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Developing a School’s Education Plan Based on the Competence-Competence-Oriented Education: A Study on teaching Chemistry for Grade-11 Students at a Vietnamese High School

Dao Thi Viet Anh , Chu Van Tiem, Phan Thi Binh
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(11), 856-865. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-11-5
Received September 28, 2020; Revised November 13, 2020; Accepted November 16, 2020

Abstract

Designing education plans towards the development of students’ competences has been considered an important task for high school teachers in Vietnam as for the requirements of the national educational reforms. This paper is aimed to present principles and procedure of designing a school’s education plan, particularly some theme-based teaching modules, in teaching Chemistry for grade-11 students in a Vietnamese high school, using competence-based education approach.

1. Introduction

General Education Program (GEP) plays a very significant role in improving the quality of general education in almost all countries over the world and in Vietnam. GEP is designed based on the economic, political and social context of each country and of the whole world in a particular period of time. Hence, GEP may be fixed in a particular period of time, but frequently renewed and updated for the improvement of the national general education system, meeting new requirements of labor market in the modern society 1, 2.

Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training has issued many official documents on designing school’s education plans such as Letter 791, Letter 4612, Letter 3414, or Letter 3089,... 3, 4, 5, 6. According to these letters, academic departments in each school conduct a review of the teaching contents in the currently used textbooks, from which they make such changes as omitting what is beyond the required knowledge and skills, replacing what is outdated by the newly updated, selecting appropriate teaching contents to design theme-based teaching modules for each subject or for different subjects in combination. Eventually, they make education plans for each subject according to competence-based teaching approach and the school’s teaching context 7.

Globally, developing school’s education programs has long been discussed. In the late 20th century, the concept of “competencies needed for a healthy life” was used in “Model of Japanese Education in the 21st century”. At the beginning of the 21st century, many countries in OECD and in the world put an emphasis on designing their GEPs towards the competence-based teaching approach. There may be differences among these GEPs, but they are all aimed to build up and develop students’ essential knowledge and skills for their lifelong learning, their daily life and their future work 2.

Competence-based education has been studied by a number of researchers in the world, who have been working in the field of psychology, philosophy and educational studies. The term “competence”, or so-called “competency”, has been used for a long time. According to Mulder, Weigel & Collins, the term “competence” was first used in Plato’s (Lysis 215 A., 380 BC), and then became popular and interested for research in the 1970s 8. So far, there have been different perspectives and approaches into this concept. It is differently defined by such individuals or organizations as: OECD (2002) 9, Québec - Ministry of Education (2004) 10, F.E. Weinert 11, Howard Gardner 12, or Tremblay 13, .... However, they all agreed that competence refers to the ability in synthesizing and applying knowledge, skills and attitudes to perform a certain task in a particular context.

In Vietnam, the GEP released in 2018 is aimed for students’ full development with a series of qualities and competences. Hence, competence-based teaching has become a matter of great concern in recent years. In a study conducted by Associate Professor Phuong Thi Lan Nguyen et al, published in the book “Competence-based teaching program 14, the researchers present some aspects of competence-based education; theoretical background and procedures for designing competence-based standards, testing and assessment methods, and examples for competence-based standards as well as testing and assessment used in some high school subjects. Associate Professor Oanh Thi Dang et al 15 also give discuss competence-based teaching with its theories, teaching methods, testing and assessment methods, especially when it is applied to teaching Chemistry for secondary school students.

To sum up, building up a school’s education plan, for all educational levels and all subjects in general, and for the subject of Chemistry in particular, is now such an indispensable duty for each teacher in the context of numerous educational reforms towards the trend of developing qualities and competences for high school students in Vietnam.

2. Content

2.1. School’s Educational Plan

A school’s education plan can be defined as plans for educational activities proposed and conducted by educational institutions and organizations based on the local context and their teaching and learning situations. A school’s education plan should be based on the education plan designed for each subject or each educational activity.

A school’s education plan should be associated with educational objectives and the local context. It also needs to have basic elements as listed below:

a) Educational objectives should be consistent with the school’s conditions for quality assurance;

b) Plans for educational activities in each subject or in the educational program (including educational activities described as integrated, interdisciplinary or localized) should satisfy the requirements of the national general education program and be implemented properly and flexibly based on the institutional and local contexts;

c) Plans for educational activities in the institution and for teachers and students to take part in social activities, contributing to the community development;

d) Plans for mobilizing, arranging and utilizing resources for the implementation and quality assurance of the school’s education plan;

e) Special educational activities for special educational institutions 1, 16.

2.2. Developing a School’s Education Plan for Teaching Grade-11 Chemistry towards the Competence-based Education Approach
2.2.1. Principles

In order to a successful school’s education plan for the subject of grade-11 Chemistry towards the competence-based teaching, it is essential to follow the principles below:

Principle 1: Ensuring the legality

When developing a school’s education program, it is inevitable to strictly follow related legal documents. Accordingly, any plan which is officially approved by the competent authority will act as a legal document.

Principle 2: Ensuring the consistency in educational objectives

Developing a school’s education plan should be based on educational objectives for the subject of Chemistry as specified in the National General Education Program; designing and conducting teaching and educational activities should be consistent with unique characteristics of the subject - as a subject of natural science - in order to fulfil the objectives stated in the course outline, from which fulfil the objectives of the GEP and ensure the educational quality. It also should meet the objectives of both the national education program and of the school education, as well as be in accordance with the school’s conditions for ensuring the quality of the program.

Principle 3: Ensuring the logic of knowledge, the consistency in the contents and the total time duration for each subject, in accordance with the national general education

A school’s education plan needs to have a logic of the knowledge so that it helps achieve the objectives of all educational levels. Besides, the total time duration for each subject should be follow the requirements of the GEP. As for the subject of Chemistry, its education plan designed for each educational level can have some changes in the teaching contents, teaching methods, teaching materials, and class time duration, but has to ensure the consistency of the teaching contents and educational activitiess and the total time duration as prescribed in the GEP. This principle is believed to give flexibility for the implementation of the school’s education plan.

Principle 4: Ensuring the teaching quality

Teaching quality is seen as the most important part throughout the education process in each school. Improving the educational quality and teaching quality is always prioritized by each school and by the national education system. Thus, developing a school’s education plan for teaching the subject of Chemistry should be aimed for the improvement of teaching quality.

Principle 5: Ensuring the scientificity, updatedness and feasibility

The school’s education plan for teaching the subject of Chemistry should be scientific, updated, and practical enough to meet students’ learning demands and serve the requirements of the socio-economic development within the country and in the world.

Principle 6: Ensuring pedagogical functions

The school’s education plan for teaching the subject of Chemistry must be highly feasible to give teaching contents and teaching time in accordance with students’ learning needs and school facilities. It should be focused on the important knowledge and skills as well as the connection with the real-life situations.


2.2.2. Procedure for Developing a School’s Education Plan

To develop a school’s education plan for grade-11 Chemistry, teachers need to follow the steps below:

Step 1: Analyzing the school’s current situation

It is necessary for teachers to conduct a survey and analysis on the school’s current situation in order to have a deeper understanding about it before determining the objectives, the structure, the contents and the implementation of the school’s education plan.

Step 2: Determining the objectives for the school’s education plan in teaching the subject of Chemistry

Based on the objectives stated in the national curriculum of Chemistry and the school’s current situation, academic departments identify and specify the objectives of the subject.

Step 3: Developing the contents for the school’s education plan in teaching the subject of Chemistry

Academic departments conduct a review on the current syllabus of the subject. Then, in accordance with the school’s characteristics, they decide to omit unnecessary items; replace the outdated and inappropriate contents by the most updated ones; select the contents for designing theme-based modules in each subject or in a combination of different subjects; and rearrange the teaching time, or testing and assessment methods to meet the changes in the new school’s education plan.

Step 4: Consulting experts about the school’s education plan

It is essential to consult experts about the newly-designed school education program, and then make some changes if any before submitting it to the school authority for approval and practical implementation.

Step 5: Implementing the school’s education plan after its approval

Implementing the school’s education plan as approved by the school authority. During the implementation, it is necessary to strictly follow the teaching objectives, to promote students’ active learning, flexibility and creativity and to ensure the teaching quality.

Step 6: Making self-evaluation and adjustments

After the implementation of the school’s education plan for the subject, academic departments will make self-evaluation. Based on the strengths and weaknesses of the plan, there should be some adjustments for the better implementation in the next time.


2.2.3. Some Recommendations on Developing a School’s Education Plan in Teaching the Subject of Grade-11 Chemistry

2.2.3.1. Applying the theme-based learning

Theme-based learning refers to the ways to explore associated and related concepts, ideas, knowledge, learning contents and themes, and based on the connection of the theories and practice in each subject or among different subjects to make more meaningful and more practical theme-based learning contents. It is for students to work more on their own to find out new knowledge and then apply it into real-life situations 3, 17.

In the syllabi of all subjects and that of Chemistry 18, learning contents are established and divided into comparatively complete, specific and independent units of knowledge, and they are then arranged in a logical order so that it helps to maintain the consistency of each syllabus. This gives help to the “class-lesson” teaching model as well as the unification in the syllabus management and allocation according to the current ordinances. However, this classification can make the learning contents separate from one another, making the knowledge provided to students become patchy and discrete. This can cause difficulties for students to achieve it, and their learning process becomes impractical. Theme-based learning will allows teachers to deal with these problems and improve their teaching quality. Based on results collected form a review on the current syllabus of grade-11 Chemistry in Yen Lac High School located in Vinh Phuc. Vietnam and an analysis of the school’s current situation, the group of Chemistry teachers develop a set of learning themes for their classes. The themes can be listed in Table 1.

2.2.3.2. Applying the STEM education model

STEM education is an educational model of an interdisciplinary approach, which allows students to use their knowledge of science, technology, engineering and Maths to deal with a real-life situation in a particular social context. STEM education has been applied in many related subjects in the GEP 2018 19, 20, 21. Based on the current situation of Yen Lac High School, we suggest some STEM-based learning themes to be used in teaching grade-11 Chemistry. These themes are listed in Table 2.

2.2.3.3. Applying the integrated and interdisciplinary teaching model

Integrated teaching aims to develop students’ ability to select and combine knowledge and skills of different fields to successfully solve the problems arisen in their study and their real lives. This can be found in their learning and practice. Integrated teaching also helps to develop students’ essential skills, especially their problem-solving skills. The integration in teaching is shown through the ability to select, combine and relate knowledge and skills of different fields to successfully deal with a problem and achieve different objectives at the same time 3, 13. Based on the current situation of Yen Lac High School, we propose some integrated interdisciplinary learning themes to be used in teaching grade-11 Chemistry. These themes are presented in Table 3.


2.2.4. School’s Education Plan for Grade-11 Chemistry

Analyzing the current situation of teaching grade-11 Chemistry for high school students:

We conducted a study on developing a school’s education plan for teaching grade-11 Chemistry in Yen Lac High School located in Vinh Phuc, Vietnam. The current situation of the school can be illustrated as follows:

Teaching staff of Chemistry: There are 8 teachers in which two hold a master degree and six hold a bachelor degree. They are about 34 years old on average, and have attended training courses of new teaching methods. This gives the school’s advantages for its educational reforms.

Students: Yen Lac High School has 320 grade-11 students in total, 85% of whom come from middle-income family and their parents are working as farmers. The majority of students survey stated that they are not really interested in Chemistry as it has some difficult learning contents.

The school’s facilities and resources for teaching Chemistry: Currently, Yen Lac High School has equipped modern equipment needed for teaching and learning in general. However, there are still inadequate facilities for Chemistry teaching, especially a lack of chemicals and experimental equipment.

Educational management staff: Basically, the school’s educational management staff have good management skills and teaching skills. They also have relevant experience in educational management, and they give priority to the teaching innovations.

With regard to the currently-used syllabus and textbook of grade-11 Chemistry, directions in the implementation of education plan by Vinh Phuc’s Ministry of Education and Training, and the current situation of Yen Lac High School, we, in association with their teaching staff of Chemistry and the school authority, developed a school’s education plan for teaching grade-11 Chemistry in the school year of 2019-2020. The contents of the plan can be seen in Table 4.

2.3. Applying Theme-based Learning in Teaching Grade-11 Chemistry towards the Development of Students’ Competences in the School Year 2019-2020

We conducted 9 theme-based lessons (Acid and base reagents made from apple lotus flowers; Nitrogen, its compounds and life; Phosphorus and its compounds, Chemical fertilizers with plants and soil environment; Carbon and some practical problems; Alkane and handmade scented candles; Unsaturated hydrocarbons and life; Making dry hand sanitizers; and Production of soybean yogurt) in the school year 2019-2020 at Yen Lac High School, located in Vinh Phuc, Vietnam. Below we present one of theme-based lesson plans, which is "Chemical fertilizers with plants and soil environment”.

I. Objectives

* Students are able to present the roles of chemical elements for plants; some common chemical fertilizers and their composition, their chemical formulas; principles for evaluating the content of nutritional elements in each fertilizer, including the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; the role of each fertilizer with plants; harmful effects of their residues on soil and water environment; solutions to deal with soil environment related problems caused by fertilizer residues.

* Students are able to explain factors for proper fertilization; ways of storing each fertilizer; symbols commonly used on the fertilizer packages; causes of soil and water pollution related to the improper use of some chemical fertilizers.

* Students are able to identify common types of chemical fertilizers; the content of each nutrient element in each fertilizer; proper use of some types of chemical fertilizers. They also can develop their data collection and processing skills; public speaking skills; computer skills and teamwork skills.

* Students can develop their positive attitudes, specifically:

- Raising their awareness on environmental protection, propagating to their families and people in their community about environmental protection

- Having a good use of fertilizers in agriculture, understanding their responsibilities for maintaining their personal health and other people’s health, for protecting soil environment and water environment.

- Raising their interests in their study in general and in the subject of Chemistry in particular

II. Contents and procedure of applying theme-based learning

1. Contents

The main contents of the theme is presented in Figure 1.

2. Some questions to be dealt with the theme

3. Time duration for the theme-based learning

The theme-based learning can be conducted in 03 periods in class and 01 period for students’ at-home study.

III. Theme-based lesson plans

Period 1

A. Teacher’s and students’ preparations

1. Teacher’s preparations

- Lesson plan, personal laptop, and projector

- Teaching aids: pictures, worksheets, markers, A0 papers and other related teaching aids.

- Read the contents of the lesson "Chemical fertilizers".

B. Learning activities

Step 1: Class work

- T divides the class into smaller groups and instructs Ss to use the technique “Jigsaw”.

- Ss are put in groups as instructed.

- T assigns learning tasks for each group, including Specialized groups and Jigsaw groups.

Round 1: For Specialized group

- Group 1 : Discuss nitrogenous fertilizers;

- Group 2 : Discuss phosphate fertilizers;

- Group 3 : Discuss potassium fertilizers;

- Group 4 : Discuss other types of fertilizers.

- T asks each Specialized group to complete the learning task in 10 minutes, using the questions below:

Round 2: Jigsaw group

Jigsaw groups discuss and complete the learning task as follow:

Each Jigsaw group discuss and complete the learning task. Prepare their presentations on A0 papers or their slides. Present their results in 10 minutes.

Step 2: Group work (20 minutes)

- T organizes group discussions (to complete the learning task as instructed in Step 1). T observes and gives help if necessary. T controls the time and instructs Ss when they move to another group.

- Ss work in group

Step 3: Discussions (10 minutes)

- T asks each group to show their results for the learning task in White worksheet on the board, and calls each group’s representative to present. Other groups listen and give comments if any. T wraps up and elicits feedback.

- T gives overall comments and feedback to each group. T plays the slides about the effects each fertilizer has on the development of the plants and on the soil environment as a consolidation.

- If all groups cannot finish their presentations in the allowed time, T can flexibly move their presentations to the next period.

PERIOD 2

Activity 5: Conducting learning project (15 - 20 minutes)

Effects of chemical fertilizers on soil environment and human health

General question: What can be done to develop a sustainable agriculture?

T states the problems and raises the question: Agriculture serves as a key economic sector in Vietnam. Our agricultural output is relatively large, but the export market of our agricultural products is still limited due to the inappropriateness in taking care of crops and lack of modern production methods, especially the abuse of chemical fertilizers. How will the improper use of chemical fertilizers affect human health and the soil environment?

Ss discuss and conduct an analysis on the subject matter: “Effects of chemical fertilizers on human health and the environment”.

Learning Task: Suppose that you are an agricultural engineer. Find answers to the following questions:

Period 3

3. References Formats

Developing a school’s education plan for all subjects in the curriculum in general and for the subject of grade-11 Chemistry in particular towards the development of students’ competences is an indispensable task for each Vietnamese teacher. From our own teaching experiences, we developed a school’s education plan for teaching Chemistry to grade-11 students in Yen Lac High School. In the school year 2019-2020, we also conducted 09 theme-based teaching modules according to competence-based teaching approach. This is hoped to improve the quality of Chemistry teaching and learning in high schools in Vietnam.

Acknowledgements

This study is financical supported by Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, under project B.2019-SP2-09.

References

[1]  Dao Thi Viet Anh, Chu Van Tiem, 2017, Developing a curriculum for teaching Chemistry in Vietnamese high schools, Publishing House of People’s Public Security, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[2]  Tran Cong Phong, Tran Thi Hong Van et al., 2016), The world’s new trends in developing general education programs, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      
 
[3]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2013, Documents for the training of general school education program development (For internal use only), Hanoi.
In article      
 
[4]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2013, Letter 791/HD/BGDĐT for Guidelines on piloting school education plan development, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[5]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2020, Letter 3414/BGDĐT-GDTrH for Guidelines on educational tasks to be undertaken in secondary schools in the school year 2020-202, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[6]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2020, Letter 3089/BGDĐT-GDTr for the implementation of STEM education in general education schools, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[7]  Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, 2014, Documents for the training of theme-based learning and testing and assessment methods towards the approach of competence-based education (For internal use only), Hanoi.
In article      
 
[8]  Mulder, M.; Weigel; T.& Collins, K., 2007, The concept of competence in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states - a critical analysis, Journal of Vocational Education and training, 59(1), pp. 67-88.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  OECD, 2002, Definition and selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundation, http://www.oecd.org.
In article      
 
[10]  A curriculum for the 21st century - Quécbec Education Program.
In article      
 
[11]  Weiner. F. E, 2001, Vergleichende Leistungsmessung in Schulen - eineumstrittene Selbstverstondlichkeit, In F. E. Weinert (ed), Leistungsmessung in Schulen, Weinheim und Basejl: Beltz Verlag.
In article      
 
[12]  Howard Gardner, 1983, Frames of Mind: the Theory of multiple intelligences, New York, Basic books.
In article      
 
[13]  Lolita Jonāne, 2008, The didactical aspects of integrated natural science content model for secondary school education, Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, Vol. 9, pp. 45-57.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong (Editor in Chief) et al, 2016, Designing education program towards the development and assessment of students’ competences, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      
 
[15]  Dang Thi Oanh (Editor in Chief), Pham Thi Binh, Do Thi Quynh Mai, Ha Thi Lan Huong, Pham Thi Thu Hien, Pham Thi Bich Dao, 2018, Applying the competence-based teaching approach in teaching Chemistry for secondazxry school students, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[16]  Nguyen Van Khoi, 2013, Education program development, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[17]  Do Huong Tra (Editor in Chief), 2015, Integrated teaching towards the development of students’ competencies - in Book 1 “Natural Sciences”, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[18]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, Textbook of Chemistry - Grade 11, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, General Education Program - Overall Program, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[20]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, General Education Program -Chemistry Program, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[21]  Nguyen Thanh Nga, Phung Viet Hai, Nguyen Quang Linh, Hoang Phuoc Muoi, 2018, Developing and implementing STEM themes for secondary and high school students, Publishing House of Ho Chi Minh University of Education.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Dao Thi Viet Anh, Chu Van Tiem and Phan Thi Binh

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Dao Thi Viet Anh, Chu Van Tiem, Phan Thi Binh. Developing a School’s Education Plan Based on the Competence-Competence-Oriented Education: A Study on teaching Chemistry for Grade-11 Students at a Vietnamese High School. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 8, No. 11, 2020, pp 856-865. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/11/5
MLA Style
Anh, Dao Thi Viet, Chu Van Tiem, and Phan Thi Binh. "Developing a School’s Education Plan Based on the Competence-Competence-Oriented Education: A Study on teaching Chemistry for Grade-11 Students at a Vietnamese High School." American Journal of Educational Research 8.11 (2020): 856-865.
APA Style
Anh, D. T. V. , Tiem, C. V. , & Binh, P. T. (2020). Developing a School’s Education Plan Based on the Competence-Competence-Oriented Education: A Study on teaching Chemistry for Grade-11 Students at a Vietnamese High School. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 856-865.
Chicago Style
Anh, Dao Thi Viet, Chu Van Tiem, and Phan Thi Binh. "Developing a School’s Education Plan Based on the Competence-Competence-Oriented Education: A Study on teaching Chemistry for Grade-11 Students at a Vietnamese High School." American Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 11 (2020): 856-865.
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[1]  Dao Thi Viet Anh, Chu Van Tiem, 2017, Developing a curriculum for teaching Chemistry in Vietnamese high schools, Publishing House of People’s Public Security, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[2]  Tran Cong Phong, Tran Thi Hong Van et al., 2016), The world’s new trends in developing general education programs, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      
 
[3]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2013, Documents for the training of general school education program development (For internal use only), Hanoi.
In article      
 
[4]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2013, Letter 791/HD/BGDĐT for Guidelines on piloting school education plan development, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[5]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2020, Letter 3414/BGDĐT-GDTrH for Guidelines on educational tasks to be undertaken in secondary schools in the school year 2020-202, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[6]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2020, Letter 3089/BGDĐT-GDTr for the implementation of STEM education in general education schools, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[7]  Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, 2014, Documents for the training of theme-based learning and testing and assessment methods towards the approach of competence-based education (For internal use only), Hanoi.
In article      
 
[8]  Mulder, M.; Weigel; T.& Collins, K., 2007, The concept of competence in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states - a critical analysis, Journal of Vocational Education and training, 59(1), pp. 67-88.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  OECD, 2002, Definition and selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundation, http://www.oecd.org.
In article      
 
[10]  A curriculum for the 21st century - Quécbec Education Program.
In article      
 
[11]  Weiner. F. E, 2001, Vergleichende Leistungsmessung in Schulen - eineumstrittene Selbstverstondlichkeit, In F. E. Weinert (ed), Leistungsmessung in Schulen, Weinheim und Basejl: Beltz Verlag.
In article      
 
[12]  Howard Gardner, 1983, Frames of Mind: the Theory of multiple intelligences, New York, Basic books.
In article      
 
[13]  Lolita Jonāne, 2008, The didactical aspects of integrated natural science content model for secondary school education, Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, Vol. 9, pp. 45-57.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong (Editor in Chief) et al, 2016, Designing education program towards the development and assessment of students’ competences, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      
 
[15]  Dang Thi Oanh (Editor in Chief), Pham Thi Binh, Do Thi Quynh Mai, Ha Thi Lan Huong, Pham Thi Thu Hien, Pham Thi Bich Dao, 2018, Applying the competence-based teaching approach in teaching Chemistry for secondazxry school students, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[16]  Nguyen Van Khoi, 2013, Education program development, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[17]  Do Huong Tra (Editor in Chief), 2015, Integrated teaching towards the development of students’ competencies - in Book 1 “Natural Sciences”, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[18]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, Textbook of Chemistry - Grade 11, Vietnam Education Publishing House.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, General Education Program - Overall Program, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[20]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2018, General Education Program -Chemistry Program, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[21]  Nguyen Thanh Nga, Phung Viet Hai, Nguyen Quang Linh, Hoang Phuoc Muoi, 2018, Developing and implementing STEM themes for secondary and high school students, Publishing House of Ho Chi Minh University of Education.
In article