performance. On gender variations, it could be deciphered that the ability of an individual to cope effectively with stress depends on his or her gender. Male lecturers are easily adjustable to stress than their female counterpart 20. Many commitments by the female lecturers in terms of home and office work, stress serves as hindrance to accomplishments of certain goals and objectives. Therefore, Wood and Eagly 21, believed that management of stress can be traced to the sex of the party involved.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

The alarming rate of high academic job stress and its eventual lack of effectiveness among teachers in Nigerian secondary schools constitute a great concern to parents, teachers, examination bodies and educational psychologists. The stress that is associated with the teaching profession has been acknowledged by researchers. Teaching is a stressful occupation 13, 22, 23. Furthermore, in the past decades, researchers have shown that all over the world, teaching profession is a stressful occupation 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, at all levels from the elementary to university level 29. A report by McIntyre 30 indicates that the level of teachers‘ stress has increased both nationally and internationally. Teachers’ stress results in such consequences as early retirement, long and excessive absence, different physical and psychiatric ailments, disinterest, negligence, bitterness and absenteeism among teachers, and can result in increase in teachers leaving the profession within their first five years. In recent years, professional satisfaction has been decreasing while job pressure has been on a steady rise for teachers. These issues have raised many questions about this growing problem of teachers’ stress.

Studies have shown that teachers’ stress affects learning environment and ultimately prevents achievements of the teachers’ educational goals. For example, teacher job performance which implies the extent to which an individual teacher executes a particular role or function within the framework of specified guideline changes differently within the surrounding environment in which the teacher successfully carries out any assigned role or responsibility 31. Bakker, Demerouti and Verbeke 32, and Tahir 33 also noted, when a teacher is under stress, there will be poor teaching quality, low students’ satisfaction and turnover on the overall performance of the teacher.

Nigerian teachers are often exposed to high level of stress due to poor working conditions, overcrowding in class, poor remuneration and lack of incentives. It is against this backdrop that the researchers investigated teachers' job stress as a psychological predictor of senior secondary schools’ teachers’ effectiveness in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja.

The following research questions and hypotheses are formulated to guide the study.

i. How effective are teachers in FCT secondary schools, Abuja?

ii. How stressed are teachers in FCT secondary schools, Abuja?

The study hypothesized that there is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and teacher effectiveness in the FCT secondary schools Abuja. It was also hypothesized that there is no significant difference between male and female teachers in their job-stress and effectiveness in FCT in Secondary Schools.

2. Methodology

The methodology employed in this study is descriptive survey design. The population of the study consist of all the 3,498 senior secondary school teachers and 56 principals in the FCT out of which 144 senior secondary school teachers and 24 principals were sampled to participate in the study. Two self-designed instruments titled: Teacher's Job Stress Scale (TJSS) and Principal's Assessment of Teachers Effectiveness Instrument (PATEI) were used to elicit response from the participants. The instruments contain 48 items and were vetted through the use of test-retest reliability and face and content validity techniques. Reliability index of 0.71 and 0.84 for the TJSS and PATEI respectively were adjudged as appropriate for the study. Data collected was analyzed using frequency counts, tables, mean scores and standard deviation and inferential statistical techniques such as correlation and t-test.

3. Results

Research Question One: How effective are teachers in FCT secondary schools, Abuja?

Mean and Standard deviation were sued to answer the research question.

Table 1 shows the effectiveness of teachers in FCT secondary schools, Abuja as rated by their principals. The item means shows that the teachers were rated poorly in their job effectiveness. The overall mean of 1.88 puts the researcher in a position where it can be said that teachers are not effective on the job. Teachers’ effectiveness therefore is poor among secondary school teachers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.

Research Question Two: How stressed are teachers in FCT secondary schools, Abuja?

Mean and Standard deviation were sued to answer the research question.

Table 2 shows the teachers’ experience with job stress in FCT secondary schools, Abuja. The item means shows that teachers rarely have these feelings of job stress. The overall mean of 2.00 puts the researcher in a position where it can be said that stress is rarely a concern for secondary school teachers’ in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Stress level among secondary school teachers is therefore low.

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and effectiveness in the FCT secondary schools, Abuja.

Table 3 indicates that R = 0.094, R2 = 0.009, adjusted R2 = 0.002, standard error = .562 while the unstandardized B value= 2.142. From the R2 value, there is an indication that job stress explains about 0.9% of teacher effectiveness among secondary school teachers in FCT. The unstandardized B also reveals that as job stress increases or decreases in scale, there is a corresponding 2.142 increase or decrease in teaching effectiveness among secondary school teachers. The associated ANOVA also reveals that calculated F= 1.268, while the Sig value = 0.262. Therefore, since sig (p=0.262>0.05) is greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis is accepted indicating that there is no significant relationship between job stress and teaching effectiveness among secondary school teachers in FCT, Abuja.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between male and female teachers in their job stress and teaching effectiveness in FCT in Secondary Schools.

The analysis on Table 4 was carried out to determine whether male and female teachers differed significantly in their job stress and effectiveness in FCT secondary schools. A significant value of .535 and .289 (more than the 0.05 level of significance) for job stress and effectiveness respectively, shows that there is no significant difference. The hypothesis is therefore accepted. This implies that there is no significant difference in job stress and effectiveness of teachers in FCT secondary schools irrespective of their gender.

4. Discussion of Findings

The first major finding in this study indicated that teacher's effectiveness is poor among secondary school teachers in FCT. Meanwhile, the findings by Riti 34 show that the location of schools had definite impact on the teacher effectiveness; he therefore indicated that, significant difference was found in the teacher effectiveness of teachers teaching in urban and rural schools. Teachers teaching in urban schools were more effective than their counterparts teaching in rural schools. Low effectiveness in teaching is not good for students' academic progress. This is in consonance with the findings of Gupta in Pramod, Naik & Mani 35 who posited that low effective teachers are less intelligent and are having lower job-concept and competence. This corroborates the findings of Horton 36 who identified four characteristics that make a teacher ineffective which are as follows: yelling at students, giving empty threats, failing to give prompt feedback and giving too much work to students. This finding can also be supported with the finding of Walls, Nardi, Von Minden and Hoffman 37 who generated five characteristics of low effective teachers to include; partial in treating students, disorganized, less resourceful, discourage students from asking questions and authoritarian in class.

Finding of this study indicated that stress level among secondary school teachers in the FCT is low, meaning that stress is not an issue among teachers in the FCT Abuja. This is probably because of the reasonably low work pressure, healthy competition, good relationship with colleagues, prompt payment of salaries and other entitlements, students per class/teachers or class size, and most importantly, Abuja being the seat of power where rules are complied with much more quickly compare to states. However, this finding is in contrast with the finding of Reddy and Anuradha 38, who found that around 88 percent of higher secondary school teachers are experiencing moderate and high level of occupational stress.

The result in this study also indicated that there is no significant relationship between teachers' job stress and effectiveness in FCT secondary schools. This means that improved teacher effectiveness does not depend on job stress. The negative value of correlation indicates inverse relationship between the two variables pointing to the fact high job stress levels corresponds to ineffectiveness of teachers. This finding conflicted with the finding of Bada 39, who found that there is a significant relationship between teacher job stress and teacher effectiveness in the south western Nigeria. The difference in the findings could be as a result of different working conditions, remuneration, incentives, class size per teacher among others. The finding of this study is in consonance with the finding of Ghani, Ahmad and Ibrahim 40, who found no significant correlation between teachers' stress and demographic factors such as age, length of teaching experience and the respondents' monthly salary. The finding of this study is also in tandem with the finding of Indira 41, who found that there is no significant correlation between experienced stress of teachers and teaching effectiveness as perceived by students.

On gender differences in job stress and teaching ineffectiveness among secondary school teachers in FCT, no significant difference was found on the basis of teacher’s gender. This implies that both male and female teachers were similar in job stress levels as well as in their effectiveness as teachers. This finding is not in consonance with the finding of Sofoluwe, Akinsiola and Ogbudinkpa 42, who reported that the variance in an academic staff performance was as a result of gender and stress. Finding of the study also indicates that the variance in academic staff job performance was as a result of gender and stress. This implies that gender and stress could explain the variability in academic staff job performance in tertiary institutions. Ability of an individual to cope effectively with stress depends on his/her gender which can be felt through accomplishment of a given task. Male lecturers are easily adjustable to stress than their female counter parts 20. This study differs in this regard and all teachers were equally confronted with stress and also manifested ineffectiveness in their job performance.

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

The purpose of the study was to investigate job stress as a psychological predictor of senior secondary school teachers' effectiveness in the FCT Abuja, Nigeria. The concludes that senior secondary School teachers' effectiveness and teachers' job stress are poor and there is no significant relationship between teachers' job stress and effectiveness in FCT secondary schools.

It is recommended based on the findings of this study that the FCTA should initiate educational policies that can relieve teachers of their occupational stress. School administrators should ensure teachers are given tasks that commiserate with their ability to avoid the experience of work-overload, burnout and stress. Schools should be provided with more and better administrative services, such as efficient officials who can respond professionally and supply the required information and pedagogical support. This support services may help relieve teachers of stress.

References

[1]  Afe, J.O (2003). Reflection on becoming a teacher and the challenges of teacher education. Inaugural Lecture Series 64. Benin City, University of Benin, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[2]  Vogt, W. (1984). Developing a teacher evaluation system. Spectrum, 2(1), 41-46.
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[3]  Evans, E. D. (2006). Transition to teaching. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
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[10]  Dorman, J.P. (2003). Relationship between school and classroom environment and teacher burnout: A LISREL analysis. Social Psychol. Educ., 6: 107-127.
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[12]  Forlin, G. (2001). Inclusion: identifying potential stressors for regular class teachers, Educational Research, 43(3) 235-245.
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[13]  Kyriacon, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53 (1), 27-35.
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[14]  Tsutsumi, A., Kayaba, K.., Kario, K. & Ishikawa, S. (2009). Prospective study on occupational stress and risk of stroke. Arch. Internal Med., 169:56-61.
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[15]  Borg, M. D. (1990). Hypertension, peptic ulcer, and diabetes in teachers: Journal of Australian Medical Association, 224, 489-492.
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[16]  Darling - Hammond, L. (2001). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (1).
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[17]  Jack, Y.L. & Punch, K.F. (2001). External environment and school organizational learning: Conceptualizing the empirically neglected. Int. Stud. Educ. Admin., 29: 28-39.
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[18]  Akbar, A., & Akhter, W. (2011). Faculty stress at higher education: A study on the business schools of Pakistan. World Academy of Science, 73, 1089-1093.
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[19]  Ofoegbu F., & Nwadiani, M. (2006). Level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(1), 66-75.
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[20]  Taylor, H. (2004). Sex differences in social behaviour: A social role interpretation. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Association Inc.
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[21]  Wood, W. and Eagly, A.H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.
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[22]  Anthoniou, A. S., Polychroni, F. & Vlachakis, A. N. (2006). Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high-school teachers in Greece. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 682-690.
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[23]  Guthrie, R. (2006). Teachers and stress. Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Law and Education, 11(1), 5-18.
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[24]  Manabete, S. S., John, C. A., Makinde, A. A., & Duwa, S. T. (2016). Job stress among school administrators‘ and teachers in Nigerian Secondary Schools and Technical Colleges. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 4(2), 1-9.
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[25]  Precey, M. (2015). Teachers stress in England Soaring High. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/education-31921457.
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[26]  Dlamini, C. S., Okeke, C. I., & Mammen, K. J. (2014). An investigation of work-related stress among high school teachers in the Hhohho Region of Swaziland, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(15), 575-586.
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[27]  Nwosu, J. C., & Ayodele, K. O. (2011). Predictors of job stress among secondary school teachers in Ogun State, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 32(1), 123-127.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Apeh H.A., Usman M.B. and Idris M.A.

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Apeh H.A., Usman M.B., Idris M.A.. Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp 347-352. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/5/19
MLA Style
H.A., Apeh, Usman M.B., and Idris M.A.. "Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 8.5 (2020): 347-352.
APA Style
H.A., A. , M.B., U. , & M.A., I. (2020). Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 347-352.
Chicago Style
H.A., Apeh, Usman M.B., and Idris M.A.. "Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 5 (2020): 347-352.
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  • Table 3. Simple Linear Regression of Relationship Between Teachers’ Job Stress and Effectiveness in FCT Secondary Schools
[1]  Afe, J.O (2003). Reflection on becoming a teacher and the challenges of teacher education. Inaugural Lecture Series 64. Benin City, University of Benin, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[2]  Vogt, W. (1984). Developing a teacher evaluation system. Spectrum, 2(1), 41-46.
In article      
 
[3]  Evans, E. D. (2006). Transition to teaching. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
In article      
 
[4]  Sanders, W. (1999). Teachers! Teachers! Teachers! Blueprint Magazine, Online edition.
In article      
 
[5]  Wenglinsky, H. (2000). Teachers’ classroom practices and student’s performance: How school makes a difference. Retrieved June 25th, 2019 from http://www.ets.org/research/dload/RIBRR-01-19.pdf
In article      
 
[6]  Owoyemi, T. E., & Adesoji, F. A. (2012). Isolation of teaching effectiveness factors from Nigerian senior secondary schools: Chemistry students’ point of view. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 9(2), 168-182.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Lumpkin, A. & Multon, K. A. (2013). Perceptions of teaching effectiveness. The Educational Forum, 77(3), 288-299.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Postlethwaite, T. N. (2007). Evaluating teacher competence through the use of performance assessment task: An overview. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 5(1), 121-132.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Adeyemo, D.A., & Ogunyemi, B. (2005). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as predicators of occupational stress among academic staff in a Nigeria University. http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinglearning/da05.htm
In article      
 
[10]  Dorman, J.P. (2003). Relationship between school and classroom environment and teacher burnout: A LISREL analysis. Social Psychol. Educ., 6: 107-127.
In article      
 
[11]  Boyd, N.G, Lewin, J.E. & Sager, A. (2009) A model of stress and coping and their influence on individual and organizational outcomes, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 75(2) 197-211.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Forlin, G. (2001). Inclusion: identifying potential stressors for regular class teachers, Educational Research, 43(3) 235-245.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Kyriacon, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53 (1), 27-35.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Tsutsumi, A., Kayaba, K.., Kario, K. & Ishikawa, S. (2009). Prospective study on occupational stress and risk of stroke. Arch. Internal Med., 169:56-61.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Borg, M. D. (1990). Hypertension, peptic ulcer, and diabetes in teachers: Journal of Australian Medical Association, 224, 489-492.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Darling - Hammond, L. (2001). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (1).
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Jack, Y.L. & Punch, K.F. (2001). External environment and school organizational learning: Conceptualizing the empirically neglected. Int. Stud. Educ. Admin., 29: 28-39.
In article      
 
[18]  Akbar, A., & Akhter, W. (2011). Faculty stress at higher education: A study on the business schools of Pakistan. World Academy of Science, 73, 1089-1093.
In article      
 
[19]  Ofoegbu F., & Nwadiani, M. (2006). Level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(1), 66-75.
In article      
 
[20]  Taylor, H. (2004). Sex differences in social behaviour: A social role interpretation. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Association Inc.
In article      
 
[21]  Wood, W. and Eagly, A.H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Anthoniou, A. S., Polychroni, F. & Vlachakis, A. N. (2006). Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high-school teachers in Greece. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 682-690.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Guthrie, R. (2006). Teachers and stress. Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Law and Education, 11(1), 5-18.
In article      
 
[24]  Manabete, S. S., John, C. A., Makinde, A. A., & Duwa, S. T. (2016). Job stress among school administrators‘ and teachers in Nigerian Secondary Schools and Technical Colleges. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 4(2), 1-9.
In article      
 
[25]  Precey, M. (2015). Teachers stress in England Soaring High. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/education-31921457.
In article      
 
[26]  Dlamini, C. S., Okeke, C. I., & Mammen, K. J. (2014). An investigation of work-related stress among high school teachers in the Hhohho Region of Swaziland, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(15), 575-586.
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