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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Preschool Education Students’ Communication Skill

Dinh Duc Hoi
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(5), 485-489. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-5-19
Received March 10, 2018; Revised April 22, 2018; Accepted April 26, 2018

Abstract

Communication is psychological exposure between humans. It plays an extremely important role in an individual’s developing process. Communication is not nature but it is the result of human activities. At the age of students, communication skills are formed and develop rapidly. This paper focuses on researching and clearing the current state of preschool education students’ communication skill. We did the research on preschool education students’ communication skill in the term of 4 methods: Questionnaires, Interview, Problem-solving and Data Statistics. The results show that preschool education students’ communication skill is fair. Basing on the results, the writers proposed some solutions aiming to help preschool education students develop and complete communication skills for their future life and job.

1. Introduction

From ancient times, Greek philosophers, such as Socratic (470-399 BC), Plato (428 – 347 BC), regarded the dialogue between humans as the intellectual communication of thoughtful human beings, a tool to express human spiritual life 1.

S. Freud (1856 – 1936) studied the relation between communication and dreams. He concerned about the factors “transferring”, “output” and “similarity” in communication. As communicating, a person delivers signals, another receives them and both want to know each other and imitate mutually 2.

D. Torington, an American psychologist, analyzed common forms of communication between employers and employees when he conducted the research on management and business, which led to the fact that the employers should have communicative skills to their employees 3.

In communicative research, scientists mentioned the communicative skills in communication. S. Ostrander showed clever behaviors in different situations 4.

V.S Cancalic cares about the system of interactive methods and skills psychology-society in an organized way between teachers and students 5.

In Vietnam, researches about communication referred to the psychological nature of communication, this research affirmed that nature is in psychological contact between two or many people in order to exchange with each other about information, knowledge, vibration, and a reciprocal effect 6.

Communication matter of students is an essential issue, according to A. Steer- former World Bank director in Vietnam said that there are three things Vietnamese school should complete from secondary school: “teaching how to solve problems, teaching how to work in community, teaching how to communicate effectively” 7.

In reality, when starting to enter a university, students taking part in study activities with new requirements such as new learning methods, new knowledge, and teaching methods different from high school, expect students to have lots of skills including communication skill 8. Therefore, how to use means of communication effectively is an important issue, especially preschool education students because their subjects in the future will be children from 0 to 6 years old when personality starts to take shape and develop. Therefore, seeking a remedy for the above limitation, and at the same time helping students equip themselves communication skill more actively are necessary acts 9.

2. Content

We carried out a survey of communication skill of preschool education students based on four methods: a test method, an interview method, a problem solving method, and a statistical method. Our investigative objects are 150 preschool education students belonging to Thai Nguyen University of education and gain specific results:

2.1. Communication Skill of Preschool Education Students

To learn about communication skill of preschool education students, we used questions based on V.P. Dakharop‘s communication skill multiple choice questions. The result is counted in Table 1.

The result in Table 1 shows that Communication skill of preschool education students in 4 groups is on average and above average. Four groups of skill of preschool education students at preschool education course 48 are higher than preschool education course 50. This result was quite suitable. Preschool education class has many chances to contact with communication situation in society, so the ability of contact, building relationships of preschool education class course 48 is higher than course 50.

2.2. Level of Expressing Communication Skill of Preschool Education Students

To understand more deeply, we considered the result under another aspect. We examined communication skill following the level of band scores. The result was counted in Table 2.

Table 2 illustrates that communication skill of almost students is on average and above average. This shows in almost (from 50% to 62.66%) while the excellent level is very low (only 1.33%).

Group A (Initiative skill in communication): This is the group which takes an important role in educational activities. There are 62.66% students above average in this group skills, including students are only above average and 8.67% at weak level in communication skill.

In addition, there are 28.67% students are at good level and no students are excellent. The reason for this result is that students have not been active, and hard-working in communication.

Group o B (Skills are sensitive and listens): In this group, there are 58.00% students on average and 5.33% at weak level in communication skill. The proportion of students on average makes up fairly high. 36.67% students are good and none of them are excellent.

Group C (Balance skill in communication): 58.67% students are on average level and only 3.33% students are weak. It can be seen that although the number of students at weak level are low, students on average level are still high. However, there are 36% students having communication skill are good.

Group D (Interpersonal ability in communication): This group is important to teachers. 50% students are on average, 7.33% students are at weak level. Meanwhile, 41.33% students are good, this is a group which the number of students are at good level is the highest in all groups of skill. There are 1.33% students at excellent level.

We can see from the above results that communication skill of students is on average expression (from 50% to 62.66%) students having communication skill are on average level. The lowest group is the group A which there are 62.66% students on average. In four groups of skill, only group D has students at excellent (1.33%) and 41.33% students are good. Compared to group A, B, C of preschool-education students, group D is higher by far; it shows the strengths of preschool-education students in part (Initially, they know how to express in easily understandable way).

2.3 Comparison of the communication Skill Level between the 4th Year Preschool Education Students and the 2nd Year Students

To have information fully, we compared the level of communication skill between preschool education class course 48 (the 4th year) and preschool education class course 50 (the 2nd year).

Table 3 illustrates that communication skill of preschool-education students in course 48 is higher than those in course 50. However, communication skills of students are only on average and above average. In group A, B, C, no students are at the first level (excellent), only 2 preschool-education students in course 48 are at the first level.

The second level: in 4 groups of skill, the proportion of students in course 48 at this level is higher than the rate of students in course 50, specifically:

Group A: there are 30.48% of preschool-education students in course 48 and 26.47% of preschool-education students in course 50.

Group B: 43.90% of preschool-education students in course 48 compared with 27.94% of preschool-education students in course 50.

Group C: there are 42.68% of preschool- education students in course 48 and 27.94% of preschool- education students in course 50.

Group D: 42.68% of preschool- education students in course 48 compared with 36.77% of preschool- education students in course 50.

In the third level (average) in 4 groups of skill the proportion of preschool-education students in course 48 is obviously lower than those in course 50. However, almost students both classes occupy the high rate in this level. In the fourth level (weak), we see that group B and C still have a few students in course 48 who only achieve the weak level in communication skill of two these groups. The students in course 50 are at the weak level in all 4 groups of skill.

We see that the proportion of preschool-education students in course 48 in the second level (good) of group B and C is much higher than those in course 50. It proves that this skill of students in course 48 is better than ones in course 50.

Therefore, when examining communication skill of students under the level of expression, we can affirm more reliably that communication skill of students in course 48 is higher than students in course 50. Particularly, the group of skill B of students in course 48 is much higher than students in course 50. It shows that communication of students in course 50 is more passive than those in course 48. As a result, preschool-education students in course 50 should practice their communication skill more.

2.4. Pedagogic Communication Skill of Preschool Education Students through Situation Lessons

To make more specific expression of pedagogic communication skill to adults, friends, we provide 6 simulated situations and offer students to give the most suitable choice (including 4 choices for each behavior, gesture, speech in the levels of behavior, gesture are right, normal, not right, wrong).

To the adults, we provide 4 situations (from 1 to 4) with fields: when exchanging business, when the adults need a help from you, when giving opinion and attitude about an event or a person. There are 2 situations for friends (situation 5 and 6) in fields: when giving opinion and attitude about an event or a person and when needing a help from the other. The result is presented in the Table 4.

Table 4 show that the result of solving situation lessons of preschool education students is quite high in general. It was through solving simulated situation lessons that we can assert: the students’ level of expressing communication skill is fairly high, they know how to behave in different situations in order to represent themselves be cultured, understand what communication skill is. It proves that their awareness and behavior fairly unify, communicative behavior parallels standard words, unsuitable behavior parallels irrelevant words.

Situation 1:

The majority of students select method “Giving the signal for silence, then raising the hand for expression” (holding 74.67%) with speech “Teacher, you have made a mistake that position should be....” (70%). It can be seen that the majority of students show their respect and politeness as well as union and right choice between behavior and speech. However, there are a few students with not standard behaviors: “Whispering and giggling together” (12%) and unsuitable words: “Teacher, you have made a spelling mistake; you even write that word wrongly” (2.5%). It is a method which is not suitable with the standard communication, they have not aware the role of communication skill with the adults, but the rate of those students occupies not highly.

Situation 2:

Students select the method “Stop, look at teacher and say” (34.7%) with the words “Yes, let me send her home, please set your mind at rest!” (72%), so their words and behavior are relevant.

When refusing teacher’s requirement, students should explain the reason why they could not help her: “Look at the teacher and say” (58.63%) “Teacher, I am very busy tonight, I have to come back home early” (22%). It shows the students’ honesty, respect to the teacher.

Besides, there are still 6.67% of students choosing words and behaviors without responsibility. For example, to feign tiredness with words: “Why am I? Why do not you call another student?”

Situation 3:

Students are very calm and polite when exchanging views with their parents (77.33%) with the words “Daddy, he is a good friend, I make friend with him, not with his father” (82%). The figure illustrates that the students’ words and behaviors are quite relevant. They choose right words more than behavior and it proves that sometimes their words are suitable with a standard but their behavior is still unsuitable. 14.7% of students “Keep silence and do not show their attitude” and 7% of them “do not say anything”

Some students agree with unsuitable words and behavior: “ Be strong, and have an argument with parents” (3%), “Accept parents’ views with unpleasant attitude” (4.97%), “Parents, I am mature, I know who I should make friends with, you do not need intervene in my decision” (7%), “Yes, I will not make friend with him, you are so fastidious” (4%). The above figure is the number of students who have unsuitable words and behavior.

Therefore, almost students select words and behavior which are suitable with communicative standard. However, several students still do not have connection between words and behavior. These are students with hesitant attitude in front of unsuitable communication behavior.

Situation 4:

In this situation, 82.66% of students choose behavior “Speak to parents in mild and happy way”, while 86.67% of them select words “Parents, I know you want me to be better, I am not a big fan of accounting, I like vocal music, but I will try to take a degree in accounting”. This figure shows that students do not have awareness of connection between behavior and word. We can affirm that students have their own opinion, have a decision on their favorite subject, but they still maintain mild and respect attitude with their parents.

6% of students select method: “I will continue study accounting, but I am not sure about my result bad or good”. It proves that behavior and word are not connected because of lack of full awareness of communication skill. 14% of students “Keep silence” and “Do not say anything” (4.33%).

In addition, there are some students selecting method without culture and respect parents: “Accept parents’ requirement with unpleasant attitude” (6%) and “I will study subject I like, please do not oblige me, I don’t want you caring me like this”. These are students having hesitant attitude, sometimes they practice unsuitable communication behaviors in their habits, and they should be aware again and repair these behaviors.

Situation 5:

Students show their sincerity and friendliness with a friend. 73.33% of students choose method: “Smile friendly with sincere word” and 76% select word: “A, Can I help you? Talk to me if you need a help”. These figures illustrate students’ behaviors and words are relevant.

Several students express their delicacy by the way “Keep silence” (20%); “Do not say anything” (19%). A small number of students “Change another seat with cutthroat attitude” (2%). This behavior and attitude lack the delicacy in communication.

Situation 6:

In this situation, 78% of students “Smile friendly and say slightly: “Please do not teasing me like that, I am so shy because we are normal friends” (81.33%). It is completely suitable with their outlook and sympathies on friendliness in communication with friends.

However, several students still do not have cultured behavior in communication with friends “Smile disdainfully and say” (7%) with words: “She/he asks for my girlfriend (boyfriend), doesn’t she/he? (5%) and “Do not pair he and me for fun, I don’t like” (8.67%). These are behaviors which are lack of calm in communication.

In general, almost students select suitable behaviors and attitude in communication with friends; prove that they are friendly and sociable. These figures show that their behaviors, awareness and attitude are quite relevant.

As a result, evaluating attitude, habits by themselves in survey form and solving specific situations are similar.

In short, almost students have high expression on communication; it is suitable to rules and standards in communication with people. Students understand meaning, the role of these standards. It contributes to affirm conclusions of survey form which is right and more specific than matters survey form which has not expressed fully.

3. Conclusion

Communication skill of preschool education students is not high, specifically no students get maximum grade. Almost students are on average or above average. The average grade in group B of students is the highest. It proves that students are passive more than active in communication. The average grade of preschool education students in group D is much higher than group A, C – it shows the strengths of preschool education students in part (Initially, they know how to express in a specific and easily understandable way).

If we assess communication skill of preschool education students based on 4 levels (excellent, good, average, weak), we see that no students achieve the first level in 4 groups of skill. The number of students in group A,C is on average more.

Originating from the important role of communication skill with caring as well as educating children and from research results about communication skill of preschool education students, we will propose some ideas:

In daily communication, students should practice a manner of speaking, use suitable words, build and bring up relationships. They can practice through observation, experiences in their life to help them communicate more effectively. Moreover, students also should choose clothes suitable for their body and communication environment in order to be more beautiful, more sympathy when communicating with people.

To develop the confidence in listening, speaking and presentation skill in front of people, students have to pay attention to teachers’ lessons in order to understand, and collect information. Then students make questions and give feedback to understand better. In addition, to develop listening skill, students not only pay attention to teachers’ lessons, but also practice in daily communication to collect information, understand thoughts of other people. They also show their respect to people communicating at the same time. Therefore, the communication process will be more effect.

To the pedagogy department: The department usually organizes to practice pedagogical skill, communication skill the following plan to become order and discipline. Students should be had opportunities to observe class, get in touch with children more. Therefore, they can practice communication skill in reality.

With the responsibility for training preschool students, the department need make curriculum more and more perfectly. In addition to providing knowledge to students, the department also helps students practice necessary skills including communication skill.

On the school side: The university should create conditions for students to take part in collective activities actively. Thanks to these activities, students will become more mature, confident in communication. The fact-finding activities of preschool education students should be organized for students more often to open many opportunities for them to contact with children. Moreover, students have chances to apply knowledge into reality, connect theories with practices in order to enhance the quality of training preschool education students.

References

[1]  Bretherton, I., (1992) The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.
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[2]  T.V. Peteria (1970), The role of communication in shaping the personality of students, Youth Publishing House, p. 45.
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[3]  Walsh, Michael (1997), Cross cultural communication problems in Aboriginal Australia, Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, pp. 7-9, retrieved 25 June2016.
In article      
 
[4]  Hoang Thuy Ha (2013), Basic Communication Skills for Students, Saigon University Press, No. 01, 9-11.
In article      
 
[5]  Phung Thi Hang (2012), Some characteristics of communication of high school students are ethnic minorities in Thai Nguyen, Journal of Science and Technology, Thai Nguyen University, vol. 94, No. 06,15-17.
In article      
 
[6]  “Important Components of Cross-Cultural Communication Essay - 1298 Words”. Studymode.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01, P102-105.
In article      
 
[7]  Harper, Douglas. “Communication”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-06-23, p. 19.
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[8]  “Types of Body Language”. Simplybodylanguage.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08, P23-24.
In article      
 
[9]  Turner, L. H., & West, R. L. (2013). Perspectives on family communication. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 57-60.
In article      PubMed
 
[10]  Bailey, Sandra (2009). “Couple Relationships: Communication and Conflict Resolution”(PDF). MSU Extension. 17: 2 – via George Mason University Libraries.
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[11]  Walsh, Michael (1997), Cross cultural communication problems in Aboriginal Australia, Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, pp. 7-9, retrieved 25 June2016.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Dinh Duc Hoi

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Dinh Duc Hoi. Preschool Education Students’ Communication Skill. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2018, pp 485-489. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/5/19
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Hoi, Dinh Duc. "Preschool Education Students’ Communication Skill." American Journal of Educational Research 6.5 (2018): 485-489.
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Hoi, D. D. (2018). Preschool Education Students’ Communication Skill. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(5), 485-489.
Chicago Style
Hoi, Dinh Duc. "Preschool Education Students’ Communication Skill." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 5 (2018): 485-489.
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  • Table 4. Communication skill of preschool education students through solving communication situation lessons
[1]  Bretherton, I., (1992) The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  T.V. Peteria (1970), The role of communication in shaping the personality of students, Youth Publishing House, p. 45.
In article      
 
[3]  Walsh, Michael (1997), Cross cultural communication problems in Aboriginal Australia, Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, pp. 7-9, retrieved 25 June2016.
In article      
 
[4]  Hoang Thuy Ha (2013), Basic Communication Skills for Students, Saigon University Press, No. 01, 9-11.
In article      
 
[5]  Phung Thi Hang (2012), Some characteristics of communication of high school students are ethnic minorities in Thai Nguyen, Journal of Science and Technology, Thai Nguyen University, vol. 94, No. 06,15-17.
In article      
 
[6]  “Important Components of Cross-Cultural Communication Essay - 1298 Words”. Studymode.com. Retrieved 2017-05-01, P102-105.
In article      
 
[7]  Harper, Douglas. “Communication”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-06-23, p. 19.
In article      
 
[8]  “Types of Body Language”. Simplybodylanguage.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08, P23-24.
In article      
 
[9]  Turner, L. H., & West, R. L. (2013). Perspectives on family communication. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 57-60.
In article      PubMed
 
[10]  Bailey, Sandra (2009). “Couple Relationships: Communication and Conflict Resolution”(PDF). MSU Extension. 17: 2 – via George Mason University Libraries.
In article      
 
[11]  Walsh, Michael (1997), Cross cultural communication problems in Aboriginal Australia, Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, pp. 7-9, retrieved 25 June2016.
In article