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Communicative Approach in Improving Skill Speaking (Action Research on Grade V Students of SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency)

Ramandha Putra , Zulela, Totok Bintoro, Adi Apriadi Adiansha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(8), 1098-1101. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-8-6
Received June 25, 2018; Revised August 01, 2018; Accepted August 09, 2018

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to improve speaking skills through a communicative approach to students of grade V SD Kitri Bakti District North Cikarang Bekasi District. The research method used action research with model Kurt Lewin. The data source used is the students of grade V SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi District. The result of the research shows that the pre-cycle of students' speaking skill is the average score of 65.33 with the success rate of 40% so it is still relatively low, the cycle I speaking skill average score obtained by students 69.27 with the success rate of 76.67% with the criterion is still low, then cycle II speaking skills average score of 79.67 with level of success 86.67% with criteria have reached target in this research. This suggests that a communicative approach to improving speech skills in primary schools.

1. Introduction

Indonesian language learning is directed to improve the ability and skills of students to communicate in Indonesian language properly and correctly, both orally and in writing, and fostering appreciation of Indonesian literary works. The Indonesian language competency standard is a qualification of students' minimum ability to describe the mastery of knowledge, speaking skills, and positive attitudes towards Indonesian language and literature.

In the skills of speaking in learning at elementary school level is very important. According to Zulela, learning to acquire speech or language skills in a person can be done through formal or informal learning, or can also be done informally through communication in the family, association or through reading activities. 1 Jujun Suriasumantri in Zulela said that without having the ability to speak, then the activities of thinking in a systematic and orderly can not be done. 1 Language skills are not natural in themselves but must be learned, language skills must be practiced with continuous training and there should be an early formation as early as possible in primary school.

Based on the results of the PISA (study Program for International Student Assessment)of reading results in the last two years shows reading skills in the State of Indonesia in 2012 with reading skills earned an average score of 396 with an established international average standard of 500 then ranked 64 of 65 participating countries, and by 2015 with reading skills earned an average score of 393 with an established international average of 500 then ranked 62 out of the 70 participating States. 2

In this research will focus on speaking skill in class V SD Kitri Bakti North District of Bekasi Regency shows that students' speaking skill during learning process is still less, it is seen from when students speak pronunciation or pronunciation is still less smoothly, the sentence used students are still irregular, vocabulary placement is still irregular, the content of the talks are not yet clear, and the understanding of what is discussed is still lacking. Though speaking skills in the process of learning in the classroom becomes something very important to communicate between teachers and students.

Some scholars explain that speaking skills are the ability to express articulation sounds or express words that appreciate, express, convey thoughts, ideas and feelings. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 So in speaking skills it is very important in conveying ideas, ideas, thoughts or feelings with a specific purpose so that the message conveyed can be understood or accepted by the listener.

Based on the above problems, one of the efforts in improving students' speaking skills is by using a suitable approach in the learning activities. Researchers believe as one alternative in improving the speaking skills is to use a communicative approach.

Some experts explain that the communicative approach is an approach in the learning process that emphasizes the aspects of language skills so that it can be utilized in everyday life. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 From several theories above, the communicative approach is an approach that enhances students' ability to develop speech skills in both productive and receptive activities according to real situations, rather than artificial situation that is independent of the context. So, in the communicative approach is an approach that can improve the ability of students in the learning process of Indonesian language, especially in the skills of speaking to students so that students are able to unite, connect or link learning in accordance with real situations rather than artificial situations that are released of context.

Based on the above description, the researcher intends to conduct research with the title Communicative Approach in Improving Student Speaking Skills in Class V SD Kitri Bakti District North Cikarang Bekasi District.

1.1. Research Focus

Based on the background of the above problem, the focus of this research is Communicative Approach in Improving Student Speaking Skills in Class V SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency.

1.2. Problem Formulation

Based on the background of problem and focus of research above, hence formulation of problem in this research is as follows:

1. Is communicative approach can improve speech skill of class V SD Kitri Bakti Sub District of North Cikarang Regency of Bekasi?

2. How to improve speaking skill through communicative approach in class V SD Kitri Bakti Kecamatan Cikarang Utara Kabupaten Bekasi?

2. Methods

The research method used is Action Research. Action research used in this research is by using Kurt Lewin model. The research design is used in accordance with the rules of action research. This action research is carried out in an attempt to improve the speaking skills of the classroom students by using a communicative approach, through the provision of action that begins with a learning plan and followed by action in the classroom as well as reflection on the initial action and planning after the learning.

3. Results

3.1. Implementation of Pre-cycle Data

Students 'learning outcomes in Indonesian subjects in students' speaking skills that meet the minimum completeness criteria are only 12 students, the overall student completeness level is only 40% and 18 students or 60% still does not meet the minimum predetermined standard that is 70 while the average value obtained only 65.33.

This is reinforced by some of the findings of problems in the learning process conducted on pre-cycle in the class IV there are students who do not listen to instructions from the class teacher, so that the learning process becomes not conducive and students who have interest to learn more become disrupted in the process of teaching and learning . This has an impact on the ability of students in the process of learning activities, especially in speaking skills because it requires more concentration in communicating. In line with this the researcher will carry out a communicative approach that can activate the students and is expected to improve speech skills in grade V students Elementary School

3.2. Implementation Data I

The results of speaking skills on the first cycle students who expressed complete as many as 23 students, while students who are declared not complete as much 7 students, and 1 student absent due to illness in the evaluation. But the average number of students obtained only 69.27 while the completeness criteria of at least 80% but overall percentage of 76% of students expressed in the skills of speaking to students. It can be said that in cycle I is not complete so it must be continued on the action cycle II.

3.3. Implementation of Cycle Data II

The result of speaking skill in cycle II happened very significant increase. Can be seen from the results of students said to complete 30 students and students who are not complete only 2 students and 2 students who are not present in the class due to illness. So that can be expressed students who achieve mastery 86.67%.

Improved speaking skills can be seen in the results of speaking skill tests in this cycle II. This test is carried out individually to determine the speaking skills the student has after experiencing the action. The result of improving the speaking skill in cycle II can be seen as in the following table:

If shown in graphic form, graphic skill of students of grade V SD Kitri Bakti of North Cikarang Sub-district of Bekasi Regency is based on comparison of average and complete as follows:

4. Discussion

Based on the results of pre-cycle action that begins with the pretest of speaking students who are still low. This can be seen from the average score obtained by students as much as 65.33, while the percentage of students' completeness is only 40% of the students in attendance as many as 30 students. Difficulties experienced by students in speaking is the integrity and also the integration between sentence one with the other sentence and vocabulary is still limited. Even in learning to speak, students look passive and have less motivation to follow Indonesian language learning especially on speaking material. This is because the management of Indonesian language learning in speaking materials less effective and fun. The Indonesian learning process takes place in the classroom only then the teacher explains and the students just listen. Students just listen so that information obtained only from the teacher did not experience directly. As a result, when students are assigned to speak, students find it difficult to develop ideas as well as ideas that students will convey.

On the result of speech skill test using communicative approach of class V students Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency in the cycle looks different with the result of pre-cycle average value obtained 65.33 with the number of completeness as many as 12 students the number of students who attend 30 students so that the presentation obtained only 40% received the KKM scores in the pre-cycle. Then after the action cycle I increased to 23 students who get mastery over KKM as much as 76.67%. Overall, the three meetings in cycle I can be seen in the success of improving speaking skills.

Although there is an increase in cycle I, the increase is not maximal because students who reach KKM has not reached 80%, so that teachers and researchers do reflection and continue to cycle II. The results of reflection that have been implemented in this cycle I are: 1) the ideas expressed by the less developed students in speaking so that students speak with grammar that is still not good, 2) the students have not dared to answer with teachers so that teachers can not measure students' understanding of the material given in the speech, 3) in the final activity the students are more chatting with the classmates so there is no submission of conclusions submitted by the students, 4) the teacher has not been able to condition the time allocation at the time of the learning, 5) the students are not active in the group activities so monotonous at the time of discussion. In cycle II continued in accordance with the results of reflection that is still lacking in the cycle I.

Quantitatively the results of speech skills test using a communicative approach on students of grade V SD Kitri Bakti District North Cikarang Bekasi District in cycle II has increased compared to the average in cycle I the result of average value in cycle I is 69.27, in cycle II that is 78.67. With the percentage of completeness in the first cycle only 76.67%, in the second cycle increased to 86.67%. So, the percentage of mastery increases to 10%.

5. Conclude

Speaking skills of grade V students Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi District is still low. This is indicated by the pre-cycle of students' speaking skills that are proving low. The test results showed the students achieved an average score of 65.33 with a success rate of 40%. This figure is under the Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria (KKM) in SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang District Bekasi class V on the subjects of the Indonesian language is 70.

Application of communicative approach used in the first cycle looks not implemented optimally because students are still passive, so the teacher must provide more stimulus to get maximum response from students. Students who have difficulty to organize become obstacles in the implementation process of communicative approach. In addition, the uneven ability of students is also a barrier of special attention by researchers, the students who are not fluent in speaking well so that it becomes a barrier also in this research speaking skills. This study is also limited by time, causing speech activity to be less efficient. So that got the result of research on cycle I average score obtained by student 69.27 with success rate equal to 76.67%.

This is what makes consideration for researchers to continue research into cycle II. Cycle II will serve as a follow-up of the reflection result done in cycle I. Barriers, shortcomings and problems found in cycle I will be fixed in cycle II. All this is demonstrated by the improvement of speech skills shown through the results achieved in cycle II later.

In the second cycle of learning applied to theme 8. Environment Sahabat Kita, has reached the target of research or success criteria with the average value of students' speaking skills on learning Indonesian at 79.67 with a success rate of 86.67%. This result has been above the KKM is 70. Achievement of the target of this research indicates that no further research is needed. So, researchers and collaborators agreed to stop research in cycle II only.

The conclusion of this research is the use of communicative approach in improving the speaking skill has been declared successful against the elementary school students Kitri Bakti North Cikarang District Bekasi Regency. This is evidenced by the communicative approach is able to create active learning in involving students this is closely related to the activities of speaking.

References

[1]  Zulela., Skilled Writing in Primary School (Tangerang: PT Pustaka Mandiri, 2013).
In article      
 
[2]  OECD, PISA 2015 Results: What Students Know and Can Do-Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science (PISA: OECD Publishing, 2016).
In article      
 
[3]  Hinduism, Indonesian Character Learning in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah / Elementary School (Depok: Nufa Citra Mandiri, 2014).
In article      
 
[4]  Masturi Rulia, Edi Suyanto, & Iqbal Hilal., Utilization of Audio Media Visual to Improve Activities and Speech Skills (Bebalah)., Jurnal Tiyuh Lampung (Unila: Magister of Regional Linguistics and Literature, 2017).
In article      
 
[5]  Nirmala Ratna Sari, Improve Speaking Ability Through Fourth Grade Student Story Technique, Secondary School Education Journal Second Edition (UNY: Department of Primary School Education FIP, 2017).
In article      
 
[6]  Azizah, Nur., Yuli Kurniawati., Level of Speech Skills Viewed from Role Playing Methods In 5-6-Year-Old Child (Indonesian Journal of Early Childhood Education Studies: Semarang University, Indonesia, 2013).
In article      
 
[7]  Hadi, Sholihul., Rustono., Development of Quantum Simulation Learning Model to Improve Speaking Skills of Junior High School Students (Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa and Literature Indonesia: Semarang State University, Indonesia, 2017).
In article      
 
[8]  Kentarsih Rabawati, M. Sutama & M. Gosong., Application of Approach Communicative in Learning Indonesian Grade XI SMK Negeri 1 Denpasar, e journal Volume 2 (Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha).
In article      
 
[9]  Rabawati, Kentarsih., M. & M. Gosong Sutama., Application of Communicative approach in Learning Indonesian Student Class XI SMK Denpasar, e journal Volume 2 (Ganesha Education University: Indonesian Education Program, 2013).
In article      
 
[10]  Spiritual, Anita., Sundanese Speech Language Teaching Model for Non-Sundanese Speakers Through Communicative Approach (Journal of Literature and Literature and Indonesian Language Education: Depok Indonesia, 2017).
In article      
 
[11]  Sari, Nirmala Ratna., Improving Speech Capability Through Technique of 4th Grade Student Story, Secondary School Education Journal Second Edition (UNY: Department of Primary School Education FIP, 2017).
In article      
 
[12]  Sobri., Scientific Writing Indonesian based on Approach Komunikatif (Journal of Education and Teaching Studies: Mathla'ul Anwar University, Banten, 2017).
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Ramandha Putra, Zulela, Totok Bintoro and Adi Apriadi Adiansha

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Ramandha Putra, Zulela, Totok Bintoro, Adi Apriadi Adiansha. Communicative Approach in Improving Skill Speaking (Action Research on Grade V Students of SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency). American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 8, 2018, pp 1098-1101. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/8/6
MLA Style
Putra, Ramandha, et al. "Communicative Approach in Improving Skill Speaking (Action Research on Grade V Students of SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency)." American Journal of Educational Research 6.8 (2018): 1098-1101.
APA Style
Putra, R. , Zulela, Z. , Bintoro, T. , & Adiansha, A. A. (2018). Communicative Approach in Improving Skill Speaking (Action Research on Grade V Students of SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency). American Journal of Educational Research, 6(8), 1098-1101.
Chicago Style
Putra, Ramandha, Zulela, Totok Bintoro, and Adi Apriadi Adiansha. "Communicative Approach in Improving Skill Speaking (Action Research on Grade V Students of SD Kitri Bakti Sub District North Cikarang Bekasi Regency)." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 8 (2018): 1098-1101.
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[1]  Zulela., Skilled Writing in Primary School (Tangerang: PT Pustaka Mandiri, 2013).
In article      
 
[2]  OECD, PISA 2015 Results: What Students Know and Can Do-Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science (PISA: OECD Publishing, 2016).
In article      
 
[3]  Hinduism, Indonesian Character Learning in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah / Elementary School (Depok: Nufa Citra Mandiri, 2014).
In article      
 
[4]  Masturi Rulia, Edi Suyanto, & Iqbal Hilal., Utilization of Audio Media Visual to Improve Activities and Speech Skills (Bebalah)., Jurnal Tiyuh Lampung (Unila: Magister of Regional Linguistics and Literature, 2017).
In article      
 
[5]  Nirmala Ratna Sari, Improve Speaking Ability Through Fourth Grade Student Story Technique, Secondary School Education Journal Second Edition (UNY: Department of Primary School Education FIP, 2017).
In article      
 
[6]  Azizah, Nur., Yuli Kurniawati., Level of Speech Skills Viewed from Role Playing Methods In 5-6-Year-Old Child (Indonesian Journal of Early Childhood Education Studies: Semarang University, Indonesia, 2013).
In article      
 
[7]  Hadi, Sholihul., Rustono., Development of Quantum Simulation Learning Model to Improve Speaking Skills of Junior High School Students (Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa and Literature Indonesia: Semarang State University, Indonesia, 2017).
In article      
 
[8]  Kentarsih Rabawati, M. Sutama & M. Gosong., Application of Approach Communicative in Learning Indonesian Grade XI SMK Negeri 1 Denpasar, e journal Volume 2 (Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha).
In article      
 
[9]  Rabawati, Kentarsih., M. & M. Gosong Sutama., Application of Communicative approach in Learning Indonesian Student Class XI SMK Denpasar, e journal Volume 2 (Ganesha Education University: Indonesian Education Program, 2013).
In article      
 
[10]  Spiritual, Anita., Sundanese Speech Language Teaching Model for Non-Sundanese Speakers Through Communicative Approach (Journal of Literature and Literature and Indonesian Language Education: Depok Indonesia, 2017).
In article      
 
[11]  Sari, Nirmala Ratna., Improving Speech Capability Through Technique of 4th Grade Student Story, Secondary School Education Journal Second Edition (UNY: Department of Primary School Education FIP, 2017).
In article      
 
[12]  Sobri., Scientific Writing Indonesian based on Approach Komunikatif (Journal of Education and Teaching Studies: Mathla'ul Anwar University, Banten, 2017).
In article