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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Assessing Level Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge in Palestine with Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices - A Survey Study

Fadwa Racem Salman
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(12), 906-913. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-12-4
Received November 06, 2020; Revised December 07, 2020; Accepted December 14, 2020

Abstract

One of the emerging philosophies of management is that of TQM. It has received wide acclaim enhancement in industry as well as school nowadays. This means ensuring that all students are able to develop their cognitive, social, emotional, cultural, and physical skills to the best of their abilities and preparing them for their further school career. For that reasons, this research is conducted to evaluate the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge of TQM practices. Descriptive and analytical approach was used. The sample consisted of (33) male and female teachers. Data were collected using a questionnaire as a study tool. The study found that the level of physical education teachers ’knowledge of TQM practices was average on for all TQM practices, and there were no differences in the knowledge of physical education teachers of TQM practices attributed to educational level and experience, while there exist a differences in the knowledge of physical education teachers of the TQM practices according to gender and in favor of females. The research recommended to conduct similar study includes a larger sample, and addresses other TQM practices that are not covered in the current research.

1. Introduction

Organizations as a social structures have been established to fulfill a definite objectives, to attain these objectives, it need to interact with several environmental factors. The enormous technological evolutions, globalization and successive environmental changes have led to the removal of barriers around the world, 1 and it has become necessary for organizations including educational institutions to improve performance and competitiveness.

To improve education quality, an essential element of economic and social development in the 21st century, it is crucial to decrease the enormous amount of students’ knowledge are supposed to master, concentrating their attention to a system of basic knowledge, on creativity, problem-solving and lifelong learning 2. Educational institutions play a vital role in national economy development of the society as a whole and of its individual members through high quality educational services 3, thus, TQM in education is for the development of "total quality mind", and provides an important opportunity to look at the quality in a holistic method and also provides tools for managing quality.

Quality of education means providing teaching and challenging educational situations for students’ needs, interests and expectations, working for continuous improvement in all processes to make students satisfied, 4 and working to maintain and/or add value to life. Quality in educational systems is based on "Deming’s, Juran’s, and Ishikawa’s” conception of quality as being determined by the customer 5.

The concepts formulated by TQM founder, W. Edwards Deming, have been proposed as a foundation for fulfilling excellence in schools 6, it is an opportunity to conceptualize a systematic change for schools. TQM principles in industry and business have been translated to schools, therefore in this research we consider the superintendents and managers can be considered as management, teachers are employers or students' managers, students are employees, and the knowledge they obtain is the product, and parents and society are the customers.

Since schools are responsible for constructing generations and preparing them future, it is imperative to shift the current educational systems on the basis that the human capital is the best investment through education, and pay more attention to the heart of teaching and learning process (namely, the teacher and student). To achieve this, TQM practices such as leadership, strategic planning, teachers’ training and development, continuous improvement, and student's focus, are capable to enhance the teaching and learning processes, thus, activate of such practices and developing it continuously may achieve a highest levels in the outcomes of educational institutions that is fit local, regional and global requirements.

On the other hand, physical education represents a vital aspect of the educational and psychological that are effective in preparing the young people psychologically, cognitive, emotional, emotional and social aspects, which ultimately lead to create effective citizen in the society. Sports activities not only kinetic performance, but also has a direct effect on the development of individual's general fitness which includes health, social, psychological and mental fitness that aims to prepare individual's physically to encounter the accelerating environmental changes.

The aim of the current research is to assess the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge in Salfeet Governorate / Palestine with TQM practices (e.g. Leadership & Management, training & development, student focus, and empowerment). This research is organized as follows, section 2, describes theoretical framework, section 3, introduces the literature review,section 4, presents the research method, section 5, presents results and discussion, finally, section 6, ends with conclusions and recommendations.

1.1. Problem Statement

Schools may continue to improve their facilities but if they are not preparing their students for the next century, these piecemeal improvements become meaningless. So, it is important to start new management system to meet the new challenges of education. As the TQM approach represents a new way of thinking, it represents a willingness to rethink fundamental ways of performing the task.

The lack of implementation of TQM practices in education generally, and at school level particularly is one of the biggest challenges facing the entire educational system development process in Palestine state, this is due to many reasons that it is not possible to mentioned it in this research, however, one of them may be the lack of awareness of teachers and managements of TQM importance as a modern administrative entryway.

Besides, through the researcher's experience as a physical education teacher, she noticed that physical education teachers have the ability and willingness to possess modern management skills and the ability to link administrative concepts and implement the effective sports programs, but the enormity of their responsibilities inside and outside school formed a barrier to achieving this. In addition, most of them do not really know the perceived usefulness that the implementation of TQM practices will bring and their positive implications at an individual level, for the school as well as society as a whole. The major problems associated with education system were noted, the major problems were, leadership & management, training and development, empowerment, and student focus.

1.2. Research Significance

The research suggested to add to the body of knowledge, specifically in regard to TQM practices in light of the rapid local and global changes witnessed by the education sector, and hopefully that this study will open broad prospects for further research in the future.

The research also complements the extant literature, and is a priceless tool for students, academicians, institutions, researchers, educational leaders and individuals who want to know more about the TQM practices nexus.Thus, this research is expected to increase body of knowledge to the scholars on the benefits of TQM practices adoption and implementation in the educational institutions and especially make them in touch with the internal and external factors influencing on learning and teaching process and modern management practices.

In essence, the current research will help future scholars, researchers and practitioners in the area of Pedagogical and administrative literature for best practices and TQM adoption as they will be able to find materials besides areas where they can advance their research on the related subjects. Educational policy makers may benefit from the results and recommendations of research and to undertaking initiatives that will enhance TQM practices in educational institutions.

Moreover, this study will benefit the government of Palestine, and ministry of education especially for making policy choices whose comprehensive objectives are to develop the learning and teaching process in the country through effective implementation of TQM practices. This study contributes to increasing the understanding of TQM concepts in the education sector, and raises useful points for education stakeholders (including policymakers) aiming to improve education quality.

1.3. Research Objectives

1. Evaluating the level of physical education teachers ’knowledge with the TQM practices.

2. Revelation of the significance of differences between the averages of the research sample's estimates of the level of physical education teachers ’knowledge of TQM practices according to the variables (gender, academic qualification, and experience).

1.4. Research Questions

Q1: What is the level of knowledge of physical education teachers in Salfeet governorate / Palestine of TQM practices from their point of view?

Q2: What is the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge the TQM practices from their point of view according to the variables: (gender, academic qualification, and experience)?

2. Theoretical Background

2.1. TQM

Over the years, TQM has developed and becoming a valuable management entry due to perfect and effective results and application that achieved in several sectors including education. Many researchers have discussed the potential of TQM applying in education 7, however scholarly literature has focused mainly on the application of TQM in Higher education institutions (HEIs), and even in that case from a rather theoretical perspective without considerable empirical evidence, while to some extent little empirical evidence in school education 4. School leaders are finding that TQM principles can provide the mechanisms for improving education in schools, TQM is a systematic approach to education reform based on the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming (2000), Deming's work is not merely about productivity and quality control; it is a broad vision on the nature of institutions, and how it should be changed 8.

The adoption of TQM initiatives at a school level remains largely unexplored with a limited number of studies, the teacher still not engaged in quality process, and may not know more about its importance and practices, however, school education gains further interest over the years and its importance in terms of social and economic terms has been revisited (Eurostat, 2018). Implementation of TQM in the school context has positive impact and enables school management and teachers to promote quality in schools and increase students’ knowledge and skills 9.

A number of schools have applied TQM practices, although in several cases it was confined to the adoption of specific practices 10, this may be a starting point, a learning process, on the way to fully realizing the TQM power of the institution as a whole, as well as for all stakeholders. Indeed, 11 application of a complete set of TQM principles needs time, commitment and resources which are not always available at many school , however, what is encouraging is that even in the cases with limited application, results revealed improved school performance overall. More specifically, TQM to schools provides affirmation of educational quality, improvement in test results and augmented learning results, also, schools that implemented TQM acknowledged that students were the most important customers and treated them accordingly 1.

In spite of that, there are obstacles in TQM application, the main are related with the lack of awareness and knowledge of TQM, and the resistance to change mentality and culture by school management or staff 12. In this regard, it should be noted here that human dimension system in school that ensures quality, effective management and quality control in all areas 13.

When their needs are met and empower them, teachers can focus on satisfying the demands of their students 5. Teacher training and development may help lead to the implementation of successful teaching and a good knowledge of the principles of TQM and its implementation 14. Therefore, teachers have to be given opportunities to participate in decision making, the autonomy, and training and development, skill-enrichment programs, empowered teachers are able to participate in decision-making and are capable of increasing the quality of learning.

For schools, to gain benefits from TQM implementation, a number of actions/improvements need to be undertaken such as: development of effective leadership and establishment of clear vision and objectives that meets the needs of all stakeholders and cultivates a culture of continuous improvement and excellence 15 commitment and support of leaders; commitment from all members of staff towards TQM; identification of all stakeholders and recognition of their importance; student focus - awareness of students’ expectations and meeting their needs; staff training and development; improvement of processes; evaluation and reflection; overall quality culture 16.

According to the practical evidences, the TQM principles help the schools in following clauses: redefine the role, purpose and responsibilities of schools; Improve schools as a “way of life’; Plan comprehensive leadership training for educators at all levels; create staff development that addresses the attitudes and beliefs of school staff; use research and practice-based information to guide both policy and practice; design comprehensive child-development initiatives that cut across a variety of agencies and institutions 17.

In order to achieve the above as opportunities to the academic scenario, in addition to patience, participatory management among well-trained and educated partners is crucial to the success of TQM in education; everyone involved must understand and believe in principles. Some personnel who are committed to the principles can facilitate success with TQM. Their vision and skills in leadership 6, management, interpersonal communication, problem solving and creative cooperation are important qualities for successful implementation of TQM.

In spite of that, there are obstacles in TQM application, the main are related with the lack of awareness and knowledge of TQM, and the resistance to change mentality and culture by school management or staff 12. In this regard, it should be noted here that human dimension system in school that ensures quality, effective management and quality control in all areas 13. When their needs are met and empower them, teachers can focus on satisfying the demands of their students 5. Teacher training and development may help lead to the implementation of successful teaching and a good knowledge of the principles of TQM and its implementation 14. Therefore, teachers have to be given opportunities to participate in decision making, the autonomy, and training and development, skill-enrichment programs, empowered teachers are able to participate in decision-making and are capable of increasing the quality of learning.

2.2. TQM Practices
2.2.1. Leadership & Management

Many studies support that leadership is one of the most important factors that impact an institution’s performance 18. Leadership and top management support is expected to have an integral role in encouraging the practices and behaviors that lead to quality goals establishment, resources allocation, quality performance evaluation and quality improvement 13. Furthermore, the leader of educational institution is responsible for creating the appropriate environment/culture for creativity besides cultivating the creative process, quality, staff management and aligning the current strategy with the future strategy in order to achieve school excellence and performance 19.

Leadership based on TQM positions students, teachers, and society in the front, it’s a prerequisite to practicing TQM is that the leader should firmly believe that TQM is the only approach to manage school, and that the higher level management should resolutely trust, and commitment that the TQM is the only method to manage and run a school. Thus, Leadership is required to emphasize education quality and teachers and students creativity to describe each team’s role and responsibilities to make ultimate choices concerning school environment. Schools that lack effective leadership face many administrative problems between functional parts, which hinders the education quality.


2.2.2. Employee Empowerment

In the current research, the employee denotes to the teacher (male and female). Accordingly, empowerment of a teacher indicates the extent to which he / she enjoys a certain level in his/ her work performance, also means giving him/ her the authority to make their own decision on any related to school and the learning and teaching process. 20 indicates that empowerment is the process of enabling employees in several methods including delegating, autonomy, development and training, and fair promotion opportunities. 21 defined it as that employee inputs are heard and acted upon, i.e. giving them ownership of their work.

In sum, empowerment as one of important TQM practices, is the process of authorizing and giving teachers the authority, freedom, autonomy, in doing their works, and participating in decisions' making.

In summary, empowerment is the process of authorizing and giving employees the authority and power in doing their works and in making decisions.


2.2.3. Training & Development

Teachers training and development a wide term including multiple types of teachers learning. To achieve education quality, training and development should include all teachers’ levels, the purpose is acquire or update skills and professional development. Training & development in a TQM in education includes technical skills, supervision skills, communication, new work procedures, use of technology in education, adoption of novel methods in education, scientific research, and relations with the surrounding environment, also includes problem solving, and team skills.

According to 22 employee training and development means that all employees should be trained and developed in the use of quality mechanisms and tools. 23 mentioned that employees training and development should include job related skills, and behavioral skills to enhance their ability to work better.

According to 24, in TQM everyone expects to learn and apply the principle (s), that learning is a process that has no end. By education and training educational institutions can enhance their employee's technical skills and professional expertise. 21 stated, "training and development is an organized series of activities designed to enhance an individual's needed knowledge, skills, understanding, and motivation". In sum, training &development is a series of activities aimed at improving the competencies related to teacher's work and tasks (namely , skills, attitudes and knowledge ) which should include all teachers at all levels.


2.2.4. Customer Focus

In this research, customer is a "student”. Many studies 1 consider that focusing on a student as one of a significant TQM practices in education that is fundamentally for their satisfaction, teach them well and nurture, it encourages educational institutions to consistently search for their requirements, needs andtheir expectations, which leads them to be creative and highly qualified scientifically and professionally to meet the future challenges.

Student - focus means how to meet his psychological, scientific, physical, and social needs. Aksu 14 stated that focusing on the student emphasizes the mechanisms for communication with him, also to know the needs of his parents and society and the degree of their satisfaction. According to Reddy & Kalyan 10 focusing on the student, means that the methods, tools through which the student is well - prepared, and armed with the twenty first century competencies.In short, focusing on the student is one of the most important TQM practices in education which ultimately lead to improve the learning and education process and outcomes and raising the ceiling of expectations for current and future generations.

3. Literature Review

Despite of the fact that, TQM applied typically by industrial and manufacturing firms, has also garnered interest in education field 8. The quality of education has been and still a concern of many governments, states and societies. There are different sources that create quality pressures in education institutions, these include the changing global environment, limited resources, demand for a more qualified workforce, and the need to apply global quality education standards 25. In this context, a review of extant scholarly literature is presented with an aim to demonstrate good practice, obstacles, issues and difficulties associated with TQM.

Sfakianaki 7 in a recent study on TQM and primary and secondary education developed a seven-dimensioned and a 66-itemed tool which was administered to 351 education professionals at Greek primary and secondary institutions to measure TQM implementation at present and its potential for the future. The factors of TQM identified were leadership, student focus, continuous improvement, process control and involvement, education and training, measurement and evaluation, and change management. The overall findings conclude that the education professionals expressed concern at present for TQM application, whereas they demonstrated strong agreement and willingness to adopt TQM principles in the future.

A study of Al-Fahdawi 26 aimed to find out the extent to which physical education teachers adhere to the total quality standards in Anbar provincial education directorate in Iraq, and to know the differences in the responses of the study sample individuals due to the variables (academic qualification, experience), results indicated that the level of physical education teachers ’commitment to total quality standards was average, and the three exist a statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) level of significance according to the variables of academic qualification and experience.

A study of Taahyadin & Daud 12 aimed to identify the level of quality of schools in Kedah, Malaysia by asking (375) teachers of secondary education to respond to a TQM questionnaire which included several quality indicators as empowering employees and meeting student’sneeds. The results indicated that there is a good correlation between all quality indicators, the quality level of the schools participated in the survey is deemed as moderate accordance with local quality assurance standards.

The study of Al-Amsi 27 aimed at evaluating the performance of physical education teachers in light of the quality standards ,findings shows that the degree of physical education teachers commitment to total quality was somewhat high from the managers’ point of view, and averagefrom supervisors ’point of view, and the overall score of supervisors and managers as a whole was average, also, results revealed that there is a statistically significant differences between the average scores of the sample individuals in favor of managers.

Maharma 28 conducted a study aimed at identifying the extent to which physical education teachers participating in the King Abdullah II Award for physical fitness were aware of the total quality standards (i.e. leadership, strategic planning, continuous training and development, information technology, and student focus) from their managers point view. The study concluded that participants’ knowledge of total quality standards came atan average level, with the exception of leadership, which was somewhat high.

Also, Al-Budoor 29 conducted a study aimed at building indicators to measure the performance of physical education teachers in light of the total quality standards (i.e. planning, efficient management, ability in scientific material, teaching and learning, learners' support, community participation, regulation and professional ethics) from the point view of managers and supervisors in Amman city. The results showed that the performance level of physical education teachers was average , and there are no statistically significant differences in evaluating teachers’ performance due to gender , while there exist a statistically significant differences attributed to the experience variable.

Jaradat 30 examined public schools in the Governorate of Jarash, Jordan, seeking to determine the degree of impact of total quality criteria on the schools’ effectiveness, as viewed by educational supervisors. A questionnaire was developed that addressed school administration, teaching and learning, links with the community and school activities. The sample consisted of all 35 of the educational supervisors in the Directorate of Education of the Governorate of Jarash-Jordan. Findings show that the effect of the implementation of TQM on school effectiveness was high, the effect was the strongest on the school administration despite they detected potential in teaching and learning concluding that the application total quality standards have a great effect on school effectiveness.

Finally, Tasar & Celik 31 examined the level of implementation of TQM practices by school principals and teachers in public elementary schools in the province of Dairyman Turkey. Six TQM principles were examined, including leadership of the top management, participation in decisions, and customer orientation, and continuous development, level of communication and motivation principles. The interrelationships between the application of TQM and the age, sex, marital status, education status and seniority of school managers and teachers were also tested. The results revealed that teachers and principals implement TQM principles with teachers showing a greater extent of TQM application. Also, no significant differences were observed between TQM implementation and age, sex and marital status for both school principals and teachers, however, there were differences in terms of the education status variable in favor of the teachers with post graduate qualifications, on the contrary seniority did not produce any significant difference.

4. Research Method

This study uses a quantitative approach, it is an approach that emphasizes examining theories or concepts through the variable metric measurements and performing data analysis procedure with statistical tools and aims to the hypothesis testing. According to the research objectives, the data analysis uses both descriptive statistical analysis and inference statistical analysis, descriptive statistical analysis aims to provide a snapshot of demographic research respondents (Gender , education level, and experience), while the inference statistical analysis is used to answer the research questions.

4.1. Population & Sample

The population is comprises from (33) male and female physical teachers in Salfeet Governorate / Palestine, while the sample is (33) using sampling method uses population sampling or census. The Table 1 shows the characteristics of the sample.

4.2. Research Instrument

In order to obtain the required data on assessing the Physical education teachers' knowledge on TQM practices from their view point, the researcher prepared a questionnaire based on the administrative and educational literature in this regard. The Questionnaire comprises of 2 sections, first, demographic variables (gender, education level, and experience), second, TQM practices based on the 4dimensions (leadership management, training& development, empowerment, and student - focus).

Moreover, overall indicators in the questionnaire of the study uses 5-point Likert scale was employed for scoring responses (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree). For easier interpretation of the results of the study, the scale is changed into interval class as follows: More than 80% very high impact degree; 70%-79.99% high impact degree; 60% - 69.99% moderate impact degree; 50% -59.99% Low impact degree; Less than 50% very low impact degree.

4.3. Validity and Reliability

The initial content tool validation were done by 6 experts in the field of education and physical education particularly those who have enough experiences in management practices and physical education of the different educational programs in from Al Quds open university and Al Najah University. Reliability of constructs were tested with Cronbach’s Alpha. As suggested by Sugiyono J. 32, the cut off point for Cronbach’s Alpha was > 0.70. The results of reliability test presented in Table 2. Based on the table, value of Cronbach’s α were well above the criteria. So, it can be concluded that the instrument used in this study was valid and reliable.

Based on the above table, value of Cronbach’s α were well above the criteria, so, it can be concluded that the instrument used in this study was reliable.

5. Results & Discussion

Q1: What is the level of knowledge of physical education teachers in Salfeet governorate / Palestine of TQM practices from their point of view?

To answer this question, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and percentage of the study sample estimates were calculated on the study dimensions from their point of view, arranged in descending order, as shown in Table 3.

Results in Table 4 shows that level of knowledge of physical education teachers of TQM practices from their point of view was moderate [ M= 2.33, 64.04 %] as total average response, this result is supported by the following previous studies 7, 12, 26.

The impact degree of the study dimensions ranged from very high to low. Leadership and management came in the first rank with [M= 4.11, 82.20 %], this result is consistent with the result of 28 study which emphasized the great role of leadership and management in the application of TQM practices in education, followed by student focus [M = 3.55, 70.10 %], because student is the basis of educational process, and the real indicator of the success of TQM practices in schools. This result is supported by 29 study which mentioned that focusing on the student is the core of total quality principles in education. Training and development ranked third [M= 3.05, 60.10 %], this is consistent with a result of 28 study. While empowerment ranked fourth [M= 2.81, 56.20 %], this result is supported by 20.

These results are not surprising, as the teacher deals only with school administration and students. The educational leadership releases instructions continuously to school administrations, which in turn transmit it to the teachers for implementation. Mostly, these instructions related to the curricula, examinations and other tasks that the instructor should perform, and do not address the concepts of total quality. The application of TQM practices in education rests with the leadership and school administration.

In general, in Palestine state, regarding the training and development, there is no doubt that physical education teachers in particular, and teachers generally suffer from lack of training and development as a significant TQM practice to enhance education quality. This is due to many reasons, including the lack of material and human capabilities, as the application of comprehensive quality standards requires more expenditures and competencies to successfully applied , in addition to the lack of time, many burdens placed on the shoulders of teacher and many others. Despite the importance of empowerment in TQM practices, it came in last order. Therefore, the education policy makers and (MoE) are advised to give teaches' empowerment more attention according to the value of its implementation by giving them more authority, autonomy, and effective participation in decision-making.

Q2: What is the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge the TQM practices from their point of view according to the variables: (gender, academic qualification, and experience)?

Also, to answer this question, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and T-test were calculated for the responses of the study sample on assessing the level of knowledge of physical education teachers' with the TQM practices from their point of view according to variables ( gender , education level , and experience).

GENDER. Table 4 shows the T-test results for the differences between the averages of evaluating the level of physical education teachers ’knowledge of TQM practices from their point of view according to gender.

Results in Table 4 show that there are statistically significant differences at (α≤ 0.05) between the means for physical education teachers' knowledge of TQM practices from their point of view according to gender based on the calculated t - value ( t = 3.33 , sig. = 0.000< 0.05) in favor of female teachers' (M= 3.30). According to the researcher's experience, this difference is attributed to the school environmental conditions between male and female schools' in terms of the increase in the number of female schools compared with males school, and the availability of school buildings equipped with yards, halls, playgrounds, and gymnasiums conforming the engineering, environmental and educational specifications compared to male schools, which allows female teachers to be well prepared, and proper planning. The results is consistent with the results of 28 which revealed that there are differences in the application of TQM practices due to the variable of gender.

EDUCATION. Table 5 shows the t-test results for the differences between the averages of evaluating the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge of TQM practices from their point of view according to education level.

The results in Table 5 indicates that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) between the means for physical education teachers' knowledge of TQM from their point of view according to the educational qualification variable based on the value of (calculated t = 1.10, sig. = 0.271 > 0.05) for the overall score, thus, this value is not statistically significant.

The researcher attribute this results to the fact that TQM is one of the modern management concepts that have received wide attention in the sports field, especially in educational institutions, as these institutions sought to consolidate the concepts of quality in their programs and teaching methods to ensure the achievement of knowledge and benefit among school students, and to ensure that the content is presented in a manner that enjoys the interest of students, and in light of the great interest in school sports, and what the institutions sought to activate the role of the teacher in line with the educational directives pay attention to school sport for the sake of health.

The Ministry of Education seeks to hold intensive training courses and refining and revitalization courses to enable modern administrative thinking among physical education teachers and help them implement and properly implement the training process to ensure efficiency and effectiveness, making physical education teachers highly qualified and similar capabilities, regardless of educational qualification. This result is consistent with 29 study which indicated that there are no differences in building indicators to measure the performance of physical education teachers in light of quality standards according to the scientific qualification variable.

EXPERIENCE. Table 6 shows the t-test results for the differences between the averages of evaluating the level of physical education teachers’ knowledge of TQM practices from their point of view according to experience.

The results in Table 6 indicate that there are no statistically significant differences at the significance level (α≤ 0.05) between the averages of the extent to which physical education teachers know the TQM practices from their point of view according to experience variable based on the calculated value of ( t=0.19), sig. = 0.850) for the overall score, Thus, this value is not statistically significant.

The researcher attributes this to the fact that experience in the field of school physical education may not constitute a basis for judging whether to win or lose in sports. The teacher's culture and the expansion of his training perceptions and the availability of the appropriate material resources in some cases is one of the reasons for the school's distinction and excellence in school sports programs. This result is consistent with what was shown by the Incestuous Study (2017) that there are no differences in the extent of physical education teachers ’knowledge of comprehensive quality standards due to the experience variable.

6. Conclusions& Recommendations

In the light of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

• The research found that the knowledge of physical education teachers in Salfeet governorate was moderate.

• Leadership has acquired the highest level of physical education teachers’ knowledge because TQM practices implementation relies mostly on leadership.

• The differences in the level of physical education teachers ’knowledge of TQM practices in favor of females came according to gender variable.

• There is no differences in physical education teachers' knowledge of the TQM practices according to the variables (academic qualification and experience).

Based from the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are hereby offered:

• The current research is limited in the small sample size, so, it is recommended to conduct a similar study with a large sample size in order to generalize the results.

• Conduct training programs and workshops with the aim of linking physical education with modern management concepts including TQM practices to develop physical education curricula and school sports programs.

• Raising the level of physical education teachers' knowledge of TQM practices, and realizing the perceived benefits of applying it for learning and teaching process.

• Empowering physical education teachers by giving them autonomy and effective participation in decision-making.

• Focus on student as a basis for educational process.

• The current research is limited in the small sample size, so, it is recommended to conduct a similar study with a large sample size in order to generalize the results, and addresses other TQM practices that are not covered in the current research.

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[12]  Taahyadin, F. and Daud, Y. (2018). ‘Total quality management in school’, Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.7-13.
In article      
 
[13]  Yau, H.K. and Cheng, L.F. (2013). ‘Quality management in primary schools’, International Education Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.16-31.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Aksu, A. (2009). ‘Total quality management and visionary leadership in primary schools’, Education and Science, Vol. 34, No. 153, pp.99-116.
In article      
 
[15]  Anastasiadou, S.D. (2015). ‘The roadmaps of total quality management in the Greek education system according to Deming, Juran, and Crosby in light of the EFQM model’, Procedia Economics and Finance, Vol. 33, pp.562-572.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Al Nabhani, M. (2007). Developing the education system in the Sultanate of Oman through implementing TQM: the Ministry of Education Central Headquarters - a case study, Doctoral Thesis, University of Glasgow.
In article      
 
[17]  World Bank (2015). Education Overview. Available online at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/ topic/education/overview (accessed on 20 December 2016).
In article      
 
[18]  Ooi, K.B. (2014). TQM: A facilitator to enhance knowledge management? A structural analysis. Expert Systems with Applications, 41(11), 5167-5179.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Frolova, I. &Lapina, I. (2015). Integration of CSR principles in quality management. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7(2/3), 260-273.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Awamleh, A. (2013). Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey. Asian Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 313- 319.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Goetsch, D.L.; and Davis, S. (2016). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence: Introduction to Total Quality. 14th Edition. New Jersey, Pearson Education.
In article      
 
[22]  Reed, R.; Lemak, D. J.; and Mero, N. P. (2000). Total quality management and sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Quality Management, 5(1), 5-26.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Babakus, E.; Yavas, U.; Karatepe, O. M.; and Avci, T. (2003). The Effect of Management Commitment to Service Quality on Employees' Affective and Performance Outcomes. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3), 272-286.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Sari, R.; and Firdaus, a. (2015). The Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Small and Medium Manufacturing Company (SMMC) and its Impact to Competitiveness and Performance. The LPEM’s Conference on Economics and Finance in Indonesia, 30th November - 1st. December 2015, Indonesia, 1-14.
In article      
 
[25]  Giannias, D.A. and Sfakianaki, E. (2011). ‘Multicriteria analysis-based total university evaluation: the case of the Greek departments of economics’, The International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.245-259.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Al-Fahdawi, Amer Khalifa Hamad (2018). The extent of physical education teachers’ commitment to comprehensive quality standards in the Directorate of Education in Anbar Governorate in Iraq. Unpublished Master’s thesis, general curricula, Al al-Bayt University, College of Educational Sciences, Mafraq, Jordan.
In article      
 
[27]  Al-Amsi, Othman (2018). A proposed scenario for developing the performance of physical education teachers in light of professional standards for teachers. Department of Curricula and Teaching Methods, College of Education, University College of Applied Sciences, Gaza, Palestine.
In article      
 
[28]  Maharma, Yassin Ali Mahjoub. (2017). The extent to which Sports Education teachers know the comprehensive quality requirements from their point of view. Al-Manara, Volume (23), Issue (3), The International Islamic Science University.
In article      
 
[29]  Al-Budoor, Wasim Abdul Rahman Ismail. (2014). Building indicators to measure the performance of physical education teachers in light of comprehensive quality standards from the point of view of managers and supervisors in the Capital Governorate. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Jordan
In article      
 
[30]  Jaradat, M. (2013). ‘Impact degree of the total quality management on the public schools effectiveness in the governorate of Jarash as viewed by the educational supervisors’, European Scientific Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp.180-193.
In article      
 
[31]  Tasar, H.H. and Celik, M. (2011). ‘Examination of implementation level of the Total Quality Management principles by the principals and teachers functioning at elementary schools: the case of Adiyaman Province’, Asian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 33-42.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Sugiyono J. (2008). Statistics for Research, Bandung, Indonesia: Alfa beta Press.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Fadwa Racem Salman

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Fadwa Racem Salman. Assessing Level Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge in Palestine with Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices - A Survey Study. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 12, 2020, pp 906-913. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/12/4
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Salman, Fadwa Racem. "Assessing Level Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge in Palestine with Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices - A Survey Study." American Journal of Educational Research 8.12 (2020): 906-913.
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Salman, F. R. (2020). Assessing Level Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge in Palestine with Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices - A Survey Study. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(12), 906-913.
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Salman, Fadwa Racem. "Assessing Level Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge in Palestine with Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices - A Survey Study." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 12 (2020): 906-913.
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  • Table 3. Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), and percentage of the respondents' level knowledge with TQM practices
[1]  Nikolaos Kaiseroglou, Eleni Sfakianaki. (2020). A review of total quality management applications in schools Int. J. Management in Education, Vol. 14, No. 2, 121-134.
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[2]  N. Ravindran, R. KarpagaKamaravel. (2016). TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION: PROSPECTS, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. Shanlax International Journal of Education. Vol. 4, 58-65.
In article      
 
[3]  Wing, C. (1998). Applying Total Quality Management to the Educational Process. Int. J. Engng Ed, 14(1), 24-29.
In article      
 
[4]  Cruz, F.J.F., Gálvez, I.E. and Santaolalla, R.C. (2016). ‘Impact of quality management systems on teaching-learning processes’, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp.394-415.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Töremen, F., Karakuş, M., &Yasan, T. (2019). Total quality management practices in Turkish primary schools. Quality assurance in education, 17(1), 30-44.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Fred C. Lunenburg. (2010). Total Quality Management Applied to Schools. SCHOOLING VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1, 1-6.
In article      
 
[7]  Sfakianaki, E. (2019). ‘A measurement instrument for implementing total quality management in Greek primary and secondary education’, International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.1065-1081.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Militaru, M., Ungureanu, G. and Chenic, A.S. (2013). ‘The prospects of implementing the principles of Total Quality Management in education’, Procardia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 93, pp.1138-1141.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  OECD (2011) Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.
In article      
 
[10]  Reddy, A.M. and Kalyan, S. (2014). ‘Strategies for the effective implementation of Total Quality Management: a case study of RIMS B-School’, International Journal & Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research, Vol. 1, No. 10, pp.1-4.
In article      
 
[11]  Saiti, A. (2012). ‘Leadership and quality management’, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp.110-138.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Taahyadin, F. and Daud, Y. (2018). ‘Total quality management in school’, Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.7-13.
In article      
 
[13]  Yau, H.K. and Cheng, L.F. (2013). ‘Quality management in primary schools’, International Education Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.16-31.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Aksu, A. (2009). ‘Total quality management and visionary leadership in primary schools’, Education and Science, Vol. 34, No. 153, pp.99-116.
In article      
 
[15]  Anastasiadou, S.D. (2015). ‘The roadmaps of total quality management in the Greek education system according to Deming, Juran, and Crosby in light of the EFQM model’, Procedia Economics and Finance, Vol. 33, pp.562-572.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Al Nabhani, M. (2007). Developing the education system in the Sultanate of Oman through implementing TQM: the Ministry of Education Central Headquarters - a case study, Doctoral Thesis, University of Glasgow.
In article      
 
[17]  World Bank (2015). Education Overview. Available online at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/ topic/education/overview (accessed on 20 December 2016).
In article      
 
[18]  Ooi, K.B. (2014). TQM: A facilitator to enhance knowledge management? A structural analysis. Expert Systems with Applications, 41(11), 5167-5179.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Frolova, I. &Lapina, I. (2015). Integration of CSR principles in quality management. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7(2/3), 260-273.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Awamleh, A. (2013). Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey. Asian Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 313- 319.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Goetsch, D.L.; and Davis, S. (2016). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence: Introduction to Total Quality. 14th Edition. New Jersey, Pearson Education.
In article      
 
[22]  Reed, R.; Lemak, D. J.; and Mero, N. P. (2000). Total quality management and sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Quality Management, 5(1), 5-26.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Babakus, E.; Yavas, U.; Karatepe, O. M.; and Avci, T. (2003). The Effect of Management Commitment to Service Quality on Employees' Affective and Performance Outcomes. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3), 272-286.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Sari, R.; and Firdaus, a. (2015). The Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Small and Medium Manufacturing Company (SMMC) and its Impact to Competitiveness and Performance. The LPEM’s Conference on Economics and Finance in Indonesia, 30th November - 1st. December 2015, Indonesia, 1-14.
In article      
 
[25]  Giannias, D.A. and Sfakianaki, E. (2011). ‘Multicriteria analysis-based total university evaluation: the case of the Greek departments of economics’, The International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.245-259.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Al-Fahdawi, Amer Khalifa Hamad (2018). The extent of physical education teachers’ commitment to comprehensive quality standards in the Directorate of Education in Anbar Governorate in Iraq. Unpublished Master’s thesis, general curricula, Al al-Bayt University, College of Educational Sciences, Mafraq, Jordan.
In article      
 
[27]  Al-Amsi, Othman (2018). A proposed scenario for developing the performance of physical education teachers in light of professional standards for teachers. Department of Curricula and Teaching Methods, College of Education, University College of Applied Sciences, Gaza, Palestine.
In article      
 
[28]  Maharma, Yassin Ali Mahjoub. (2017). The extent to which Sports Education teachers know the comprehensive quality requirements from their point of view. Al-Manara, Volume (23), Issue (3), The International Islamic Science University.
In article      
 
[29]  Al-Budoor, Wasim Abdul Rahman Ismail. (2014). Building indicators to measure the performance of physical education teachers in light of comprehensive quality standards from the point of view of managers and supervisors in the Capital Governorate. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Jordan
In article      
 
[30]  Jaradat, M. (2013). ‘Impact degree of the total quality management on the public schools effectiveness in the governorate of Jarash as viewed by the educational supervisors’, European Scientific Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp.180-193.
In article      
 
[31]  Tasar, H.H. and Celik, M. (2011). ‘Examination of implementation level of the Total Quality Management principles by the principals and teachers functioning at elementary schools: the case of Adiyaman Province’, Asian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 33-42.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Sugiyono J. (2008). Statistics for Research, Bandung, Indonesia: Alfa beta Press.
In article