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Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools in Vietnam under Orientation to Learner Capacity Development

Nguyen Thu Tuan
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(5), 383-389. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-5-3
Received January 24, 2018; Revised April 09, 2018; Accepted April 14, 2018

Abstract

Today, teaching under orientation to learner capacity development is a natural tendency of countries around the world, it has great significance in formation and development of comprehensive personality for students. However, in Vietnam, up to now, implementation at schools has not really worked leading to slow innovation down and greatly affect the quality of education. This article talks about the difficulties and challenges in the quality of Fine Arts teacher staff at high schools in the context of Vietnam’s integration into international education and at the same time discusses the responsibilities of management levels to improve teacher capacities. In order to overcome these shortcomings, it is needed to develop a flexible roadmap and provide sustainable solutions (particularly raising the awareness of Fine Arts teachers in fundamental reform of teaching methods; reform of the way of examining and evaluating students' learning outcomes under the orientation to capacity development; content of the curriculum must be restructured; at the same time strengthen the training, improvement and development of aesthetic sense for Fine Arts teachers, etc.) to enhance the quality of teaching and learning in the fine arts subject at high schools under the orientation to capacity development in the current internationalization era, as this is a critical and decisive issue for the comprehensive and fundamental reform of general education in Vietnam.

1. Introduction

Teaching under the orientation to capacity development (also known as outcomes orientation) was been talked about extensively in 1970s-1980s and grew dramatically in the 1990s of the 20th century, which has now become international education trend.

In the 21st century, students can gain knowledge from diverse sources; they can learn by themselves if they know how to learn. Teachers must have ability to instruct students how to find out what they need to learn and how to apply to practice. Therefore, teaching under the orientation to capacity development is the most necessary objective to help learners assert themself in the community and creat a high level of adaptability to every situations 1.

In Vietnam, teaching under the orientation to capacity development is a strong trend of development at many grade levels. This teaching method is incorporated into the school principals with the motto that studying must be accompanied by practice, combining education with productive labor, theory-based practice, and school education attached with family and social education. This approach marks a revolutionary transition in thinking as well as educational activities at schools.

According to the New general education curriculum (issued in July 2017), capacity development teaching is to ensure the quality of the teaching outcomes, to achieve the goal of comprehensive development of qualifications and personality and special attention should be paid to the role of learners in the knowledge acquisition so as to be capable of solving problems in learning, in career and in real life 2. However, up to now, the implementation at schools has not been effective (mainly due to teachers who have not met the requirements of teaching under orientation to student capacity development), it slows innovation down and greatly affects the quality of general education.

Scientific researches, it has many studies on teaching under the orientation to learner capacity development. Authors Nguyen Thi Coi [ 3; pp.31-34] and Ho Thu Quyen [ 4; pp.15-18]; Identifying capacity systems needed for high school students by co-authors Trinh Dinh Tung, Nguyen Manh Huong [ 5; pp.30-33] and Nguyen Van Cuong [ 6; pp.15-18]; Researching on capacity development for grade schoolers by author Pham Thi Thuy Hong [ 7; pp.30-35] and Nguyen Minh Quan [ 8; pp.33-34]; Researching on the development of communication skills for high school students by co-authors Pham Kieu Anh and Tran Van Giap [ 9; pp.63-67]. Author Do Huong Tra with a book on "Integration teaching under student capacity development" 10; co-authors Le Dinh Trung and Phan Thi Thanh Hoi with "Teaching under the orientation to the formation and development of learner capacity at high schools" 1 etc. In the field of the art, it mentions a number of specialized capacities in the Fine Arts with co-authors Bach Ngoc Diep and Ta Kim Chi [ 11; pp.54-58].

However, in order to build a system of core solutions in teaching Fine Arts at hight schools under the orientation to student capacity development, no researcher has studied.

Derived from the reality of general education in Vietnam in the context of international integration, teaching under the orientation to learner capacity development has great significance in renewing the teaching method and form for teachers to meet the requirements of fundamental reform and comprehensive education in Vietnam. Therefore, the assessment of the current state of teaching capacity and teaching skills of Fine Arts teachers in high schools has increased a need for a strategy and a roadmap to implement synchronous solutions for enhancing pedagogical capacity for teacher staffs, thereby enhancing the efficiency of teaching and learning Fine Arts at schools under the orientation to learner capacity development in the current context is very necessary and urgent.

2. Content

2.1. Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools under the Orientation to Learner Capacity Development

Teaching under the orientation to learner capacity development is teaching taking the capacity development of the students as an objective, respecting stages of practice, paying attention to the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes of students to real life.

The new general education curriculum (issued in July 2017) has contained 8 fields including art education. Accordingly, learner capacities are divided into two main categories including general capabilities and specific capabilities. General capacities are the basic and necessary human capacities, which are the capacities for living and working in society (communication capacity, cooperation capacity, self-learning capacity; capacity of thinking, capacity for solving problem and creativity, aesthetic capacity, physical capability, computing capacity, ITC capability etc.) - these capacities are formed and developed from many disciplines; capacities are formed through the programs and are represented by many different names such as main capacity, core capacity, essential capacity etc. A specific capacity is formed and developed by a specific discipline. This is a form of specialized capacity that helps learners solving professional tasks of that field.

Fine Arts at high school in Vietnam, in the New general education curriculum, specialized capacities for this subject need to be formed and developed for students including: aesthetic sense capacity; creative capacity; capacity for artistic communication; capacity for analysis; capacity to observe and explore; capacity for shaping Media (digitally shaping) [ 11; pp.54-58]. Meanwhile, the general education programs of many countries (such as Canada, France, Belgium, Denmark, Russia, Korea, Singapore etc.) also focus on some capacities needed to form and develop for students throughout the learning process, namely: communication capacity; creative capacity; imaginative thinking capacity; capacity to observe and explore; assessment capacity, capability for shaping etc. [ 11; pp.54-58].

Applying teaching under the orientation to student capacity development, this article we're going into two core capabilities, specific to Fine Arts they are the aesthetic sense capacity and creative capacity. These are two important capacities and essential for the specialized capabilities of the Fine Arts subject at high schools.

* The student aesthetic sense capacity in studying of Fine Arts

According to Bach Ngoc Diep [ 11; pp.54-58], the aesthetic sense capacity is the main goal of the fine arts education program in almost countries in the world. Although each country has its own different interpretations (e.g., aesthetic sense capacity, artistic sensitivity capacity, individual art feeling ...), they all set aesthetic sense capacity in the goal of the art education program.

Can understand: aesthetic sense capacity is the ability to express individual attitudes, emotions, gestures, language... in a real way before the beauty of work of art and life; creatively and effectively apply the knowledge of the beauty into reality, create a healthy aesthetic environment.

The aesthetic sense capability is also reflected in the eyes to recognize the beauty of form, style, color etc. on applied art products; distinguish the beauty, the bad in correlation; have a clear aesthetic taste; show the style in accordance with habits and customs.

Aesthetic sense capacity is expressed in a number of respects: ability to recognize beauty; ability to express beauty; ability to comment and evaluate beauty; ability to apply knowledge of beauty to life.

In Fine Arts subject at high schools, the student aesthetic sense capacity is recognized by expression in the choice of work of art; how to express product; building ideas, arranging layout, image, color etc. in the process of shaping as well as enjoying artistic work. In real life, student aesthetic sense capacity is reflected in their capacity to choose clothing, healthy lifestyle, hygiene, orderliness, cleanliness, or participating in activities to beautify the landscape environment

* The creative capacity of students in studying Fine Arts

Some countries in the world, for general education programs, creative capacities is focused on to form and develop of learner capacity with the aim of helping learners to be dynamic and creative against the changes of practice.

It is difficult to clarify the elements of creative capacity, but it is possible to consider creative capacity in several ways: ability of having new ideas; ability to explore and discover new things in the old structure; ability to see multi-dimensional problem; ability to adjust, give the way to refresh, produce unexpected effects in the work. Student creative capacity is understood as demonstrating the student ability to think and explore new ideas arising in the course of learning and experiencing life; from these, we propose new solutions connected with the real situation produce unexpected results in a practical and effective way. Proposing and implementing ideas, students express their interest in exploring [ 11; pp.54-58].

Fine Arts curriculum at high schools in Vietnam, creative capacity is expressed in the requirements of: image ideas, arrangement of image composition, color expression in images, choosing the style of the image etc. Creativity is also expressed in the fact that students always come up with timely ideas and actions to deal with situations arising in the real world relating to fine arts; frequently expressing new ideas, impression in the cultural art activities; attract attention of people etc. This is also reflected in the ability to visualize from hypothetical situations or real life situations. With such requirements, high school fine arts education must focus on stimulating desire to learn, stimulating curiosity and creativity so that students are able to create knowledge and develop capacity from what the schools brings to them. Then reform of teaching methods under the orientation to capacity development, focusing on teaching students how to learn and think; encouraging students to learn by themselves, creating a basis for students to update their knowledge, skills and capacity development; giving students the opportunity to learn, explore, and master the knowledge of any subject in a self-conscious, autonomous and creative way etc. now are becoming an imperative requirement for teachers for all subjects in general and Fine Arts subject in particular.

2.2. The Real Status of Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools under the Orientation to Student Capacity Development

Up to now, the implementation of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development at the schools has not really effective, but many inadequacies. Expressions on the following issues:

* The quality of Fine Arts teachers: Fine Arts teachers have been trained at different institutions with uneven professional quality and pedagogical qualifications. Research and innovation of teaching methods as well as the level of updating new achievements in education science of Fine Arts teachers are still limited. Taking part in a teaching time, exchange of experience in knowledge and speciality are limited, etc. The consequences of these inadequacies are reflected in the following aspects:

- Perception of teaching under schools under the orientation to student capacity development of the majority of Fine Arts teachers is limited. Fine Arts teachers themselves are not ready to teach under the orientation to development of student capacity. According to Pham Minh Hung [ 12; pp.81-85], the most disturbing thing is that many Fine Arts teachers misunderstanding the notion of capacity. In particular, most of surveyed teachers have understood capacity in terms of ability and personal attributes. These teachers all conceived the concept of teaching under schools under the orientation to student capacity development as taking the development of student capacity as the goal of teaching, appreciating the practice, applying the knowledge, skills and attitudes of students; pay attention to the organization of student activities. A noteworthy number of the teacher's views of teaching under schools under the orientation to student capacity development is the replacement of knowledge, skills, skill with capacity; focusing only on capacity development without developing other factors; focus fully on student outcomes). This proves that many teachers have not mastered the concept of capacity. The consequences of these misconceptions will directly affect their teaching under schools under the orientation to student capacity development. (Similarly, for the VNEN model, there are innocent teachers who think that VNEN model is to let students make groups together self-study, teachers do not need to teach. Such misconceptions are very dangerous, which will make the students more inferior.)

- Objectives of teaching: There are still a lot of teachers embarrassingly when designing lessons under the orientation to student capacity development. Specifically: Previously, the teaching objectives were knowledge, skills and attitudes. At present, the teaching objectives are general capacities and specialized capacities that need to be formed in learners after teaching each content.

- Using teaching methods: General assessment of the shortcomings and weaknesses of general education on the teaching and teaching method innovation, the Department of High School Education (under the Ministry of Education and Training) summarized as follows: “The innovation of teaching methods at schools has not brought high efficiency. One-way knowledge transmission is still the main teaching method of many teachers. Few teachers are active and creative in the combination of teaching methods as well as the use of teaching methods to promote student activeness, self-reliance and creativity. Teaching is still heavy on transmission theoretical knowledge. The practice of life skills, skills to solve real situations for students through ability to use integrated knowledge are not really interested. The use of information and communication technology, the use of teaching facilities have not been widely and effectively implemented at high schools” 13.

The above evaluation is very well demonstrated for high school teachers. Details:

+ The method of one-way imposed presentation is still dominant in the teaching hours of a number of teachers. Teaching hour model in which Teacher speaking, students listening; Teacher reading, students taking notes continues to take place - especially in remote areas in provinces. Therefore, learning is like teachers' monologues. The numbers of teachers who use the combination of presentation methods with other methods (such as questioning, visualization, giving problem, group discussion, etc.) are less and not frequent.

+ A number of methods and techniques of active teaching have been noted and used but not regularly and continuously; still heavy on appearance, even just to perform (especially at teaching model hours and good teacher contests).

+ The teaching method of many teachers is not linked to real life. Teachers do not pay attention to instruct students to use the knowledge and skills formed through the lesson to solve the problems of life. This is also one of the reasons why students are not interested in the subject that should have been very attractive, interesting and effects by its creativity.

- Use of teaching facilities: At present, most Fine Arts teachers have a good sense of the role and importance of using teaching facilities. Most schools are no longer in the state of the Fine Arts teacher "teaching without facilities". However, the use of modern teaching facilities of some teachers has not brought high efficiency. Many teachers are also very confused in the application of information technology to the teaching process. Many teachers do not know how to exploit and make full use of the features and effects of each means of teaching; not to pay attention to use teaching facilities to stimulate the excitement, raise the sense of initiative and creativity of students in learning.

- Assessment of outcomes under the orientation to student capacity development of many teachers is limited. Particularly, they do not understand that once the goal of testing and evaluating change is to involve changes in methods and forms of assessment and evaluation - many Fine Arts teachers are surprised and have not understood the nature of problem, so they have not done well.

The attachment of teaching methods to the evaluation and assessment (especially assessment of a process) of the teachers is still fuzzy. Most of the lessons rarely show teacher appreciation and student self-evaluation (most notably is for teachers in remote areas).

- Many fine arts teachers have limited aesthetic sense: Teaching Fine Arts at high schools is to teach students to recognize the beauty, to appreciate the beauty and to know how to create the beauty based on their own way of thinking, feeling and interpretation. In other words, the Fine Arts teachers must teach their students a good aesthetic sense. Want to do aesthetic education well by using the art the prerequisite is that the teacher must have good aesthetic sense. However, because the teacher staff are trained from a variety of sources leading to the quality of professional and pedagogical qualifications are uneven. Especially the Fine Arts teachers in the remote areas are very limited in aesthetic sense (even they do not distinguish a picture is beautiful or not beautiful). Therefore, these teachers are unlikely to meet the good aesthetic education requirements of students in teaching under the orientation to learner capacity development.

* The responsibility of the management levels in improving teaching capacity of Fine Arts teachers: The preparation of teaching under the orientation of learner capacity development at all levels of management - especially from the Ministry of Education and Training lack professionalism: reflected in the implementation of this model are not methodical and synchronized; the roadmap is not reasonable, not scientific; make decisions too hastily when the conditions are needed and enough not ripe... so the efficiency is not high as expected. Detail:

- The training of teachers for subjects in general and for Fine Arts subject in particular has been implemented by the Ministry of Education and Training in the past school years but still based on the current general education program. This is difficulty for schools in professional management tasks and makes teachers very confused when executing, (in July 2017 an legally official decision just made for this draft program to let high schools execute). Because the implementation is not synchronous and scientific has led to the content of training courses for Fine Arts teachers mainly in the area of awareness, theory, but no specific models, have not been yet applied to the specific lessons as well as teaching topics of the program.

- Current curriculum, Fine Arts textbooks only adapt to a certain historical period. Therefore, after a number of years of implementation, the advantages of textbooks can easily be recognized, but the occurred shortcomings need to be overcome. While the new program has not yet been implemented, the organization of teaching Fine Arts at schools is still tied to the specific subjects, the teachers teach without paying attention to the system, a group of lessons, theme etc. to form and develop the capacity for students. Knowledge, skills gained from lessons does not show the connection, inheritance, consolidation and enhancement. Therefore, the students mainly memorize the knowledge of each lesson without practicing the skills for each problem.

* The frastructure for teaching and learning of high schools currently does not meet the requirements of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development (unqualified equipment and classrooms, too many students in a class, etc.).

In the face of these shortcomings and inadequacies, it is necessary to find effective solutions to improve the quality of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development to meet the needs of society in the context of globalization and international integration.

2.3. Solutions to Improve Effectiveness of Teaching under the Orientation to Student Capacity Development

* Raise awareness for Fine Arts teachers of the need to teach under the orientation to student capacity development: Moving from content-based teaching to teaching under the orientation to student capacity development is the most fundamental and core innovation of general education.This move is both an opportunity to improve the quality of teaching and a major challenge for high school teachers as perceptions of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development by the majority of teachers are still limited [ 14; pp.11-14]. Therefore, teachers must understand the nature of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development, namely: organizing, directing the selection of content, using methods and forms of teaching organization to meet requirements of student capacity development. Seizing the nature teachers know what key stages they needs to focus on of the teaching process? What methods and forms need to be involved in the teaching process? etc. It is important for fine arts teachers to understand that teaching under the orientation capacity development focuses not only on activating students' intellectual activities, but also on solving problems associated with life situations and career, and at the same time associates intellectual activities with practice; enhance teamwork, renew teacher-student relationships in a collaborative way to develop students' communication skills.

* Renovate basic teaching method under the orientation of student capacity development:

When teaching under the orientation of student capacity development, teaching methods and forms of teaching organization play an important role. The link between the teaching method and form of teaching organization will provide students with many opportunities for studying and experience, stimulate their interest and desire to show their abilities. However, in order for the methods and forms of teaching organization to be able to perform well its role, they themselves must be active teaching methods and forms, capable of promoting sense of initiative, creativity and use the knowledge and skills of students; It is important to focus on teaching students how to think; encourage students to self-study, create a basis for students to update their knowledge, skills and capacity development; organize various forms of learning, pay attention to social and extra-curricular activities etc [ 15; pp.49-53].

Teaching under the orientation of student capacity development in fine arts not only focuses on student activeness on intellectual activities, but also on problem-solving skills associated with situations in life, in practice. Teachers are always encouraging students to make their own creative products/sketches, do not repeat teacher tutorials, unlike their friends’, and moreover, without repeating yourself. During teaching teachers should pay attention to the psychological characteristics of the ages to appropriately apply methods and forms of organizing teaching to help students develop their creative capacities, ability to do personal works and cooperation in solving problem; encourage students to always have demand for learning, creative exploration and express their capacities 16.

According to the New general education curriculum, innovation of teaching methods in teaching Fine Arts are mainly visual and creative practices through age-appropriate topics of study and in accordance with the conditions of the facilities of the schools and classrooms. Each topic is solved by a sequence of shaping exercises designed to form students' shaping skills by identifying, analyzing, processing color, lines, shapes, and digital technologies to express personal feelings. At primary schools, enhance the creative art experiences in groups alongside the individually independent activities of students; diversify learning space (learning in and outside classroom). At junior high schools, enhance individualized activities so that students have opportunities to express their independent thinking and personal creativity; provide opportunities for students to explore their shaping capacity through creative experiential activities, academic projects in fine arts or the subject groups 2.

* It is necessary to structure and rearrange teaching content of lessons in the current curriculum under the orientation to student capacity development: Specifically: review of the pros and cons of current curricula and textbooks; on that basis it should restructure accordingly; design topics from current disciplines; develop new teaching plans; organize and implement pilot teaching in the several first years and proceed to mass-teaching in subsequent years.

* Enhance training and development of a sense of aesthetics for Fine Arts teachers: Art education has the advantage of forming and developing for the qualifications: humanity, tolerance, self-reliance; capacities: aesthetics, communication, cooperation, perception, understanding, and art practice; aesthetic orientation, fostering excitement for students in contact with art activities; educate on respectful love, respectful attitude, sense of preservation of traditional cultural and artistic values in parallel with creativity in the process of cultural integration and intercultural intersections 2.

To appreciate the aesthetic values must have a proper aesthetic sense. Karl Marx once stated, "If you want to enjoy art, you must first be an educated man of art" 17. Art education task is performed by a variety of subjects - including Fine Arts teachers at high schools. For general education students, the first task of aesthetics education by the art is the mentor have to develops a good aesthetic sense for the students. Thus the first requirement of an Art teacher is to have a good aesthetic sense; they must know the correct perception of aesthetic tastes, perceptions and vibes before authentic aesthetic values. Without good aesthetics “taste”, teacher loses direction in teaching students how to enjoy the beauty and create true beauty leading to that can even damage originality in aesthetic sense of children (because child’s soul is pure as white paper). If students are instructed by good aesthetic teachers, the young talent and aesthetic sense of a child will be formed and developed in a positive way; in the future, these students will have proper and sophisticated aesthetic taste and aesthetic ideals. On the contrary, unfortunately the child under the guidance of the teachers have bad taste, the white paper will carry imprint, it is difficult to erase. Therefore, aesthetics education by the art must be guided by a scientific basis in which aesthetic sense as a guideline is a unique means of controlling aesthetic and creative sense (because aesthetic education is the process of forming student ability to recognize, appreciate, evaluate, create and act under the beauty).

In the field of general education in general and aesthetics education in particular, aesthetic education has the following tasks:

- Provide students with the capacities of perception, appreciation, enjoyment the beauty in nature, in life and in art.

- Provide students with the capacities to assess the beauty in nature, society and art; Recognize the true, the good and the beautiful.

- Educate students on love and aesthetic tastes in line with the cultural and civilization values

- Provide students with capacities to create the beauty in their daily life, in their work, in their learning and in their collective activities - the material beauty, the spiritual beauty, the artistic beauty.

- Make each student towards the beauty and act under the beauty. The most important thing is moral cultivation, creating beauty in dignity personality.

In short, one of the most important goals of aesthetics education by art in school-aged children is to educate them about aesthetic sense and creativity. That goal will not be possible if the aesthetic knowledge of teacher is not good.

* Facilitate Fine Arts teachers to familiarize themselves with testing and evaluating student' learning outcomes under the orientation of capacity development: Assessing students' learning outcomes has a great influence on the way of teaching and learning. In view of capacity development, evaluation of the studying results do not take the test on the ability to reproduce knowledge learned as the center of evaluation, which should focus on the ability to creatively apply knowledge in different application scenarios.

Until now model of teaching and studying for exams still exists. Teaching under orientation to capacity development, if teachers and students do not change the way of their teaching and learning, they will not be able to meet the assessment requirements. The first thing to do when implementing a capacity assessment is to build a homework system, capacity development-oriented practical exercises. This is a practice tool for students to develop their capacities, and it is also a tool to help teachers assess the development of student capacities and assess the level of standardization of instruction. When building a set of exercises or practical exercises, teachers need to design exercises that require students to apply different knowledge to solve a new problem associated with real-life situations. Exercises and practical exercises should ensure the differentiation at different cognitive levels (eg. reproduction, comprehension, application, problem solving, etc.) based on teachers can assess the level of individual capacity development and each stage of student learning.

* Training and improving Fine Arts teachers to enhance their teaching capacity under the orientation to student capacity development:

- In order to be able to quickly adapt to new curricula and textbooks (developed according to the student capacity development approach), Fine Arts teachers are required to be capable of teaching capacity under the orientation to student capacity development. Organization and enhancing teaching capacity is for teachers to adapt quickly to new curriculum and textbooks. Therefore, training and enhancing Fine Arts teachers must be directed to different objectives. In the short term, they must meet requirements of general education renovation, at which focus on adjusting the contents and forms of teaching organization of the current curricula and textbooks under the orientation of student capacity development; continue to strongly innovate teaching and learning methods; simultaneously renew methods and forms of examination, testing and evaluation of student learning outcomes.

- The Ministry of Education and Training has required the Department of Education and Training of provinces, schools and teacher staff to redesign curriculum based on the current curriculum, that is: From specific lessons, build into themes/topics, through which skills and abilities are developed for students. It can be said that this is one of the effective measures to help teachers to initially innovate teaching methods under the orientation to student capacity development.

- In order to meet requirement of teaching under the orientation to student capacity development it is necessary to conduct the teaching Fine Arts in the direction of integration. The integration perspective will result in changes in the course objectives. On the other hand, integration is also reflected in the connection between knowledge in books and knowledge in life, connection between fine arts subject and other humanity and social sciences to help students gain knowledge, comprehensive practice skills, contribute qualification and personality student education to the new model: dynamic, active, creative and confident in action.

- Integrated teaching also needs to be associated with differentiated teaching. Differentiation is the division of students into different groups, each taught by a teacher under a program that is suited to psychological characteristics, learning ability and pace; in accordance with the need of student learning, on this basis to develop maximum capacity of each student. Differentiated teaching is reflected in enabling each student to show his or her strengths, abilities and personal interests in self-building knowledge (through group discussions), encouraging personal exploration, thinking and reasoning from different perspectives in the learning process. Through process of teaching, students will have the foundation of knowledge, skills and learning methods to meet the challenges posed in learning and in life.

2.4. Discuss

Teaching under the orientation to learner capacity development is a transition from the current curriculum (mostly access to knowledge content by manual one-way teaching methods, students are less likely to be active in creating an idea) to a new curriculum designed to develop learner capacities and qualifications (The main goal is to increase autonomy, initiative, creativity, increase communication and interactions between students through self-learning and knowledge acquisition with the guidance of teachers - this is the weakness of not only the students but the Vietnamese in general as the traditional way of teaching)

However, a good education model applied successfully or failed depends on many factors:

- First, teachers are the most important factor deciding the success of education reform. Any educational program or educational model, no matter how advanced, does not solve the problem if the performer (the teacher) is poorly qualified. If education reforms are not linked to enhancement of skills, do not emphasize on the quality of teachers, education reforms will fail. This is an inherent weakness that has been around for decades, it is very worrying about the quality of teacher staff when the education sector changes its program. Teaching under orientation to learner capacity development, teachers will have to change lesson plans, change teaching methods and forms, and more importantly, change the way of thinking - a factor that makes a breakthrough of every human being.

- Second, in fact, there are places where teaching under orientation to learner capacity development has been achieved, but there are places where performance is not good. The real situation shows that the main reason is that the training and improving quality level of teacher staff are not good leading to the misunderstanding or incompletely understanding, so teachers do not meet the requirements.

- Third, because of the country stretching from different geographically diverse regions, there are many different ethnic groups, with different economic conditions, social and educational backgrounds etc. the new curriculum and textbooks must pay particular attention to regional/local properties and local education contents.

- Fourth, in order for teaching under orientation to learner capacity development model has highly effective, the management role of the leadership is crucial, in that its nucleus is to promote the development of the school programs (strengthen the initiative to apply flexibly and creatively according to the practical conditions of schools on the basis of the common framework).

From the current situations and the inadequacies in the implementation of teaching under orientation to learner capacity development model, the Ministry of Education and Training need to learns from experience when implementing the program of new general education? It is necessary to have a thorough preparation, adequate condition of the facilities, teachers and administrators, especially need time to the train of managers and teachers. On the other hand, the implement should have a reasonable roadmap with appropriate steps; not hasty; must have the spirit of wanting to listen to and promptly learn from experience to make adjustments suitable for the actual requirements.

3. Conclusion

Renovating and improving teaching quality under orientation to learner capacity development is a transition from the current curriculum to a new curriculum designed to develop learner capacities and qualifications. This is the most radical, fundamental step of general education. This move is both an opportunity to improve the quality of teaching and a challenge for high school teachers.

In order for this innovation to be effective, it is necessary to have a proper understanding of the position and importance of the subject for the realization of the goal of training Vietnamese people not only with knowledge, professional capacity etc. At the same time, it should be implemented by the State, the Ministry of Education and Training, managers, teachers, students, parents and the whole society.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Thu Tuan

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Normal Style
Nguyen Thu Tuan. Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools in Vietnam under Orientation to Learner Capacity Development. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2018, pp 383-389. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/5/3
MLA Style
Tuan, Nguyen Thu. "Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools in Vietnam under Orientation to Learner Capacity Development." American Journal of Educational Research 6.5 (2018): 383-389.
APA Style
Tuan, N. T. (2018). Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools in Vietnam under Orientation to Learner Capacity Development. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(5), 383-389.
Chicago Style
Tuan, Nguyen Thu. "Teaching Fine Arts at High Schools in Vietnam under Orientation to Learner Capacity Development." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 5 (2018): 383-389.
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