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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Quality and Effective Practical Work in Senior Secondary School Physics in Southeast Nigeria

ALI Peter Agbom
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(12), 1654-1661. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-12-10
Received October 14, 2018; Revised November 23, 2018; Accepted December 18, 2018

Abstract

This study was carried out to identify the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. One research question was developed in line with the purpose of the study. One null hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study is 207, and the sample comprised one hundred (100) public senior secondary school teachers from the area of study. This sample was drawn using multi-stage sampling technique. A-15 item instrument termed “Physics Practical Work Questionnaire (PPWQ)” was used by the researchers for data collection. The instrument was first validated by three experts and reliability was determined using Cronbach Alpha Statistics and the reliability got was 0.92. The administration and retrieval of instrument were through direct contact and use of research assistants with the respondents. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions while t-test statistics were used for testing the null hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that items presented are institutional factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary physics in southeast Nigeria. Findings on the hypothesis tested revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states on the items presented. It was recommended that government and none-governmental organizations should assist in the provision of the required assistance.

1. Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

Physics is an active, experimental and practically-oriented subject and its concepts find applications in our everyday life. According to Wikipedia 1, physics is a part of natural philosophy and a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. In a related development, Young and Freedman 2, described physics as an experimental science involving the study of matter and energy, space and time. Two major reasons for studying physics were equally identified to include, firstly, physics is the most fundamental science, and scientists of all disciplines make use of ideas of physics, from chemists who study the structure of molecules to palaeontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked. Furthermore, Young and Freedman 2, noted that physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology, as no engineer could design any kind of practical device without first understanding the basic physical principles involved.

The second reason adduced by Young and Freedman 2, is that the study of physics is an adventure. Accordingly, they noted that the study of physics is challenging, sometimes frustrating, occasionally painful, and often richly rewarding and satisfying. Physics is therefore the branch of science concerned with the nature, structure and properties of matter and it contributes enormously to the economy of any country. It plays a central role in many different sectors of industry such as telecommunications, architecture, engineering, electricity production and transmission, construction, and transport. It also provides employment for people who are in occupations that are engaged in physics as a scientific discipline-for example teachers, scholars, and other researchers. It is thus an indispensable part of any country’s economic development. Furthermore, physics often provides the foundations for other disciplines such as biology, medicine and chemistry. It enables learners to develop analytical skills necessary for problem solving in various situations they encounter in life. All technology is beholden to physics due to its emphasis on addressing phenomena involving the interaction of matter and energy. This interaction is necessary for the technological needs of the changing society; 3, 4.

In southeast Nigeria, few students choose to pursue the subject during the last two years of secondary school 5. Teaching is geared around memorization of basic concepts and their reproduction in the examinations 6. The students who enrol for the subject resort to cramming definitions and formulae. Consequently it is difficult for even the high achievers to apply what they have learnt in novel situations. Usually the performance in physics is among the worst among all the subjects at the school leaving level 7. Strategically, the demand for physics should be growing due to its strong influence on technology programs at university and other tertiary institutions of learning. The low enrolments in senior secondary school physics has been linked to a shortage of inspirational and well trained physics teachers, inadequate laboratory facilities and the accompanying limited exposure to practical instruction at junior secondary school level 8. The science teachers are mainly trained in theoretical content aspects. Training in handling physics practical lessons has been ineffective in many developing countries including Nigeria. Training in conducting school type science experiments is completely ignored in many university teacher training curricula. Many of all the Nigerian university trained Bachelor of Education (Science) graduates lack the skills of handling high school type of practical work. There are no school-type laboratories set aside for this exercise in the various universities and colleges that train teachers. Being a science subject, effectiveness of teaching physics should be judged by the kind of practical activities that teachers and students are engaged. The consequence is that the physics teachers lack the skills for effectively guiding learners in conducting laboratory work. The attendant advantages of performing practical work are lost on the learners. Practical work may be considered as engaging the learner in observing or manipulating real or virtual objects and materials 9. Appropriate practical work enhances pupils‟ experience, understanding, skills and enjoyment of science. Practical work enables the students to think and act in a scientific manner. The scientific method is thus emphasized. Practical work induces scientific attitudes, develops problem solving skills and improves conceptual understanding 10. Practical work in physics helps develop familiarity with apparatus, instruments and equipment. Manipulative skills are acquired by the learners. Expertise is developed for reading all manner of scales. The observations made and results obtained are used to gain understanding of physics concepts. Science process skills, necessary for the world of work are systematically developed 11. First-hand knowledge is generated. Abstract ideas can be concretized. Naïve, neonate and scientifically primitive ideas can be challenged 12. Tacit knowledge of scientific phenomena can be gained. Practical work creates motivation and interest for learning physics. Students tend to learn better in activity based courses where they can manipulate equipment and apparatus to gain insight in the content. Millar 9 has suggested that practical work should be viewed as the mechanism by which materials and equipment are carefully and critically brought together to persuade the physics learner about the veracity and validity of the scientific world view. If practiced in the right manner from the early secondary school period, critical thinking skills can be attained from practical work in physics.

Practical work puts the students at the centre of learning where they can participate in, rather be told about physics. In this way the desire and eagerness to know more about what the subject can offer is developed. However, the reality on the ground is that most experiments are sterile, un-illuminating exercises whose purpose is often lost on the learners. Millar, 9 observed that practical work is ill conceived, confused and unproductive in many schools. Whatever goes on in the laboratory has little to do with actual students’ learning science. There is usually limited planning and formulation of hypotheses, mostly done by the teachers. In many cases the experiments are derived from mostly irrelevant cultural settings with the attendant equipment disasters. The students follow a fixed program of experimental manipulations and observations set by the teacher, cookbook style. This research acknowledges the great role that well planned and delivered practical work in physics can play in influencing students learning physics in the among senior secondary school students in southeast Nigeria. For this to happen, practical work has to form a central part of classroom learning of physics. Deliberate efforts have to be made to attract and retain the students into the physics class by appealing to the curiosity raising element and discovery component of practical work in the subject. Meaningful practical work is always embedded in a discussion of ideas that makes it necessary to check observations and findings against experience and theory.

1.2. Statement to the Problem

Physics as one of the science subjects taught in Nigerian secondary schools. Physics has been undergoing a crisis. Students’ enrolment in physics courses at all levels is low in many African countries especially among the female students. Reasons for this range from inadequate lower level preparation, weak mathematics background, lack of job opportunity outside the teaching profession, inadequate teacher qualification as well as possession of below standard pedagogical content knowledge 13. Many students consider physics as difficult, abstract and theoretical 14. The subject is considered devoid of applications in the day to day life. Many students find the subject boring and unenjoyably. Interest in senior school physics is decreasing, learning motivation is declining, and the examination results are getting worse 14. In many school setting, little time is allotted for the subject compared to English language and mathematics, which are other important subjects 15, 16.

The improvement on the students’ performances in any subject in school is influenced by the students’ interest towards that subject. Students appear to believe that the most problematic subject to study is physics, though not because of its difficulty but as a result of poor perception and negative attitude towards the subject. Accordingly, Adedoyin 17, observed that students generally shy away from the core sciences due to perceived difficulty and wrong attitudes. A lot of problems have been associated with the study of physics at secondary school level in the country as identified by Adeniran 18, Onah and Ugwu 5 and Gonteng 19. These include; Students’ performances in senior secondary physics over the years have been very poor, there are shortages of academic and professional physics teachers in our secondary schools, as well as shortages of resource materials for carrying out laboratory activities in physics, Physics requires a lot of mathematics and the students lack the basic mathematical background.

With all these in view, it becomes very pertinent to point out that practical work in senior secondary physics is not properly taught, and the expected objectives of teaching are not met. The problem identified created low students enrolment in physics, low performances in the subject and the consequent negative attitude toward the subject which generally result from some pertinent factors in which this study is aimed at identifying.

1.3. Scope and Purpose of the Study

The study focuses and is limited to finding the socioeconomic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary physics. The study is also focused on the public senior secondary schools in southeast Nigeria.

Generally, the main purpose or aim of this study is to find out the socioeconomic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in southeast Nigeria.

1.4. Significance/Justification of the Study

The findings of this study will re-elevate the status of physics as the fundamental science among students and other stakeholders in the educational and technological sectors of southeast zone of Nigeria.

The findings shall be of great benefit to the following people; education policy makers, teachers, students, curriculum planners and researchers.

1.5. Research Question

The following research question guided the study.

What are the socioeconomic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in southeast Nigeria?

1.6. Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis was developed in the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

HO: There is no significant difference in mean responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states on the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in southeast Nigeria.

1.7. Concept of Physics Education

In the recent time there has been much drive in Nigeria towards scientific and technological development. The Nigerian National Policy on Education, chapter 5 Section 39, sub-section 1, 20, notes that a greater proportion of educational expenditure will be devoted to science and technology. The development of any society is measured by the level technological advancement of the people. It therefore implies that a society with high level of technology would then be regarded as being developed, 21. Physics education is therefore a major factor in enhancing science and technology development.

The national education scheme designed for secondary school physics has it that the objectives of studying physics include the following;

(i) To provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society.

(ii) To acquire basic concepts and principles of physics as a preparation for further studies.

(iii) To acquire essential scientific skills and attitudes as a preparation for the technological application of physics.

(iv) To stimulate and enhance creativity; Federal Ministry of Education, 185, p.5 20.

Thus, for national development in technology, basic concepts and principles of physics are indispensable. The teaching of physics in secondary schools is intended to produce young scientists who would be able to design the technological devices that would make day-to-day activities easier and living more comfortable, 21.

It thus implies that physics is one of the pivotal subjects in technology. The teaching and learning outcomes of this all important subject need serious attention in other to enhance a sustainable technological development in Nigeria.

1.8. Problems of Physics Education

Jegede and Adebayo, 21 noted that a careful analysis and appraisal of physics education in Nigeria reveals some fundamental problems which include;

(i) Curriculum Content: The Physics curriculum content being used in Nigerian secondary schools presently cannot cope with the challenges of 21st century strive towards technological development. The curriculum does not take into consideration the cultural values and beliefs of the society for which it was designed.

(ii) Teaching Methods: The teacher’s methods of teaching go a long way in enhancing effective learning by the students. The traditional method of teaching of teaching renders the students passive learners.

(iii) Teachers’ Quality: The teacher is the facilitator who is to impact into the students’ concepts expected to be learnt. Lack of quality and dedicated teachers has been a major in learning physics

(iv) Negative Attitudes of Students towards Physics: The majority of the students in secondary schools in Nigeria, perceived physics as a very difficult subject. The impression cuts across the gender.

The cause of the negative perception of students towards Physics was identified by Adedoyin 21, to include the fear of the mathematical skills involved, harsh teacher-students’ relationship, students’ no readiness to study, preconceived bad information that Physics is a difficult subject and poor method of teaching. This impression greatly affects students’ readiness and interest to the study of physics.

The consequence of this is felt on the expected technological growth of the country.

(v) Students’ Ignorance of the Relationship between Physics and the Environment: Students’ ignorance of the relationship between physics and the environment manifests in their failure to relate physics to relevant societal and environmental problems thereby making them to study the subject without objectivity or interest.

(vi) Teaching Materials: The importance of instructional materials in the teaching-learning process cannot be over-emphasised. Certainly no effective physics teaching can exist without learning materials, equipment and practical activities.

1.9. Concept of Quality in Education

Quality is an extension of standard. Quality in education concerns students learning achievement, the relevance of what is taught and learned, and the significant changes in input (students, teachers, facilities and suppliers) objectives, curriculum, educational technology and political environment. According to Amadelo, Nakhanu and Wekesa 22, quality in education connotes standard of education, quality of service, quality of management, relevance, significance and efficiency of product.

Quality is quite important in our educational system. The Federal Government of Nigeria in realizing this, saw quality as the guiding principle in educational planning and thereby came up with this in Section 8B (70a) of the National Policy on Education 21. Since no education system may rise above the quality of its teachers, teachers’ education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development. Quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school should make for the realisation of the objectives of the curriculum and achievement of technological advancement.

1.10. Review of Empirical Studies

Amadalo, Nkhanu and Wekesa 22, carried out a study on the effect of practical work on girls’ performance, attitude change and skills acquisition in secondary schools in Kenya.

The study identified practical work as an influencing agent in the process of learning physics. By enabling the girls to carry out practical investigations, theoretical implications are clarified. The study involved two groups of girls from three sampled medium performing schools in Western Kenya. The experimental group was exposed to intensive practical work. The control group was conventionally taught the same content. A performance test of reliability index, rxy = 0.879 was administered to both groups at the end of form two. Comparison in terms of achievement on the test, attitude developed towards physics, science process skills learnt, and relative choice to pursue the subject in form three for the two groups was made. The experimental group outperformed the control group on all the research objectives.

Onah and Ugwu 5, worked on the factors which predict performance in secondary school physics in Ebonyi north educational zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in 20 secondary schools in Ebonyi North Educational Zone of Ebonyi State. Questionnaires were used in collecting the necessary data for this study. The data was analysed by using step-wise multiple regression in performance in physics with the five factors studied as predictors distribution was used to test the null hypotheses. It was found that school location and interest of students had no significant effects on performance in physics while performance in physics at this level depended on sex (gender), teacher qualification and laboratory facilities

Similarly, Olufunke 23, studied the effect of availability and utilization of physics Laboratory Equipment on students’ academic achievement in senior secondary school physics. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The sample consisted of nine hundred students who were randomly chosen and fifty Physics teachers who were purposively selected from forty five senior secondary schools in the south western region of Nigeria. Three instruments were used for the collection of data for the study. They are designed questionnaire tagged "Physics Laboratory Equipment Questionnaire" (PLEQ) with reliability of 0.72, a checklist of Physics equipment and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) to measure students’ achievement. The results showed that the optimal utilization of physics laboratory equipment is effective in the teaching of Physics. The federal schools had the maximum adequately utilized PLE and had the highest mean score, followed by the private schools while the public schools with the minimum available equipment and least utilization capacity had the minimum mean score. The study concluded that science laboratory with adequate equipment is a critical variable in determining the quality of output from senior secondary school physics.

In a related development, Adeyemo 24, studied the influence of teachers’ supply and the provision of laboratory facilities on students’ achievement in physics.

The study adopted a simple survey design. It is a survey of the influence of teachers’ supply and the provision of laboratory facilities on students’ achievement in physics. The major instrument data collection was the questionnaire which was analysed using statistical packages for social science which include simple percentages, mean, standard deviation, simple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA). The research questions were investigated and three hypotheses were duly tested. The highlight of the finding from the study include the following: adequate supply of physics teachers’ determines to a great extent students’ academic performance in physics, adequate provision of laboratory facilities plays a significant role in boosting students achievement in physics, The main and interaction effect of the supply of physics teachers and the provision of laboratory facilities influence students’ performance in physics jointly and separately. Based on these findings, it was concluded that teachers’ supply and provision of laboratory facilities have strong and positive influence on students’ achievement in physics.

2. Methodology

2.1. Design of the Study

Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Descriptive survey design is the one in which a group of people is studied by collecting and analysing data from few people, considered to be representative of the entire group. In this research design, questionnaire, test or interview could be used to collect data in survey design. The design was considered appropriate for this study because questionnaire was used to obtain data from students of physics in the area of the study.

2.2. Area of the Study

The area of study is South East Nigeria. The South East Nigeria is made up five states of Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo. The states have many senior secondary schools with the primary target of ensuring access to quality secondary education by every child of school age.

2.3. Population of the Study

The population of the study is 1027. According to the official record from the Planning, Research and Statistics of the various secondary education boards southeast states for 2017, there are 109 of teachers of physics from Ebonyi, 224 from Enugu, 240 from Abia, 203 from Anambra and 251 from Imo.

2.4. Sample and Sampling Techniques

Multi stage sampling techniques were used in choosing 200 respondents for the study. Firstly, random sampling technique by balloting was used draw a sample of two states, namely Ebonyi and Enugu out the five in the zone. Secondly, simple random sampling by balloting was used to select three educational zones from each state. The zones finally selected are for Ebonyi; Abakaliki, Afikpo and Onueke. For Enugu state, Udi, Nsukka and Awgu zones were selected. Thirdly, simple random sampling technique was used to select 33 teachers of physics in each of the five zones while 35 were selected in the sixth zone, making a total of 200 respondents.

2.5. Instrument for Data Collection

The Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire called ‘Physics Practical Work Questionnaire’ (PPWQ). The questionnaire items were generated based on the information gathered from the review of related literature. The questionnaire was made up of two parts: Part one solicited for information on the personal data of the respondents while part two was structured into cluster of 9 items

Each questionnaire item is assigned a four point scale of: Strongly Agree (SA); Agree (A); Disagree (D); Strongly Disagree (SD), with the corresponding values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively.

2.6. Validation of the Instrument

The instrument was firstly validated by three (3) experts; one from Measurement and Evaluation, Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, and the other two from the department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The validators were given a copy of the questionnaire for appropriate vetting, validation and suggestions. Their respective suggestions were incorporated in the production of the final questionnaire.

2.7. Reliability of Instrument

The Chrombach’s Alpha coefficient method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. It was obtained by administering a single test to 20 selected teachers of physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Cross River state. The choice of schools in the state is because they were in another geopolitical zone of the country.

The data obtained from the administration of the questionnaire were analysed by finding the variance of each item of the questionnaire and the variance of the total number of items in each section of the questionnaire. The variances were used to calculate the alpha coefficient of the questionnaire. The result is a coefficient of 0.88. This value represents the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire.

2.8. Method of Data Collection

The researchers involved ten research assistants from senior secondary schools within the two states selected for the study. These research assistants were trained to assist in the administration of the questionnaire to the teachers of physics. Two hundred (200) copies of the questionnaire were administered and subsequently retrieved.

2.9. Method of Data Analysis

Data collected were analysed using weighted mean and standard deviation to answer the two research questions and T-test to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. Four response options of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Strongly Disagree (SD), and Disagree (D) were posed for the respondents for each item. Each of the items was assigned a value, thus: SA = 4, A = 3, SD = 2 and D = 1. This produced a cut of point of 2.50. Any mean of 2.50 and above was accepted and rejected when below that value. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

3. Presentation and Analysis of Data

This chapter presented the analysis of data collected for the research work. The analysed data were organized based on the research questions developed and the null hypotheses formulated for the study.

3.1. Research Question

What are the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria?

Table 1 presented the data for answering research question 2.

The data presented in Table 1 revealed that the 9 items in the table had their mean values ranging from 2.69 to 3.81. This means that each of the mean value is above the cut-off point of 2.50, indicating that they are socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria.

The standard deviations of the items ranged from 0.37 to 1.27. This means that each of the standard deviations is below 1.96, and therefore shows that the respondents were not too far from the mean and they were close to one another in their responses.

  • Table 1. Mean responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states’ senior secondary schools on socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria

  • Table 2. T-test analysis of the responses of two groups of respondents (teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states) on the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria

3.2. Hypothesis

HO: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states schools on the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria.

The data for testing the hypothesis are presented in Table 2.

The data presented in Table 2 revealed that each of the items in the table had a calculated t-value less than the table value of 1.96 (two tailed test) at 0.05 significance and 199 degrees of freedom. This indicates that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the two groups of respondents (teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states) on socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria. With this result, the null hypotheses of no significant difference were upheld for the 9 items.

3.3. Findings of the Study

The following findings emerged from the study based on the research question answered and hypothesis tested on the socioeconomic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria.

The respondents agreed that for there to be quality and effective practical work in the senior secondary school physics, the following socioeconomic factors should be addressed;

(1) Peer influence.

(2) Poor knowledge of career prospect.

(3) Poor educational foundation.

(4) Poor mathematical knowledge.

(5) Poor teacher-student relation.

(6) Gender disparity.

(7) Corruption on the part of relevant stakeholders.

(8) Location of school.

(9) Family instability and poverty.

3.4. Findings on Hypothesis

The findings on the hypotheses tested revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings on the responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states of Nigeria on the one hypothesis tested with the corresponding items which are factors affecting quality and effective practical work in the senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria.

4. Discussion of Findings

The findings of the research question show that all the items presented were all accepted as the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria. The findings include: Peer influence, poor knowledge of career prospect, poor educational foundation, poor mathematical knowledge and poor teacher-student relation. Others are, gender disparity, corruption on the part of relevant stakeholders, location of school and family instability and poverty. Mokoro, Aloka and Wambiya 25, investigated the influence of some selected social factors on students’ attitude towards science. The findings revealed that there was a statistically significant influence between the teacher’s characteristics and the students’ attitude towards science. Similarly, Olusola and Rotimi, 26, investigated attitudes of students towards the study of physics in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The findings of this study established that students held high favourable attitudes towards physics. The findings suggested that good teacher-student interrelationships led to the development of positive attitudes towards physics courses among the students. Similarly, Kosgei, Mise, Odera and Ayugi 27, studied the influence of teacher characteristics on student academic attitudes and achievement, in selected secondary schools in Nandi South District, Kenya. The results revealed that as the level of education increased, the student performance and positive attitudes also increased. The result implied that teacher academic qualification influenced student’s academic attitude and achievement .Breakwell 28, studied how gender, parental and peer influences affect science attitudes and activities in the UK and reported that boys had more positive attitudes to science and greater levels of participation in scientific extra-curricular activities. Okorodudu 29, investigated peer pressure and socioeconomic status as predictors of student’s attitude to examination malpractice in Nigeria and found out that there existed a significant relationship between peer pressure and students’ attitude to examination malpractice. The results further suggested the peer pressure is one of the major factors that enhance examination malpractice behaviour among students.

The views, contributions and findings of the authors cited above have helped to justify the findings of the study.

5. Conclusion

Physics is a fundamental science that forms the basis for the development of technology, engineering and other allied areas. The level of overall development of any nation hinges on its scientific and technological advancement, hence accordingly, FGN 20, noted that every student should be given an opportunity to acquire its concepts, principles and skills. More so, the senior secondary school physics curriculum has been developed to be relevant, appropriate and current in the rapidly changing world moderated by information and communication technology. As a subject, the objective of senior secondary school physics is to ensure that students develop interest in it and choose it as a profession or choose others professions which require physics. This objective has not been achieved because most students shy away from the subject because it has been made too abstract through lack of quality and effective practical work.

To make students choose and progress in this subject and put the nation on a path of sustainable scientific and technological development there is the need to address the socio-economic factors identified in this study. Making contribution to this direction the study identified the institutional and socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in the subject in the senior secondary schools in South East Nigeria. This if addressed by the relevant stakeholders could enhance a better understanding of the subject. The study therefore made the following contributions to knowledge;

1) It has provided information to the management of senior secondary schools at the various levels of government on the socio-economic factors that should be provided or enhanced in schools for a better study of physics.

2) The study has provided information that could be used by non-governmental organizations and development partner agencies interested in the provision of facilities for the implementation of science-based programs in our secondary schools. This is because they will use the findings to identify the various areas of attention and intervention.

3) The study provided information which the different state governments in South East Nigeria can use to develop workshop materials for training of teachers on improvisation in teaching and learning of physics at senior secondary school level.

4) The study also provided information which the school administrators and proprietors could use to solve problems affecting quality and effective practical work in physics.

6. Recommendations for Improvement

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made.

1) That the federal ministry of education in collaboration with the federal ministry of science and technology and other relevant agencies should address the identified factors so that science and technology would be its pride of place in the South East.

2) That the different state governments in South East Nigeria should address the identified factors so that quality and effective teaching of physics practical would be ensured in the zone.

3) That Parent Teachers Association (PTA) of schools in South East Nigeria should contribute resources for the purchase of needed facilities for the teaching of physics practical.

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In article      
 
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In article      View Article
 

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Normal Style
ALI Peter Agbom. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Quality and Effective Practical Work in Senior Secondary School Physics in Southeast Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 12, 2018, pp 1654-1661. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/12/10
MLA Style
Agbom, ALI Peter. "Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Quality and Effective Practical Work in Senior Secondary School Physics in Southeast Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 6.12 (2018): 1654-1661.
APA Style
Agbom, A. P. (2018). Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Quality and Effective Practical Work in Senior Secondary School Physics in Southeast Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(12), 1654-1661.
Chicago Style
Agbom, ALI Peter. "Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Quality and Effective Practical Work in Senior Secondary School Physics in Southeast Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 12 (2018): 1654-1661.
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  • Table 1. Mean responses of teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states’ senior secondary schools on socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria
  • Table 2. T-test analysis of the responses of two groups of respondents (teachers of physics from Ebonyi and Enugu states) on the socio-economic factors affecting quality and effective practical work in senior secondary school physics in South East Nigeria
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[22]  Amadelo, M. M; Nakhanu, S. B; Wekesa, W. D. (2012). Investigation of factors that influence syllabus coverage in secondary school mathematics in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(15).
In article      
 
[23]  Olufunke, B. T. (2012). Effect of Availability and Utilization of Physics Laboratory Equipment on Students’ Academic Achievement in Senior Secondary School Physics, World Journal of Education, 2(5).
In article      
 
[24]  Adeyemo, S. A. (2012). The teachers’ supply and the provision of provision of laboratory facilities on students’ achievement in physics. European Journal of Educational Studies, 4(3).
In article      
 
[25]  Mokoro, J. M.; Aloka, P. J. O. and Wambiya, P. (2014). Influence of Selected Social Factors on Students’ Attitude towards Chemistry. Mediterranean Journal of Social Science, 5(22) (Retrieved from http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/3917)
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Olusola, O. O. & Rotimi, C.O. (2012). Attitudes of Students towards the study of Physics in College of Education Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State, Breakwell, M.G. (2012). Gender, parental and peer influences upon science attitudes and activities. Public Understanding of Science, 1(2), 1-14. Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research (2) 12, 86-90.
In article      
 
[27]  Kosgei, A., Mise, J. K., Odera, O. &Ayugi, M. E. (2013). Influence of teacher characteristics on students’ academic achievement among secondary schools. Journal of Education and Practice, (4)3, 76-83.
In article      
 
[28]  Breakwell, M.G. (2012). Gender, parental and peer influences upon science attitudes and activities. Public Understanding of Science,1(2), 1-14 (http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/viewFile/3917/3833).
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Okorodudu, G. N. (2013). Peer pressure and socioeconomic status as predictors of student’s attitude to examination malpractice in Nigeria. International Journal of Education, 5(1), 36-52.
In article      View Article