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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Improving Discipline and Learning Independence of PKn Through Reinforcement

Septian Mukhlis , M. Japar, Arifin Maksum, Adi Apriadi Adiansha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(7), 1033-1039. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-7-22
Published online: February 12, 2019

Abstract

The objective of this research was to improve of discipline and learning independence in PKn learning at class V SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta. It was a action research. The data were collected through participant observation using interview, observation, questionnaire, and recording. The data analysis and interpretation indicates that: (1) Before the action is given the data obtained that the discipline and independence of student learning is still low; (2) Action of reinforcement in this research through reward and punishment; (3) Learning through the provision of reinforcement can improve discipline and learning independence. The findings lead to the recommendation to practice continous education, to increase discipline and self-reliance in PKn learning trought reinforcement.

1. Introduction

The character of the student will be reflected in the behavior through the education it acquires, both in the family, school, and surrounding environment. The school environment has a significant role in building character education. One of the characters that can be built and familiarized is discipline. Values of discipline need to be built and developed as early as possible given the discipline plays a very important role. Discipline is an orderly condition in which people who are members of an organization are subject to the rules that have been there with pleasure.

In Indonesia before the enactment of Law Number 20 the Year 2003 on National Education System, cognitive education is more dominant than character education, but in its implementation until now still cannot be realized properly. 1 Yet both of these are crucial to the bright young generation not only in science but also in humanist attitudes and behavior. In contrast to other countries whose education system has developed like Finland and Japan. They apply an education system that has a balance between cognitive education and character education. Early on, children are taught to honest, disciplined, be fair, and be responsible for themselves, humans and the environment.

Based on the observation of the researcher in the learning process activity in class V SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta there are still some attitudes that indicate indiscipline either in learning process or outside of learning, such as: (1) the low of activeness, obedience, and obedience in school entrance; (2) not yet discipline students in doing the task; (3) the low activity of the students in following the lessons in school, not regular, and not orderly in accordance with the provisions; (4) the inconsistency of the school's orderly conduct. The condition shows that student discipline is still low and needs attention.

In addition to disciplinary issues, other problems experienced by students are still low student self-reliance. The result of the observation is that the students' self-confidence is still low, this is indicated by the lack of activeness and courage of students in asking and answering teacher questions in the learning activities. The ability of students in self-study is still low, this is indicated by when given the task of individuals, it seems there are still most students who do it in groups. If the teacher is leaving the class, the students tend not to do the tasks the teacher provides by chatting, walking around in the classroom even out of the classroom. The condition shows that the students' self-reliance is still low.

Independence of learning is very important owned by each student to improve learning achievement. Good and bad achievement in school one of them is determined by each student and each student basically has different ability to achieve the best learning achievement one of which is determined by the independence in learning.

According to John Echols in Nurlatifah (2014) mentioned that the discipline comes from the English disciple which means orderly, obedient or controlling behavior, self-control, and self-control. 2

Discipline is the attitude of life and behavior that reflects the response to live, without external coercion. These attitudes and behaviors are shared based on the belief that they are beneficial to themselves and society. This relates to one's willingness and ability to adjust internally and to control himself to conform to norms, rules, laws, customs prevailing in the local social and cultural environment. 3

Discipline indicates a condition or attitude of respect that exists in a person against rules and provisions. Thus if the rules and provisions that exist within the organization are ignored, or often violated, then a person has poor discipline. Conversely, if a person is subject to the organization's provisions, it describes the existence of good disciplinary conditions. in a narrower and more widely used sense, discipline means an action taken with supervision to correct misbehavior and attitude in a person. The form of good discipline will be reflected in the atmosphere, namely: (1) the high sense of concern for the achievement of organizational goals, (2) the high spirit, passion and initiative of a person in doing the activities; (3) the magnitude of a person's sense of responsibility to perform the task as well (4) the growing sense of belonging and a sense of solidarity among colleagues of the organization, and (5) increased efficiency and productivity in one's self. 4

The Liang Gie in Ali Imron (2012) states discipline is an orderly condition in which people who are incorporated in an organization are subject to the rules that have been there with pleasure. 5 Good's in Dictionary of Education defines discipline as follows: (1) process or result of direction or control of desire, encouragement or interest in order to reach the intention or to achieve more effective action; (2) seek elected action with active, active and self- obstacles, (3) direct and authoritative control of behavior with punishment or reward, and (4) restraining impulse in an uncomfortable and even painful way.

According to Mulyasa (2002), discipline is an orderly awareness that the people in a system are subject to the existing rules with pleasure. 6 Maman Rachman (2004) states that discipline is an attempt to control oneself and the mental attitude of the individual or society in developing compliance and obedience to rules and order based on the encouragement and consciousness that arises from within his heart.

Discipline is the awareness and willingness of a person to comply with all applicable rules and social norms. Consciousness is the attitude of a person who voluntarily obeys all rules and is aware of his duties and responsibilities. Thus, one will be willing to abide by all the rules and carry out his duties, either voluntarily or by necessity. Willingness is an attitude, behavior, and actions of someone in accordance with the rules, both written and unwritten. 7

Maria J. Wantah (2005) states the purpose of discipline is to change the attitude and behavior of children to be true and acceptable to society. Through the formation of children's behavioral discipline will be more mature emotionally. Children who behave in the discipline will show good behavior as they can postpone their pleasure, pay attention to the needs of others, and have a good attitude of tolerance. 8

Handoko (2011) explains that the types of discipline include preventive discipline, corrective discipline, and progressive discipline. Preventive discipline is a discipline aimed at encouraging a person to self-discipline by obeying and following established standards and rules. Preventive discipline is also an activity undertaken to encourage a person to follow various standards and rules so that frauds can be prevented. 9

Corrective discipline is a discipline intended to deal with violations of applicable rules and fix them for the foreseeable future. This is in line with those proposed by Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom that the corrective discipline is an action that is committed after a violation of the rules, this action is intended to prevent further violations so that future actions will be in accordance with the standards.

Progressive discipline is a more severe punishment for repeated offenses. The goal is to give someone an opportunity to take corrective action before more serious punishments. Implemented this progressive discipline will allow management to help a person correct mistakes. Examples of progressive discipline are verbal reprimands, suspension, or exclusion.

Based on some of the expert opinions above, it can be synthesized that discipline is one's obedience to the rules and order either in the form of valid orders or prohibitions, which can be measured by indicators: an understanding of the prevailing rules, good mental attitude, and sincerity in obeying the order.

The term "self-reliance" comes from the basic "self" that gets the prefix "to" and the suffix "an", then forms a word of state or thing.

According to Hurlock in Niken (2016) that independence can be interpreted by being able to accept their own responsibility, free in thinking and acting, able to organize and determine the way of life in fulfilling their wants and needs. In other words, a person is said to own independence is able to charge, free and acting, as well as to regulate and determine the appropriate course of his life wishes and needs of the person. 10

Erikson in Desmita (2010) defines independence as an attempt to escape from parenthood in order to find itself through the process of seeking the identity of the ego, which is a development toward a steady and independent individuality. 11 The value of independence is defined by the Ministry of National Education as an attitude and behavior that is not easy depending on others in completing tasks. 12 An independent individual is the one who dares to make decisions based on an understanding of the consequences of his actions. 13 Students are expected to be more responsible for themselves.

McDougal in Ali and Asrori (2012) explains that independence is a special conformity, which means a conformity to an internalized group. Independence is manifested by discipline and ability to make decisions wisely and critically. 13

According to Ali and Mohammad (2012), a number of factors are often referred to as a correlate for the development of independence, namely: genes or parentage, parental care, education systems in schools, and living systems in society. 13

Brookfield in Hussein (2012) states that the independence of learning is self-awareness, self-propelled, learning ability to achieve its goals. Students who have the independence in learning, then he will plan his own learning process and evaluate his learning.

Students who have learning independence can be seen in the learning process, both at school and outside of school. Students who have learning independence will act on the basis of their own volition and initiative, without the command of others. To know students who have the independence of learning it must be known characteristics of learning independence. According to Sukarno mentioned the characteristics of learning independence: (1) students plan and choose their own learning activities, (2) students take the initiative and spur themselves to learn continuously, (3) students are required to be responsible in learning, (4) students learn critically, logical, and full of openness, (5) students learn with confidence.

Based on some expert opinions above, it can be synthesized that the independence of learning is an attitude and behavior in a person to conduct learning activities independently on the basis of his own motivation and is the result of experience and practice yourself without depending on others to master a certain material so that it can be used to solve the problems at hand, which can be measured by indicators: confident, self-taught, critical, continuous learning, and responsibility.

Reinforcement or reinforcement is any form of response that is part of the teacher's behavioral modification of the behavior of learners, which aims to provide learners' information or feedback for their actions as an act of encouragement. 14

Strengthening is a compliment given to students and is one of the skills teachers must possess. According to Moore in Rahim (2008), that generally the praise that teachers give to learners is the strengthening of verbal by using words such as: good, yes, okay, good. 14

Reinforcement is any form of response, whether it is verbal or nonverbal, which is part of the teacher's behavioral modification of the behavior of learners, which aims to provide information or feedback (feedback) to the recipient (the learners) for his actions as an act of encouragement or correction. Or, reinforcement is a response to a behavior that may increase the likelihood of recurrence of the behavior. The act is intended to reward or encourage learners to make them more active in participating in teaching-learning interactions. 15

Reinforcement is a positive response in the teacher's teaching on positive behavior of learners with the aim of maintaining and improving the behavior. Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that is deliberately given so that the behavior can be repeated again. The empowerment given by teachers is very important for learners. 16

According to Sardiman in Uno (2012) that reinforcement has several objectives, including (1) increasing the students' attention, (2) launching or facilitating the learning process, (3) generating and maintaining motivation, (4) controlling or changing disturbing attitudes toward productive learning behavior.

Usman (2011) states that strengthening has a positive attitude toward the learning process of students and aims to increase students' attention to the lesson, stimulate and improve learning motivation, and improve learning activities and foster the behavior of students who are productive. 15

The types of reinforcement are verbal and nonverbal. reinforcement Verbalis strengthening teacher responses expressed in the form of words of praise, encouragement, appreciation, and recognition given for the performance of students. While reinforcement non-verbal is a reinforcement given to students in the form of gesture strengthening, approaching students, touch, fun events, symbols, and full and not full reinforcement.

Maslow in Wantah (2005) says that appreciation is one of the basic needs that encourage a person to actualize himself. The reward is a very important element of discipline in self-development and behavior of children. A person will continue to improve and maintain discipline when the exercise of that discipline produces achievement and productivity which is then awarded. 8

Purwanto (2006) describes the award is a tool to educate children so that children can feel happy because of the deed or the work received an award. The rewards must have an educational value. Educating here not only in the academic field but also educating students in good behavior. 16

Based on the above opinion it can be concluded that appreciation is a positive thing that children get because the child has shown a good deed. Awarding children will improve behavior in accordance with the rules that apply, and make children to avoid themselves from actions that are not in accordance with the rules. By rewarding the child will try to behave in the discipline.

Ngalim Purwanto (2006) describes the award given for children to be the more active business to improve or enhance the discipline. The child will become harder in his will to do better. Thus the child will obey the norms and rules that apply. 16

Ali Imron (2012) argues that punishment is a sanction received by a person as a result of a violation or over predetermined rules. Punishment is given as an educational tool where the punishment is given should be able to educate and awaken learners. 5

Ngalim Purwanto (2006) argues that punishment is the suffering that a person (parent, teacher, etc.) deliberately or deliberately inflicts after an offense, a crime or a mistake occurs. Violation may be a violation of applicable rules. The problem of punishment is an ethical issue, involving bad and good questions and norms. 16

Anonymous in Wantah (2005) argues that the purpose of punishment is to stop children from doing things that are not in accordance with prevailing norms and rules by using methods that provide both biological and psychological deterrent effects. 8

Based on the description of several theories above, it can be concluded that reinforcement is one form of creation of a fun learning atmosphere that has been given by teachers to learners with the aim that the positive behavior of learners can increase.

2. Methods

This research site was conducted at SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta, having its address at Jalan Raya Condet Gg. Orchid No.40A Cililitan, East Jakarta. The time of research implementation in the first semester of the academic year 2017/2018.

The research method used is action research. Action research is the process of classroom assessment through self-reflection in an attempt to solve the problem by performing planned actions in real situations and analyzing any influence of the treatment. 17 Arikunto, et al explains that action research is a reflection of an activity that is deliberately raised and occurs in a class. 18

The concept of action research used in this study refers to the design of Kemmis & Taggart model, where each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation, and reflection. The four stages are one cycle or round, meaning after the fourth stage back to the first stage and so on. In the schematic design of the models Kemmis & Taggart as shown below:

Subjoak were students of class V SDN 02 Pagi Jakarta Cililitan. Data collection techniques use observation sheet, documentation, checklist to measure discipline and student learning independence.

3. Results

Discipline and independence of learning Civics in students of grade V SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta still need to be improved. This can be seen from the results of the observation sheet that assesses the students' learning discipline on the pre-cycle is known that learners who scored in the range 0-39 none, who scored in the range of 40-55 as many as 9 students or 28.13% less good, the range of scores of 56-75 as many as 20 students or 62.50% with good enough category, and the range of 76-100 scores as many as 3 students or 9.38% with good category. This means that most learners before the action are given based on the assessment that the teacher did have a fairly good level of learning discipline that is in the range of score 56-75 from a maximum score of 100.

The results of questionnaires that assess student learning discipline on pre-cycles known that learners who scored in the range 0-39 none, which scored in the range of 40-55 as many as 3 students or 9.38% with poor category, the score range of 56-75 as many as 28 students or 87.50% with good enough category, and only 1 learner or 3.13% who scored in the range of score 76-100 with good category. This means that most of the students before the action is given based on self-assessment of students have a fairly good level of learning discipline that is in the range of a score of 56-75 from a maximum score of 100.

Based on the observation sheet that assesses student learning independence on the pre-cycle known that learners get the value in the range 0-39 does not exist, which get value in the range of 40-55 as many as 13 students or 40,63% with less good category, range of score 56-75 as many as 19 students or 59,38% with good enough category, and none of the learners received scores in the 76-100 score range. This means that most learners before the action is given based on the assessment that the teacher did have a fairly good level of learning independence are in the range of score 56-75 from a maximum score of 100.

The results of questionnaires that assess the independence of learners learn on the pre-cycle known that learners who obtain the value in the range 0-39 does not exist, which got the value in the range of 40-55 as many as 6 students or 18.75% with poor category, the score range 56-75 as many as 26 students or 81.25% with good enough category, and no learner who scores in the 76-100 score range with either category. This means that most students before the action is given based on the self-assessment of students have a fairly good level of learning independence is in the range of score 56-75 from a maximum score of 100

Actions of reinforcement in this study are through the type of reinforcement in the form of verbal, gestural, reward, punishment, movement, and use strengthening by approaching learners. Giving strengthening is also given to individuals as well as to groups because learning is done in the form of small groups or large (classical) and individually.

The study discipline assessment in this action research is assessed from two sources, ie the teacher assesses the learning discipline and the learning independence of learners using an observation sheet and learners self-assess using questionnaires.

The result of the observation of discipline study can be seen in the following table:

From table recapitulation of the observation of the disciplines of learning, can depicted in the form of bar chart as follows:

Results The result of observation sheet that assesses student learning discipline in pre cycle obtained the average score of 57.99 with good enough category, increased after given action cycle I to be equal to 82.29 with a good category, and increased again after the action cycle II to equal to 90.63 with a good category.

The results of the questionnaire of students' learning discipline assessment assessed by the students themselves can be seen in the following table:

From the table of recapitulation of the results of questionnaire discipline of learning, can be described in the form of bar charts as follows:

Results that assess the discipline of learners on the pre-cycle obtained an average score of 66.17 with good enough category, increased after the first cycle action was given to 77.76 with a good category, and increased again after the second cycle action to be 82.81 with a good category.

The result of the observation of self-reliance learning can be seen in the following table:

From table recapitulation of the observation of independent learning, can be described in the shape of the bar chart as follows:

Results l observation sheet that assesses student learning independence in the precycle obtained average value of 57.50 with good enough category, increased after the first cycle of action given to 74, 79 with good enough category, and increased again after action cycle II to equal to 83,33 with a good category.

The results of the questionnaire assessment of the independence of learners who are assessed by the students themselves can be seen in the following table:

The results of the questionnaire which assess the students' learning independence in the precycle obtained an average value of 63.65 with good enough category, increased after the first cycle of action was given to 75.60 with good category and increased again after the action of cycle II to amounted to 82, 47 with a good category.

From the recapitulation table, the results of questionnaire independence of learning can be described in the form of bar charts as follows:

4. Discussion

A learning can be done well if students can behave discipline in following the learning. The state of discipline is a state where students are obedient to the rules or rules that apply. Discipline behavior will form a good character in students. Discipline behavior in learning later can be used as a stock of students in behaving discipline in society. In learning Civics still found many students who behave undisciplined and at will alone. The rules are not adhered to by the students. If there is a violation, the teacher only rebuked orally, so as not to make students deterred from undisciplined behavior.

In addition to discipline in learning, other problems experienced by students is still the low independence of student learning. Learning independence is an attitude that moves students to learn because of their consciousness. Students who have learning independence will have an innovation in the learning process so it will be easier in understanding the subject matter that makes it more creative to find new things and knowledge in accordance with the material being studied.

Independence of learning is very important owned by each student to improve learning achievement. Good and bad achievement in school one of them is determined by each student and each student basically has different ability to achieve the best learning achievement one of which is determined by the independence in learning.

Ways that can be used by teachers so that students can behave disciplined in following the learning of Civics is by giving reinforcement in the form of rewards (rewards) and punishment (punishment). Reinforcement is intended to provide students' information or feedback on their actions as an act of encouragement. Reinforcement in teacher learning is given to positive student behavior with the aim of maintaining and improving the behavior. Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that is deliberately given so that the behavior can be repeated again.

The reward can be awarded for students who comply with all rules and regulations well and consistently. While punishment is given to students who break the rules and repeat it after the warning is given. The application of rewards and punishment is an effort that can be implemented in schools for the achievement of a discipline of school rules or regulations. If the discipline is well executed and organized, then the purpose of education both in the form of institutional goals (institutional), curricular goals (field of study), as well as instructional goals (teaching) will get good results as well.

5. Conclude

Discipline and self-reliance learners class V SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta is not optimal still need to be improved. This can be seen from the result of the observation sheet and the result of a questionnaire instrument. The results of teacher observation sheet and self-assessment questionnaire of learners who measure the level of learning discipline and learning independence of learners obtained data that the level of learning discipline possessed students to enter the category quite well not included in either category.

The action of reinforcement in this research is through the type of reinforcement in the form of verbal, gestural, reward, punishment, movement, and using strengthening by approaching the students. Giving strengthening is also given to individuals as well as to groups because learning is done in the form of small groups or large (classical) and individually.

Learning through the provision of reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishment in the learning of Civics in the students of class V SDN Cililitan 02 Pagi Jakarta can improve the discipline and independence learners learn. This is indicated by an increase in the scores and categories acquired among learners before the action is given after the action has been given.

The implications of this action research are the discipline and learning independence of learners can be enhanced by learning activities through the provision of reinforcement. This means that if the provision of reinforcement in learning activities carried out by teachers and implemented well, then the discipline and learning independence of learners increased. So, that reinforcement is one factor that can not be ignored in the discipline lesson and learners' learning independence.

Based on the results of the previous discussion, the researchers can provide some advice as an effort to improve the discipline and independence of learners. Reinforcement given to learners should be noted, for example through encouragement in the form of verbal, gestural, reward, punishment, and movement. Feedback may also be provided individually or in groups. Teachers should further vary the provision of reinforcement to learners because there are many forms of reinforcement that have not been as well as the teacher more improve again. The method used, the method used in the class does not seem monotonous, and the participants more enthusiasm learn specifically the Citizenship Education Lesson.

References

[1]  Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System. Yogyakarta: Media Wacana Press.
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[2]  Nurlatifah (2014) Application of Behavioral Approach of Token Economics Technique To Improve Student Discipline Behavior in Learning Situation in Class (Single Subject Research In Grade 4 Students of SDN Sukamerta II in Kabupaten Karawang). Journal of Insight: Journal of Guidance and Counseling Vol 3 No.1, ISSN: 2252-9055.
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[3]  Salam, Abdus (2014) Insani Management in Business. Yogyakarta: Student Literature.
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[6]  Mulyasa, E. (2002) School Based Curriculum. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
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[7]  Hasibuan, Malayu SP (2010) Human Resource Management. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
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[8]  Wantah, Maria J. (2005) Development of Discipline and Moral Formation in Early Childhood. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education.
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[9]  Handoko, T. Hani (2011) Personnel Management and Human Resources. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
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[10]  Laksitarini, Niken. (2016). Integrated Learning Model Management and Learning Independence on Writing Ability Description. Journal of Elementary Education State University of Jakarta, Volume 7 Issue 2 December 2016.
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[11]  Desmita (2010). Psychology Development of Learners. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
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[12]  Kemendiknas. (2010). Development of Cultural Education and Nation Character. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education Research and Development Center Curriculum
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[13]  Mohammad, Ali and Mohammad Asrori (2012). Youth Psychology: Development of Learners. Jakarta: Earth Literacy
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[14]  Rahim, Farida (2008) Teaching Primary School Reading. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
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[15]  Usman, Uzer (2011) Becomes a Teacher Professional. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
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[16]  Purwanto, M. Ngalim. (2006). Theoretical and Practical Education Science. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Septian Mukhlis, M. Japar, Arifin Maksum and Adi Apriadi Adiansha

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Septian Mukhlis, M. Japar, Arifin Maksum, Adi Apriadi Adiansha. Improving Discipline and Learning Independence of PKn Through Reinforcement. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 7, 2018, pp 1033-1039. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/7/22
MLA Style
Mukhlis, Septian, et al. "Improving Discipline and Learning Independence of PKn Through Reinforcement." American Journal of Educational Research 6.7 (2018): 1033-1039.
APA Style
Mukhlis, S. , Japar, M. , Maksum, A. , & Adiansha, A. A. (2018). Improving Discipline and Learning Independence of PKn Through Reinforcement. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(7), 1033-1039.
Chicago Style
Mukhlis, Septian, M. Japar, Arifin Maksum, and Adi Apriadi Adiansha. "Improving Discipline and Learning Independence of PKn Through Reinforcement." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 7 (2018): 1033-1039.
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[1]  Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System. Yogyakarta: Media Wacana Press.
In article      
 
[2]  Nurlatifah (2014) Application of Behavioral Approach of Token Economics Technique To Improve Student Discipline Behavior in Learning Situation in Class (Single Subject Research In Grade 4 Students of SDN Sukamerta II in Kabupaten Karawang). Journal of Insight: Journal of Guidance and Counseling Vol 3 No.1, ISSN: 2252-9055.
In article      
 
[3]  Salam, Abdus (2014) Insani Management in Business. Yogyakarta: Student Literature.
In article      
 
[4]  Sutrisno, Edy. (2009) Human Resource Management. Jakarta: Kencana.
In article      
 
[5]  Imron, Ali. (2012) School-Based Student Management. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
In article      
 
[6]  Mulyasa, E. (2002) School Based Curriculum. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[7]  Hasibuan, Malayu SP (2010) Human Resource Management. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
In article      
 
[8]  Wantah, Maria J. (2005) Development of Discipline and Moral Formation in Early Childhood. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education.
In article      
 
[9]  Handoko, T. Hani (2011) Personnel Management and Human Resources. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
In article      
 
[10]  Laksitarini, Niken. (2016). Integrated Learning Model Management and Learning Independence on Writing Ability Description. Journal of Elementary Education State University of Jakarta, Volume 7 Issue 2 December 2016.
In article      
 
[11]  Desmita (2010). Psychology Development of Learners. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[12]  Kemendiknas. (2010). Development of Cultural Education and Nation Character. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education Research and Development Center Curriculum
In article      
 
[13]  Mohammad, Ali and Mohammad Asrori (2012). Youth Psychology: Development of Learners. Jakarta: Earth Literacy
In article      
 
[14]  Rahim, Farida (2008) Teaching Primary School Reading. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
In article      
 
[15]  Usman, Uzer (2011) Becomes a Teacher Professional. Bandung: PT. Youth Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[16]  Purwanto, M. Ngalim. (2006). Theoretical and Practical Education Science. Bandung: Teens Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
[17]  Sanjaya, Vienna. (2011) Classroom Research. Jakarta: Prenada Media Group.
In article      PubMed
 
[18]  Arikunto, Suharsimi, Suhardjono, Supardi. (2010). Classroom Action Research. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
In article