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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel

Naijan Lengkong
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 258-261. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-12
Published online: March 19, 2018

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to develop historical learning resource based on novel for students of SMA Negeri 12 Tangerang Selatan. This research uses modification of two models, namely development model based on Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) and Instructional Development Model (MPI) that consist of three main stages: 1) preliminary research, 2) planning and development, and 3) evaluation and revisions. The results show that historical learning can be done by using novel based learning sources. This research provides one solution in teaching history through the use of novel-based learning resources that will also attract the attention of learners.

1. Introduction

Soul Nationalism will not develop if educators are not able to bring learners to be proud of the greatness of their nation. The love of the homeland will not arise if educators are not able to lead learners to feel attached to their homeland. Appreciation of the results and achievements of the nation in the past will also not exist if the nation's achievements are not presented correctly and proportionally in the learning of history. Meaning, these goals will not be achieved if learning History in the class does not appeal to learners. To attract learners needed strategy in learning. Strategy is a common approach to teaching applicable in various fields of material and used to meet various learning objectives 1. If the strategy is right, then learning will be interesting. But if the implementation of the strategy is not appropriate, then the learning will not reach its target.

The interest of learners in learning is very dependent on educators. Some important teaching strategies include the teacher's behavior, beliefs, and skills needed to ensure all students learn as much as possible. There are many ways that educators can make history subjects appealing to students. One is through literature. One of the literary works that can be used in learning history is novel. According to Selwyn 2, the novel is one of the most accessible types of literature by learners and most learners are accustomed to reading novels. Young students are sure to love the novel, so the presentation of history through the novel is very appropriate with their teenage soul. The novels also often focus on the sides of different issues in textbooks, thus offering to the reader or learners something in a different perspective, a point of view different from the usual History lesson 2. The novel can be interpreted as a long prose essay containing a series of life stories of one's past with those around him by highlighting the character and nature of each actor 3, 4, 5.

Although in novel-based history learning learners can learn independently and learn history while enjoying the storyline in the novel, learners should not be removed just like that in studying history. Educators have a role in clarifying the historical material of the novel. This historical explanation requires clear and accurate facts. It also required discussion. In these classroom discussions it should be based on historical facts. More primary sources of history are better 6.

Novel Based Learning is an active learning model that leads creative learners creatively. The functional role of educators in active learning is primarily as a facilitator. This is in accordance with the theory of constructivism 7. The historical novel used must be able to live the past. The history novel should also make its readers as if they were experiencing events, feeling the atmosphere of the times, dealing with the raised figures, recognizing the feelings, the spirit, the thoughts, the motives of their deeds.

The most important thing that became the basis of the use of historical novels as a source of learning is expected to add understanding in the transformation of historical events that have not been widely used in education. It is undeniable that the historical value of a historical novel may not be as thick as a textbook. Hence, historical events in literary works must be seen in terms of their function and nature, not the accuracy of the data or the precision of the description but the giving of meaning to an event and the existence of a human being. Novel themed history can help introduce and familiarize the community in the past of the nation.

By presenting a historical novel as a learning material, basically educators have been promoting the ability literacy in learners. Learners will turn into a reader community and become an expert reader. To become an expert reader, one must read a lot, develop many vocabulary, develop phonetic skills and structural analysis, learn to complement long texts 8.

Readers of novels as learning materials of history is still very less in Indonesia. This condition is different from developing countries. The historical novel is an important and widely written genre in Western countries which has a high historical awareness. These countries inculcate the importance of history in education. Good education on history leads to an abundance of historical novel writing on the one hand, and the growing audience of history-loving novels on the other 9.

Still lack of use of novel as a learning material of history gave birth to a focus for this research is to develop a source of novel-based history learning.

2. Research Method

This research is a research and development (R & D) which produce the product in the form of learning source of history based on novel with target of research is SMA Negeri 12 Tangerang Selatan. This research was conducted by modification of two models. A novel development model developed based on Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) and Model Instructional Development Model (MPI) consisting of three main stages: 1) preliminary research, 2) planning and development, and 3) evaluation and revision.

3. Research Result

Based on the answer 36 students SMA Negeri 12 Tangerang Selatan to 10 point statement indicates that the learning condition of history in SMA Negeri 12 Tangerang Selatan gives an opportunity to use historical novel as a learning material of history. This is also supported by interview data that has been done on educators. This shows that learning history based on novels will greatly help educators to develop learning methods. Novel-based learning activities will not only facilitate learners in understanding the subjects of history, but also facilitate the teacher itself. Learning materials that have been sourced from textbooks, can be developed into a novel. The use of novels not only help students in SMA Negeri 12 Kota Tangerang Selatan, but also learners in other schools. Historical teachers through the MGMP can work together to develop this learning material so that it can be used together.

Likewise, the documentation study of library visitors shows that library visitors are generally novel fans. Unfortunately from the whole novel there is very little which is categorized as History novel. Students' reading interest in fiction or novel is a potential for development of History. This can be directed so that learners love history more by supplying more history novels to the library and at the same time this historical novels can be used as learning materials of History.

The products developed in this study are LKS, Teacher Handbook, and novel-based learning resources entitled “Presiden Kedua by loading the contents: (1) Yogyakarta Fall, (2) Bukittinggi Attacked, (3) Traces of PDRI in Halaban, (4) ) stopover in Bangkinang, (5) Between the Dareh and Abai Sangir rivers, (6) events in Situjuh Batur, (7) Bidaralam Government, and (8) Sumpur Kudus, meeting of Two Hearts and Two Government. As a guide for educators, a Teacher Handbook was created. This book is made to facilitate educators in conducting learning activities.

Assessment by the instructional design expert, the learning media expert, and the historical material expert obtained data that for the learning aspects of the content/language and visual display were 90% and 89% respectively. So it can be concluded that the “Presiden Kedua” novel declared feasible.

The results of individual trials with three learners showed that the first, second, and third student ratings were 80%, 78% and 73% respectively. The high assessment of the three students proves that the historical novel is in demand by learners so that novel based learning has the opportunity to be implemented. Similarly, small group and large group trial results show that the resulting product is feasible to be used.

4. Discussion

The learning of novel-based history is contextual learning. Learning Novel Based History can be directed as contextual learning, because in the learning step can use the rules of contextual learning. There are seven principles of contextual learning according to Rusman 10, namely:

First, constructivism is learning to be more meaningful by doing it by yourself. With the provision of novels as a source of learning, learners can do their own learning activities. By reading novels, learners build their own knowledge. The history novel contains historical stories arranged in story form. By reading novels, learners build their own historical information structures taken from a series of dialogues. From the series of dialogues in this novel, learners assemble knowledge.

Second, to discover its meaning that knowledge and skills are not the result of remembering a set of words, but are the result of finding oneself. For example, learners know learning materials about the struggle of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) in the independence period not from textbooks or based on information from educators, but obtained from self-search activities by reading the historical novels of the Second President. From this historical novel learners know everything related to the topic of PDRI.

Third, asking is developing the curious attitude of learners by raising questions. By raising many questions, learning will be more lively. By asking, educators can dig up various information, especially related to the understanding of learners. By asking, educators can generate responses of learners. Novel History as a learning material, educators can ask the extent to which learners know about the historical content contained in the existing novel.

Fourth, people learn to familiarize learners to work together and take advantage of learning resources from their students. Novels are used as learning arenas by learners. The same learning theme may be found in other novels or from other books read by other friends. They can share information about the same theme from their friends who have knowledge from other sources.

Fifth, modeling. learners can use modeling to gain knowledge without relying on educators because educators' knowledge is also limited. With novels, learners can look for models to meet their learning needs. Thus, educators are not the only source of learning.

Sixth, reflection. Learners should think back on what they have done in the past. Learners are given the opportunity to re-digest, weigh, live or discuss with themselves. The use of novels in learning history will give students more time to do this.

Seventh, real judgment. Educators can measure and know the progress, setbacks, and difficulties experienced by learners. With novel-based learning, educators have the opportunity to carry out this assessment.

Many factors support and inhibit the learning of history based novel. Supporting factors of learning The history of novel-based are, the first is psychologically. High school level students should be treated with knowledge that adheres to the age of adolescents. Likewise in learning, it is necessary to use the appropriate way with their age. In relation to historical learning, educators should use appropriate learning methods for high school-age learners, such as novel-based learning. Teenagers generally like the novel because the novel presents a story that matches the age of adolescents. So the age factor of high school level learners who generally like to read novels is quite supportive of novel-based learning. So referring to adolescence, learning history with novels is perfect for high school level learners.

Second, the availability of history-themed novels. Currently in bookstores have begun to bloom historical themed novels. That means educators can take advantage of a lateketersedi novels of this type. Educators live to adjust the themes with the existing curriculum.

Meanwhile, on the other hand there are still factors that hinder the learning of novel-based history, including: first, the availability of history-themed novel in school. It is undeniable that the history-themed novels are still very minimal in the school libraries. Although history-themed novels have begun to flourish in bookstores, but novel-based learning is difficult to implement because the novels are not available in schools. The learners have to pay high fees for having to buy their own novels. So far the government has not yet made a program of purchasing historical novels to schools. There is only limited to the procurement of textbooks only.

Second, this novel based learning includes high cost learning. Each historical novel is mostly a single theme. That is, the theme discussed in a novel may be discussed or only to meet the needs of one or more indicators. To meet the needs of one Basic Competence takes several novel titles. So, learners are required to have so many novels to meet the needs of one Basic Competence. This becomes a major obstacle for learners. This is because there has been no meaningful policy from the government to meet the novel needs in schools.

The novel products of the “Presiden Kedua” of the development results in this study have strengths and weaknesses. Its strengths include:

a. The existing learning material in this novel is in accordance with the curriculum. The making also refers to the Competence Standards, Basic Competencies, Indicators and Lesson Plans (RPP).

b. Learning materials are in accordance with the needs of learners. Learners today do require learning materials that use more varied.

c. The appearance of this novel is interesting so it stimulates the interest of learners.

d. Learners practice for independent learning without being dependent on textbooks

e. Not make fell boring learners because it was served with a suitable mild language deng a n age learners.

This novel product also has some disadvantages when compared with other model development products. The disadvantages of this product include:

a. This novel only contains limited learning materials. This “Presiden Kedua” novel only contains learning materials about the struggle of the PDRI in the Independence period.

b. This novel does not cover all the material required by Basic Competence. Does not even cover one Basic Basis in one semester. The material covers only a few hours of lessons.

c. The novel does not contain pictures, so it is less appealing to some learners who prefer the visual aspect. Novels are only limited to text, so for learners who prefer the visual aspect it will feel boring.

5. Conclusion

The result of this research is product of novel based history learning material and based on the whole process of research that has been done, the conclusion are: (1) Development of Novel Based Learning Model developed for students in SMA Negeri 12 Kota Tangerang Selatan consists of three models, conceptual models, procedural models and physical models; (2) The Novel-Based Learning Model developed is feasible to be implemented because it has been through the validation process by the relevant field experts, ie the instructional design expert, the learning media expert and the historical material expert. Then continued with a feasibility test with one to one learner and small group trial. Each stage is always held in the assessment and followed by revisions to the product; (3) The effectiveness of the product is done by conducting field test. Before undergoing the process of learning with novel history-based learning model, first the learners undergo pre-test first. After following the learning of novel-based history, the students also underwent a second test in the form of post-test. The results show that the acquisition of post-test was higher than pre-test. This proves that there is an increase in test scores after following a novel history-based learning.

References

[1]  Eggen, P & Don Kauchak. (2012). Strategy and Model of Learning, translation of Satrio Wahono. Jakarta: Index.
In article      
 
[2]  Selwyn, D. (1993). Living History in the Classroom. Chicago: Zephyr Press.
In article      
 
[3]  Kochar, SK (2008). Teaching History. Translation Purwanta and Yovita Hardiwati. Jakarta: Grasindo.
In article      
 
[4]  Clark, AC (2015). Historical Fiction for Children and Young People: changing fashions, changingforms, changing representations in British writing 1 934-2014. Newcastle University dissertation.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Nagy, L. (2014). Historical Fiction as a Mixture of History and Romance: Towards the Genre Definition of the Historical Novel. Prague Journal of English Studies, 3 (1).
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Drake, FD & Lynn R. Nelson. (2005). Engagement in Teaching History, Theory and Practices for Middle and Secondary Teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.
In article      
 
[7]  Warsono & Hariyanto. (2013). Active Learning. Bandung: Rosda.
In article      
 
[8]  Joyce, Bruce, Marsha Weil & Emily Calhoun. (2009). Models of Teaching. Boston: Pearson.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Djokosujatno, A. (2002). Novel History of Indonesia: Conventions, Shapes, Colors, and Authors. Makara, Social Humanities, 6 (1), June.
In article      
 
[10]  Rusman. (2013). Learning Models. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Naijan Lengkong

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Naijan Lengkong. Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp 258-261. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/3/12
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Lengkong, Naijan. "Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel." American Journal of Educational Research 6.3 (2018): 258-261.
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Lengkong, N. (2018). Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(3), 258-261.
Chicago Style
Lengkong, Naijan. "Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 3 (2018): 258-261.
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[1]  Eggen, P & Don Kauchak. (2012). Strategy and Model of Learning, translation of Satrio Wahono. Jakarta: Index.
In article      
 
[2]  Selwyn, D. (1993). Living History in the Classroom. Chicago: Zephyr Press.
In article      
 
[3]  Kochar, SK (2008). Teaching History. Translation Purwanta and Yovita Hardiwati. Jakarta: Grasindo.
In article      
 
[4]  Clark, AC (2015). Historical Fiction for Children and Young People: changing fashions, changingforms, changing representations in British writing 1 934-2014. Newcastle University dissertation.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Nagy, L. (2014). Historical Fiction as a Mixture of History and Romance: Towards the Genre Definition of the Historical Novel. Prague Journal of English Studies, 3 (1).
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Drake, FD & Lynn R. Nelson. (2005). Engagement in Teaching History, Theory and Practices for Middle and Secondary Teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.
In article      
 
[7]  Warsono & Hariyanto. (2013). Active Learning. Bandung: Rosda.
In article      
 
[8]  Joyce, Bruce, Marsha Weil & Emily Calhoun. (2009). Models of Teaching. Boston: Pearson.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Djokosujatno, A. (2002). Novel History of Indonesia: Conventions, Shapes, Colors, and Authors. Makara, Social Humanities, 6 (1), June.
In article      
 
[10]  Rusman. (2013). Learning Models. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.
In article