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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Actual Situation for Capacity of Vocational Consultancy of Students in University of Education

Truong Thi Hoa
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(6), 418-427. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-6-7
Received May 14, 2019; Revised June 27, 2018; Accepted June 30, 2019

Abstract

This study describes the actual situation for capacity of vocational consultancy of students in university of education. The results of the study were carried out on 500 students of universities of education. The reality shows that the capacity of vocational consultancy of students in university of education is not high, only average. In the capacity of vocational consultancy of students evaluated in 6 capacity components including identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career; support for pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections; support for pupils to improve their capacity to learn information and schools training the industry and career; support for pupils to improve their capacity to make decisions on the selection of industry, career and training schools; support for pupils to improve their capacity to plan and implement plans to strive for the target of the selected industry, career and school; support for pupils to solve psychological difficulties related to the selection of industry and career. In particular, the capacity component of support for pupils to improve their capacity to plan and implement plans to strive for the target of the selected industry and career is at the highest level, and the capacity of identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career is at the lowest level.

1. Introduction

In the current period, pupils' career selection becomes more and more necessary. With the explosion of the 4.0 industrial revolution, many old industries will be lost, and many new industries will be generated. According to the Future of Jobs Report 2018, World Economic Forum, there is a huge career shift. (World Economic Forum), there are 75 million jobs lost but there are 133 million new jobs appearing until 2022. For that reason, the story of selection of a career for pupils will be more complicated, therefore, in order the pupils to select the careers for themselves in accordance with each stage, then they need to be consulted the career right in high school.

Circular No. 31/2017/TT-BGDTT of Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training on guiding the implementation of psychological consultancy for the pupils in the high schools. The psychological consultancy for the pupils is the psychological support, helping pupils improve their understanding of themselves, family circumstances, social relationships, thereby increasing positive emotions, making decisions in difficult situations which the pupils encounter while studying at the school. In order to carry out this activity, each school needs to set up a psychological consultancy group, the participants are officials and teachers concurrently providing psychological consultancy, medical staff of the school, officials, teachers in charge of Union, Team, and representatives of pupils’ parents, etc. One of the contents in psychological consultancy is vocational consultancy for the pupils 1.

Thus, in the current high school, it is very necessary for the teachers to be able to provide career consultancy and advice, for that reason, in the university of education, the students should be trained to improve the career capacities including vocational consultancy for the pupils. The vocational consultancy capacity is the application of knowledge and skills to consult vocational consultancy and attitudes of individuals to effectively implement vocational counseling activities in order to realize the identified vocational education goals.

Overseas, Lynda Ali and Barbara Graham's (2001) study showed the role of careers guidance, they affirmed: Effective careers guidance is a process which aims to equip individuals with a clearer understanding of themselves and their potential for future career development. In particular, careers guidance helps individuals to: assess their career development needs at various points in their lives; understand the process of effective choice of a career; clarify their objectives for the future; take appropriate action to implement these objectives. People who are approaching a decision about their future often benefit from speaking to a skilled and informed listener, who can help them to put the many factors affecting their career development into perspective so that they can choose an appropriate direction for the next phase of their lives 2. Laura Nota, Salvatore Soresi, Lea Ferrari, Maria Cristina Ginevra (2014) illuminated new challenges in the field of vocational designing and career counseling in assisting persons planning for an uncertain and difficult future in the current economic climate in European and other Western nations. An analysis of the European socioeconomic context and provided a description of populations with significant career and life design needs, analysis of these challenges and suggests a revision of well-established vocational designing and career counseling assumptions in favor of a new form of awareness and new concepts 3. The research of Nick R. Abel and Brandie Oliver (2018) pointed out a comprehensive, innovative school counseling model that supports university-ready pupils 4. Lea Ferrari, Teresa Maria Sgaramella and Salvatore Soresi mentioned to the attitudes and competences that should be promoted to better prepare doctoral students in career guidance and counseling to become tomorrow’s successful scholars. Three main areas of focus have been identified. The first is development of good professional practices. The second is personal growth, which requires the development of a positive mindset and openness to change. The third is the establishment of guiding principles for research and practice 5. The study of Argyropoulou, K., & Kaliris, A. (2018) pointed: The primary goal of this paper is to present a number of recent major theoretical and empirical advances in the field of career decision-making since this process has been increasingly identified by experts as a relatively subjective experience. A series of conceptual shifts concerning career decision-making and the relevant fundamental problem of career indecision are described. Another aim, based on the developments, is to provide proposals for the construction of an effective model for dealing with career decision-making challenges, in which the transition from the simple possession of related skills to the need of managing the decision-making process is adumbrated. Finally, specific implications and ideas regarding the use of methods and techniques intended for career interventions with young adults are discussed 6.

Caroline Arnoux-Nicolas, Laurent Sovet, Lin Lhotellier, Nadia Baatouche, Jean-Luc Bernaud, Sabine Lepez, Béatrice de la Faye (2019), The purpose of this study is to introduce a new meaning-centered career intervention adapted for college students, experimented at a French university and emphasizing two key aspects: meaning of life and meaning of work 7.

In Vietnam, Pham Dang Khoa (2014) presented 7 solutions for implementing a lifelong vocational consultancy model in the French Republic; 9 recommendations on the application of philosophy of vocational education and lifelong vocational consultancy Vietnam 8. Nguyen Thi Thu Anh (2016), vocational consultancy and enrollment for high school pupils – experience at Nguyen Tat Thanh secondary and high school affirmed: Future career orientation for pupils is an important task of high schools. The pupils should be instructed to be able to select their majors, training institutions, and career options in accordance with their interests, capabilities and labor recruitment needs. Good career orientation helps the pupils identify goals and efforts in learning. When graduating from universities, colleges, etc., they will easily achieve their own professional values and maximize their capacities at work. 9. Le Duy Hung (2018), studied the actual situation of the needs of vocational consultancy forms of the pupils in some high schools in Ho Chi Minh City, the article mentioned the direct vocational consultancy forms through groups, activities, combining through learning cultural subjects and indirect form of consultancy via mail, email, telephone 10. Do Thi Bich Loan (2018) stated: Career orientation which is the basis for the development of human resources of the country plays a very important role in the prosperity of the family and the success of each individual. In order to meet the needs of high quality human resources and diverse industries, from an educational perspective, it is necessary to identify the requirements of Industrial Revolution 4.0, identify the professional values and issues that need to be paid attention during the career oriented education process for high school students to help them determine their own path of education, make decisions about choosing the future career path that suits their abilities, strengths as well as excitement to meet the requirement of human resources in the new context 11. Nguyen Thi Duyen (2018), studied on developing skills for vocational consultancy for students of Technical Pedagogy by case research method 12. Truong Thi Hoa (2018) also mentioned the difficulties of the pupils in the career orientation process, in order to solve these difficulties, it is necessary to have support of vocational counselors and consultants, in this article, the author mentioned supportive measures of vocational counselors for the pupils in the career selection process 13.

2. Content

In order to understand the reality of vocational consultancy capacity, we have studied over a total of 500 students including: 200 students from Hanoi National University of Education, 150 students from Thai Nguyen University of Education, 150 students from Hanoi Pedagogical University 2 with methods of investigation, interview and observation. The questionnaires, the collected data will be coded into numbers, the questions answered will be coded 1, the questions not answered will be coded zero. However, the answers are coded according to the levels, the highest level is 5 points, the lowest level is 1 point. With these points, we evaluate according to the following 5 levels:

The results of data processing are mainly based on the average according to the formula: "Distance value" = (Maximum - Minimum)/n. Therefore, the questionnaire designed has 5 answer level, "distance value" = (5-1)/5 = 0.8, so there are 05 evaluation levels as follows:

Level 1 (Very low): From 1.00 to close to 1.8 points: Performing activities passively, with less confidence and ineffectiveness

Level 2 (Low): From 1.8 to close to 2.6 points: Performing activities proactively, poor effectiveness

Level 3 (Medium): From 2.6 to close to 3.4 points: Performing activities accurately, rhythmically, confidently with partial effectiveness

Level 4 (High): From 3.4 to close to 4.2 points: Performing activities flexibly with high effectiveness

Level 5 (Very high): From 4.2 to 5.00 points: Performing activities flexibly, creatively with high effectiveness

In this study, we evaluate the vocational consultancy capacity of the students as shown in 6 component capacities, the results are described as follows.

2.1. The Level of Achieving the Component Capacities in the Vocational Consultancy Capacity of Students in University of Education

In order to understand the vocational consultancy capacity of students in university of education, we have studied the level of these component capacities achieved, the results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 shows that the vocational consultancy capacity of students is only low and average with the highest average point of 2.67 and the lowest average point of 2.52. Specifically:

The capacity achieving the highest level among the above capacities is Support for pupils to improve their capacity to plan and implement plans to strive for the target of the selected industry, career and school with average point of 2.67. This capacity helps the pupils identify goals, make plans and how to achieve them.

Rank in the second position is Support for pupils to improve their capacity to learn information and schools training the industry and career with average point of 2.65; In this capacity, the students need to guide the pupils to learn information about the industry and career, perhaps this is easier for them because the information about the industry and career on books, media, Internet network is easier to find than other content.

Rank in the third position is Support for pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections. This capacity requires the students to have a clear understanding of ways to help the pupils learn about themselves such as: personality, capacity, interests and Support for pupils to solve psychological difficulties related to the selection of industry and career. With this capacity, the students will support the pupils to solve difficulties such as conflicts between parents and children in career selections. Two capacities of this component are average point of 2.62.

In the fourth position, it is support for pupils to improve their capacity to make decisions on the selection of industry, career and training schools with the average point of 2.57. When the pupils have selected the suitable careers for themselves, however, they will have to decide which career they will choose, the pupils cannot select too many jobs but must know which career is best for them. Therefore, the students must help the pupils know how to make the most reasonable decision when selecting a career.

Rank in the last position is Identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career with average point of 2.52. In this content, the students themselves will have to accurately look, observe and describe the difficulties which the pupils are facing during their career selection process.

Thus, it can be affirmed that the vocational consultancy capacity of students is low and moderate, since the students are not trained methodically, the opportunity for practice is less, leading to the above results.

So in each capacity, what the level of the criteria in the component capacity of vocational consultancy capacity of students is, we will follow the results shown in the following tables.

2.2. Level of Students’ Capacity in University of Education for Identification of Issues Related to the Selection Of Pupils’ Industry and Career

Students’ capacity in university of education for identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career is evaluated by us in the criteria shown in Table 2.

Table 2 shows the students’ capacity in university of education for identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career are concretized by the composition capacities of the achieved levels as follows:

For the identification on concerns of pupils, the first thing the consultant should conduct interviews with the pupils /groups of pupils for pupils’ awareness about themselves, their aspirations and difficulties in the process of career selection, the level of this criterion achieved with the average point of 2.59. It means that the consultant needs to talk to the pupils to find out how difficult the pupils are, and what they need to know in the career selection process.

In addition to exchanging information to understand pupils’ difficulties, the consultant should provide open questions for the pupils to self-identify limitations on information of career and training schools, self-evaluation, this is also one of the very important things that the consultant needs to do, but the level of this criterion is 2.56. In this criterion, the consultant will suggest and evaluate the level of knowledge about the information related to the career, understand on themselves, so that the consultant will guide the process of consultancy later.

After the exchange, the consultant itself will have to accurately identify pupils’ difficulties, this criterion only achieves average point of 2.40. When there is an accurate identification, then there is a way to solve the difficulties for the pupils. When the consultant is not identified correctly, it will be more difficult later in the consultancy process and it is difficult to get the best results.

Once the students have identified the difficulties of the pupils, the consultant will base on the issue of the pupils to divide under the issue group or divide the group of pupils with the same issue, so even if individual or group, the consultant needs to divide the pupils groups according to each type of issues or group of issues which the pupils are facing, this criterion is evaluated at the level of 2.57.

The final of this capacity is that the consultant needs to outline the directions of consultancy for the pupils and groups of pupils according to each type of issue. That is, the consultant needs to point out the objectives as well as the orientations for each case, each issue, the average point of this criterion is 2.46.

Through observing the students during the internship under high school, we find that many students are confused about exchanging and talking with the pupils to find out the difficulties and advantages of the pupils.

2.3. Level of Students’ Capacity in University of Education for Support for Pupils to Improve Their Self-awareness and Evaluation of Psychological Characteristics Related to Industry and Career Selections

Each person has different abilities and personality, needs, values, interests and characteristics. Each characteristic, each personality corresponds to different careers. There are many types of abilities, personality characteristics and other characteristics that each person must consider as a prerequisite for the success of many careers. Self-awareness and self-evaluation means self-evaluation of their abilities, interests, and skills. Awareness about yourself is necessary to make decision of appropriate career selection like the necessary knowledge to make a career selection that suits you. Therefore, in order to help the pupils realize themselves, it should be supported by career consultants. So the level of future vocational consultants’ capability is shown in Table 3.

Table 3 shows the level of capacity for support for pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections is shown in the following criteria:

The first is to guide the pupils to realize their strengths, weaknesses and self-evaluation, this criterion achieves average point of 2.57. In this criterion, the students must help the pupils find and recognize their abilities, personality, temperament, interests. Pupils’ abilities are demonstrated in academic subjects at school, in communication or in ability in activities. What are pupils’ outstanding? What areas of interest do the pupils have? Overall, this is one of the most difficult things, because there are pupils who can't find their own strengths. Student Nguyen Khanh L shared: “It is very difficult to ask the pupils to find their strengths, there are some who do not know how they are. Because we do not have much experience in this issue, so sometimes a whole time of talking does not discover the strengths of pupils”.

The next is the criteria of exchanging and supporting the pupils to self-identify inaccuracies and incompleteness of bases for self-evaluation, with average point of 2.59. With this result, it is slightly higher than the first criterion but not significant. In this content, the students have to recognize what the pupils say about themselves, to know exactly what they say that are expressed, and what evidence is relevant to what the pupils say. On that basis, it can confirm what the pupils say which is whether they are in pupils or not. Student Phan My L shared: "There are pupils who think and say that they have the ability to convince, when being asked what you do, what activities you do to convince people to succeed, then the pupils cannot answer.". Because of that, the information given by the pupils is one thing, and whether the pupils are like that or not, that's another thing.

After talking with the pupils about themselves, students will give the pupils the tests, which is also one of the bases to redefine the strength and weakness of the pupils. Therefore, the students need to be able to guide the pupils to perform tests on pupils’ capacities, personality, and career interests with average point of 2.79. This is the highest level of all the above criteria. This criterion is achieved at the highest level because the students only need to observe the teacher to conduct the sample practice, do a few times, then they can do this job well.

The criterion is to guide the pupils to analyze the results of tests on psychological characteristics of each pupil related to the career selection with the average point of 2.58. After the pupils have completed the test, they will have results, on that basis, the students need to support the pupils to analyze the test results. For example, when the pupils complete a test by John Holland, the students and the pupils discuss what the results of the test stand out in research, art, society, and business or engineering, etc. It is difficult for the students to support this task for the pupils, student Nguyen Ha P said: "There are the pupils doing tests, such as John Holland's test, then their points in fields are all similar, but the points are not high, so it is difficult to determine their outstanding.”

After considering self-evaluation through exchange, test, the students need to be able to guide the pupils to compare their self-evaluation results with multiple choice test results to confirm the results of self-evaluation. This is necessary, because it helps the pupils review and reaffirm themselves again to be able to answer the question: "Who am I?", this criterion of the students is only achieved at the low level with an average point of 2.56.

The next is to guide the pupils to identify suitable career and select the suitable career with their strengths with the average point of 2.51. Based on the characteristics of the self to determine the career suiting with those characteristics of the pupils. In order to have good results in this activity, the students and pupils must think a lot and consider finding out the suitable career.

Thus, once again, it is possible to affirm that the students’ capacity in university of education for support for pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections is at low level, if the students do not try hard, it will be difficult to do this job well.

2.4. Competence Implementation Level on Helping the Pupils to Improve Their Ability on Making Enquiries about the Careers and Vocational Training Schools

It is an important issue of a suitable career selection process, which is the pupils who must understand the chosen careers. It is needed to understand the characteristics of the career, the career requirements, understand the system of vocational training schools and classes under the central and local levels, the system of universities and colleges. Therefore, it is required for the pupils to collect the occupational information, and the vocational training schools, as well as to analyze and select information in the most comprehensive way. So to what extent do students achieve this capacity, let's see the results in Table 4.

Table 4 shows that the competence implementation level on helping the pupils to improve their ability on making enquiries about the careers and vocational training schools of the students, which is mostly at average level, higher than with other competencies that students have. Namely:

The criteria for exchanging to learn about a knowledge level on the pupils' careers and help the pupils who can themselves identify a shortage of information about the careers, vocational training school, its Average point is 2.81. In this Criteria, it is expressed by the students talking to the pupils, helping them study the careers they have chosen, the schools they have planned to enroll in. Through exchanging and chatting, the students will identify that the pupils are lack of the knowledge and information about the careers, and on that basis, they will help them find information through orienting the pupils to the basic contents of the fields, the careers and necessary training schools with the average point is 2.66. In this content, the pupils do not know what information they need to learn about the careers, the students will assist them to learn about their competence, skills and qualities requirements, as well as, the working environment. Find out information about how the vocational training schools like training environment, tuition fees, and output standards of the schools.

Then, guide the pupils to identify information sources, the quality of information sources about the career, training schools, its average point is 2.62. Hereby the students will guide the pupils to find information about ways to search for the career’s information, which books, which trusted websites. After having information resources, the students shall assist the pupils in seeking and analyzing information about the careers. Analyze each requirement of competence, quality, skills needed, on that basis, it will be accurate to choose whether they are appropriate for that career. In these two Criterias, the students also achieve at the average level, but lower than other Criterias. Besides, it also helps the students to find and analyze vocational training schools, each training school will have different Criterias and requirement levels, some schools will require a very high benchmark, but ones are a very low benchmark. The students need to support the pupils, so that the pupils can understand whether their academic abilities meet the standards of those training schools.

Through observing and exchanging with students, we have found that the students have performed this ability better, according to some students' share, as follows, Dang Thi Q: “I don't think this is difficult because this competence only requires the knowledge of search techniques, information selection and analysis, which can help the pupils, and moreover, it also does not require the use of intellect much like other competences”.

2.5. Competence Level on Helping the Pupils to Improve Their Competence on Making a Selection Decision of the Fields, Careers and Vocational Training Schools

Decision is a series of conclusions and activities of yourself or a choice that is appraised, selected to make a decision ensuring a certain result achievement according to your own wishes and it is committed to take action;

It can be said that, in all steps, this is the most difficult step for the students. How do the students make the most appropriate decision? This requires the students' support capacity. So, to what extent have the students achieved this capability? The results are shown in Table 5.

Look at Table 5, the competence level on helping the pupils to improve their competence on selecting decision of the fields, careers and vocational training schools, Average point fluctuates from 2.53 to 2.58. Specifically, this competence is shown in the following Criterias.

Guide the pupils to list their own characteristics on the competences, personalities, interests and list the requirements of each career that the pupils have chosen, its average point is 2.58. In this content, the students need to support the pupils to perform this task in order to help them recognize and reassess their own characteristics and characteristics of their chosen career. This is a very necessary operation for the pupils, so that they can accurately assert themselves.

With the criteria of guiding the pupils to build a matrix in order to determine common points between the competences, personality and interests themselves with each required characteristics of that caeer with the average point of 2.56. This operation that the students need to guide students to make a table, including a column showing the characteristics of themselves, a column showing the required characteristics of the careers. If the characteristics of themselves are in the vertical column, the characteristics required of the careers in the horizontal column and vice versa. There are many characteristics, the number of columns are created corresponding to those characteristics. After listing and drawing a matrix, the students need to guide the pupils to collate and compare the common grounds between their own characteristics with the required career characteristics and check the corresponding boxes. Student Bui Ngoc H has shared: “At first, I was troubled, but after guiding the pupils, I got used to it, so I didn't feel difficult but I still couldn't master it”.

The criteria for guiding the pupils to arrange the selected fields, careers in the order from have much common grounds to have less common grounds with themself characteristics with average point of 2.58. After building the matrix and finding common grounds between the personal characteristics and the required characteristics of the industry, calculate the ratio of common characteristics of each profession with their own characteristics, the students will guide the study. All students have many things in common with the most personal characteristics, then rank first and decrease. Thus, with this activity students will guide students to find the best career for themselves at that time.

The criteria of guiding the pupils to list the most suitable school training the fields, careers as above mentioned ; order the schools according to enrollment requirements from high to low and learning ability; and guiding the pupils to analyze their ability and study ability; identify the suitable training schools for each the field, career, its average point is 2.57. On the basis of the above-mentioned careers, the students guide the pupils to find vocational training schools on the basis of the information students have learned above and arrange training schools. schools according to enrollment requirements from high to low. However, this operation has not done yet because this is just a matter of finding the training schools of the chosen professions, whether the schools are suitable for their own learning ability and interests or not. The students need to instruct the pupils to perform this operation, which is, guiding the pupils to analyze their ability and study ability; Identify the suitable training schools for each the field, career. At this time the priority order may change so students only instruct students to choose which training school is suitable for their own learning ability. If you do not make the right choice, you will not have the opportunity to enter training schools that are suitable for you, leading to the training school shall have a high requirement that they cannot meet and ultimately choose a lower school than with your own ability. Therefore, the students need to guide the pupils to consider carefully.

The criteria for guiding the pupils to consider carefully the requirements of each the field, career and advantages and disadvantages of themselves; collating, comparing with labor market demand, family conditions; arranging the careers with training schools in order of priority with GPA of 2.53. This is the most complicated operation, because it not only compares the characteristics of itself with the requirements of the industry but also needs to compare the needs of the labor market. If the students choose a career that is both relevant to their abilities, personalities, interests and fit the needs of the labor market, which is the best thing, but not all pupils get the so comprehensive. Therefore, this operation requires the students to carefully guide their pupils, helping them to consider the requirements so that they can find the most suitable career at that time. The student Tran Thi H has shared: "This operation is very difficult, always consider, as I am also confused when instructing the pupils to perform this operation, because some pupils can choose the career in accordance with the needs of the labor market but it does not fit very well with their abilities, personalities and interests. If they choose a career that is suitable for themselves, it is not suitable for the labor market and the wishes of their parents,..., so I feel very confused".

Thus, the students need to pay attention to the pupils: When making a career choice decision, it is important for individuals to be aware of their values, abilities, interests, right understanding of themselves, which is the motivation to stimulate appropriate career choices. Therefore, the pupils who want to have the right decision to choose a career, it is needed to collate their capabilities, interests, personalities with the characteristics, requirements of the career, as well as, the needs of the society's human resources. The most important and essentialist issue, which is the harmonious combination of the three factors above, in which, the most important factor for the pupils is "That career is needed for society" [ 9, p. 97].

2.6. The Competence Level for Guiding Pupils in Making out a Schedule and Implementing a Schedule in Order to Gain the Chosen Career and Training Goals of Students

In this content, students primarily help pupils identify goals, make out a schedule and implement a schedule to achieve their goals as set. This is shown in Table 6.

Look at Table 6, the competence level for guiding the pupils in making out a schedule and implementing a schedule in order to gain the chosen career and training goals, which are at an average level with the most highest average point with 2.74 and the lowest with 2.63. Specifically, these criteria are expressed as follows:

The first criteria is to guide the pupils to determine their goals and contents to strive for the capacity enhancement, adjust the psychological characteristics themselves in accordance with the requirements of the fields, career, training schools with average point of 2.64. After the pupils have identified the suitable careers and schools for themselves, an indispensable step is to identify goals and strive to gain the goals as set. So, the students also need to support them to perform this task, support them, so that they do not get embarrassed when determining goals. As not all pupils can identify a suitable goal, some students who will determine goals that are too high for them, so it is too difficult to achieve the goals.

The criteria are to guide the pupils to choose and use methods / techniques to develop appropriate personal development strategies and plans with the GPA of 2.63. Many methods and techniques for planning are put forth, so the students need to guide the pupils to choose, use the appropriate planning methods to their abilities. Regarding this, student Nguyen Hoang Ngoc H shares: “I often plan my own study, so the pupil guidance to plan in the career goals implementation, which is not complicated, so I feel confident when instructing them”.

The criteria are to guide the pupils to divide the steps / stages of the schedule implementation with average point of 2.66. In this content, the students will help the pupils know how to implement the plan at each stage or step by step to suit the time and capacity of the pupils, which requires the pupils to understand clearly each content taken in different steps or stages.

The criteria is to guide the pupils to determine self-learning methods and means to maintain the schedule implementation with average point of 2.64. It requires the students to help the pupils identify appropriate learning methods to achieve the desired learning outcomes. Some students determine their career and want to test in those careers that require a good knowledge on related subjects, so they will have to work hard in their studies.

The criteria is to guide the pupils to identify the relevant parties, people/ sources can access them when they need an assistance with average point 2.71, the students need support to help the pupils identify the units and individuals that can help them when needed. For example, when the pupils want to experience careers, visit vocational training schools, who or which organization should they contact.

The criteria are to supervise and support the pupils to implement the schedule with average point of 2.74, this is not difficult for then students when they supervise and check the implementation of the pupils' plans to see how the results. And when the pupils have difficulties in the plan implementation, they also need to help the pupils in a timely manner to the propitious process of the plan implementation and achieve the best results.

2.7. The Supporting Competence Level for the Pupils to Solve Psychological Difficulties Related to the Selection of Fields, Careers

Along with the above mentioned contents of vocational consulting, the purpose of pupils support is to release psychology, which is the final and indispensable content in the vocational consulting. Therefore, psychological clearance for the pupils is not only the content, but also the goal of the vocational consulting. In the students support process is to self-assess, learn about the fiels, careers and the training school, besides, it is also needed to help the pupils choosing the career, the consultant must always pay attention to the pupils' psychological status: in a divided mind, worry, sad, discouraged, and so on, in order to comment and assess the awareness level and solve the difficulties in the pupils' career choice process. The above psychological status is always proportional to the pupils' difficulties settelent level. Thanks to the consulting process, the difficulties in the pupils' career choice process are gradually removed and the psychological status is gradually improved. Thus, the psychological clearance for the pupils is an inevitable consequence after the consultant completes the above contents. To implement this content well, it requires the consultant to have the skills and experience observing and detecting the pupils' psychological expressions in the vocational consulting process.

In this content, we learn how students helped students to solve psychological difficulties during the career selection process. Here, one of the biggest difficulties that the pupils often encounter is the conflict between parents and children when choosing the careers. Many parents impose their careers choice on their children without giving their children the decision right, whether these careers are inconsistent with their abilities and interests. Therefore, how did the students achieve this level? The results are shown in Table 7.

Table 7 shows that the supporting competence level for the pupils to solve psychological difficulties related to the selection of fields, careers, which is only low and average level, with the highest average point of 2.69 and the lowest one of 2.57. Specifically, the criteria are expressed as follows:

The criteria is to support the pupils identify barriers and possible pressures from themselves, families and the surrounding environment with average point of 2.69, showing that in this content, the students need to help the pupils understand clearly the barriers and difficulties that they are facing. Comprehend thoroughly how the difficulties and barriers are. The barrier herein can be from their family and parents as the pupils' career choice that are not supported and agreed by their parents; however, it can also from themselves such as a conflict between their favorite career and the non-capable career, etc.

The criteria is to guide the pupils to identify and analyze the causes of such difficulties with average point of 2.58. In this content, the students will support the pupils to find out the causes by asking open questions to be able to find the most basic causes, on that basis, guide the pupils to give a solution reaching a low level with average point of 2.57. This content means that if that problem is solved, there will be many different options, but the pupils themselves will not find a solution, so the students need to support them in this issue. However, the pupils' understanding is limited, so it is embarrassing to support them to come up with the plans.

This criteria is to guide the pupils to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each solution; choose the most suitable solution at a low level with average point of 2.59. In this content, the students need to guide the pupils to give advantages and disadvantages of each option and anticipate the situation that will be occurred when applying those options. This is shared by student Ha Thi Cam V: "I don't have much experience in difficulties settlement, so making plans and analyzing special options is anticipated in situations, which is extremely difficult for me to happen, because I myself do not know if it is suitable or not".

The criteria is to support the pupils to implement the selected solution at an average level with average point of 2.62. In the process of difficulties solved by the pupils, there surely will be problems, the students need to support them in a timely manner, so that they can have peace of mind with their solutions and choices.

At the end of the consulting process, the students need to prepare vocational consulting document for each pupil. With this criterion, the students has achieved an average level with average point of 2.67. In the consulting document, the students need to describe each case very clearly on psychological characteristic, ability, interest, personality, dream, family circumstance and goal of the pupils. In addition, the consulting document clearly shows the objectives and plan of the target implementation. Describe clearly the students' consulting process for the pupil and what has been achieved and has not been achieved. Which information is needed to learn more? This work requires a meticulousness, carefulness of the students.

3. Conclusion

Through analysis of the above situation, the competence of vocational guidance consulting of Hanoi National University of Education's students is not high, there are many limitations. This competence is only average, but with average point of 2.61. In the vocational guidance consulting competence of the students, we assess in 6 components capacity that are the identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ field and career; Support for the pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections; Support for the pupils to improve their capacity to learn about information and schools training the field and career; Support for the pupils to improve their capacity to make decisions on the selection of field, career and training schools; Support for pupils to improve their capacity to plan and implement plans to strive for the target of the selected field, career and school; Support for pupils to solve psychological difficulties related to the field and career selection. In which, the component capacity is to help the pupils improve their ability to set up and implement the plan, in order to strive to achieve the career goals, the school chosen, which achieves the highest level average point, while the ability of the identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ field and career, gaining the average point at the lowest level. From the above results, the students need to be trained and practice more in order to improve their abilities. Hanoi National University of Education needs to have programs and plans for vocational guidance training in general and capacity of vocational guidance for the students in particular, its aim is to meet the needs of vocational guidance consulting in high school contributing to heighten the efficiency of career guidance in the high school in the current period.

References

[1]  Ministry of Education and Training (2017), Circular guiding the implementation of psychological consulting for the students in high school, Ministry of Education and Training.
In article      
 
[2]  Lynda Ali and Barbara Graham (2001), The counselling approach to careers guidance, Routledge of the Taylor & Francis Group, pages (1-2)].
In article      
 
[3]  Laura Nota, Salvatore Soresi, Lea Ferrari, Maria Cristina Ginevra (2014), Vocational designing and career counseling in Europe: Challenges and new horizons, European Psychologist, Vol 19(4), pp 248-259.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Nick R. Abel và Brandie Oliver (2018), Innovative School Counseling Approaches to Improving College and Career Readiness, Scholarship and professional work – education, Butler University, https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/coe_papers/141/.
In article      
 
[5]  Lea Ferrari, Teresa Maria Sgaramella và Salvatore Soresi (2017), Training for Career Guidance and Counseling Academic Scientists: Future Challenges and Directions, New perspectives on career counseling and guidance in Europe pp 205-217.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Argyropoulou, K., & Kaliris, A. (2018), From career decision-making to career decision-management: New trends and prospects for career counseling, Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal – Vol.5, No.10, pp 483-502.
In article      
 
[7]  Caroline Arnoux-Nicolas, Laurent Sovet, Lin Lhotellier, Nadia Baatouche, Jean-Luc Bernaud, Sabine Lepez, Béatrice de la Faye (2019), Meaning-Centered Career Intervention for College Students, New perspectives on career counseling and guidance in Europe pp 133-146.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Pham Dang Khoa (2014), Model of whole life career guidance consulting in the Republic of France and orienting its application in Vietnam, Education Journal, No. 345 (Quarter 1 - 11/2014, p.54 -55; 58.
In article      
 
[9]  Nguyen Thi Thu Anh (2016), Career guidance consulting and enrollment for high school students - experience at Nguyen Tat Thanh Secondary & High School, Education Journal, Special Edition, quarter 1, June.
In article      
 
[10]  Le Duy Hung (2018), Current situation of needs for the career guidance consulting forms of the students in some high schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Education Journal, No. 427 (Quarter 1 - 4/2018), p.15-18; 55.
In article      
 
[11]  Do Thi Bich Loan (2018), Career oriented education for high school students in the context of the industrial revolution 4.0, Journal of Educational Sciences, No. 7, p.7-12.
In article      
 
[12]  Nguyen Thi Duyen (2018), Use the case studies in teaching pedagogical skills to develop vocational consunlting skills for the students of Technology and Education, No.9, p. 28-33.
In article      
 
[13]  Trương Thi Hoa (2018) Common Issues in High School Student’s Career Decision – Making Choice and Supporting Measurement in Career Consulting, American Journal of Educational Research, 2018, Vol. 6, No. 5, 370-376.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Truong Thi Hoa

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Truong Thi Hoa. Actual Situation for Capacity of Vocational Consultancy of Students in University of Education. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp 418-427. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/7/6/7
MLA Style
Hoa, Truong Thi. "Actual Situation for Capacity of Vocational Consultancy of Students in University of Education." American Journal of Educational Research 7.6 (2019): 418-427.
APA Style
Hoa, T. T. (2019). Actual Situation for Capacity of Vocational Consultancy of Students in University of Education. American Journal of Educational Research, 7(6), 418-427.
Chicago Style
Hoa, Truong Thi. "Actual Situation for Capacity of Vocational Consultancy of Students in University of Education." American Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 6 (2019): 418-427.
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  • Table 2. Level of students’ capacity in university of education for identification of issues related to the selection of pupils’ industry and career
  • Table 3. Level of students’ capacity in university of education for support for pupils to improve their self-awareness and evaluation of psychological characteristics related to industry and career selections
  • Table 4. Help the pupils to improve their ability on making enquiries about a career and vocational training schools
  • Table 5. Competence level on helping the pupils to improve their competence on selecting decision of the fields, careers and vocational training schools
  • Table 6. The competence level for guiding pupils in making out a schedule and implementing a schedule in order to gain the chosen career and training goals of students
  • Table 7. The supporting competence level for the pupils to solve psychological difficulties related to the selection of fields, careers
[1]  Ministry of Education and Training (2017), Circular guiding the implementation of psychological consulting for the students in high school, Ministry of Education and Training.
In article      
 
[2]  Lynda Ali and Barbara Graham (2001), The counselling approach to careers guidance, Routledge of the Taylor & Francis Group, pages (1-2)].
In article      
 
[3]  Laura Nota, Salvatore Soresi, Lea Ferrari, Maria Cristina Ginevra (2014), Vocational designing and career counseling in Europe: Challenges and new horizons, European Psychologist, Vol 19(4), pp 248-259.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Nick R. Abel và Brandie Oliver (2018), Innovative School Counseling Approaches to Improving College and Career Readiness, Scholarship and professional work – education, Butler University, https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/coe_papers/141/.
In article      
 
[5]  Lea Ferrari, Teresa Maria Sgaramella và Salvatore Soresi (2017), Training for Career Guidance and Counseling Academic Scientists: Future Challenges and Directions, New perspectives on career counseling and guidance in Europe pp 205-217.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Argyropoulou, K., & Kaliris, A. (2018), From career decision-making to career decision-management: New trends and prospects for career counseling, Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal – Vol.5, No.10, pp 483-502.
In article      
 
[7]  Caroline Arnoux-Nicolas, Laurent Sovet, Lin Lhotellier, Nadia Baatouche, Jean-Luc Bernaud, Sabine Lepez, Béatrice de la Faye (2019), Meaning-Centered Career Intervention for College Students, New perspectives on career counseling and guidance in Europe pp 133-146.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Pham Dang Khoa (2014), Model of whole life career guidance consulting in the Republic of France and orienting its application in Vietnam, Education Journal, No. 345 (Quarter 1 - 11/2014, p.54 -55; 58.
In article      
 
[9]  Nguyen Thi Thu Anh (2016), Career guidance consulting and enrollment for high school students - experience at Nguyen Tat Thanh Secondary & High School, Education Journal, Special Edition, quarter 1, June.
In article      
 
[10]  Le Duy Hung (2018), Current situation of needs for the career guidance consulting forms of the students in some high schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Education Journal, No. 427 (Quarter 1 - 4/2018), p.15-18; 55.
In article      
 
[11]  Do Thi Bich Loan (2018), Career oriented education for high school students in the context of the industrial revolution 4.0, Journal of Educational Sciences, No. 7, p.7-12.
In article      
 
[12]  Nguyen Thi Duyen (2018), Use the case studies in teaching pedagogical skills to develop vocational consunlting skills for the students of Technology and Education, No.9, p. 28-33.
In article      
 
[13]  Trương Thi Hoa (2018) Common Issues in High School Student’s Career Decision – Making Choice and Supporting Measurement in Career Consulting, American Journal of Educational Research, 2018, Vol. 6, No. 5, 370-376.
In article      View Article