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Factors Affecting Quality of Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in Second Cycle Institutions in Juaboso District

Godfred Safo-Adu , Ernest Ngman – Wara, Rebecca Esi Quansah
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(11), 1546-1550. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-11-13
Received October 11, 2018; Revised November 12, 2018; Accepted November 25, 2018

Abstract

The study investigated into the factors that affect the quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle institutions in the Juaboso District in the Western Region of Ghana. A survey design was adopted for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of 158 students and 11 Integrated Science teachers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that the instructional strategies employed by Integrated Science teachers during teaching and learning of Integrated Science were not varied, teacher centred and not inquiry based. Instructional materials utilized during Integrated Science lessons were inadequate. Lack of funds, no motivation by government and no heat source were the major constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials. An independent-sample t-test results showed a significant difference between mean response of students (M= 43.56, SD = 25.61), and teachers (M =5.67, SD = 2.65) on availability of Instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science (t (8.171) =4.415, p=0.002<0.05). Also significant difference exit between students and teachers mean response on the use of Instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science; t (8.281) = 4.526, p=0.001<0.05. The Juaboso District Education Service in collaboration with the University of Education, Winneba should organize short courses on instructional strategies, material improvisation, production and utilization for teachers to improve the quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle institutions in the Juaboso District.

1. Introduction

The inclusion of Integrated Science into Ghanaian school curriculum is to promote national development and make the country achieve its strategic programme of scientific and technological literacy. 1 Integrated Science solicits the perspectives of the individual science disciplines, and integrates them during all phases of the approach to solve scientific and resource management problems. 2 It is required of Integrated Science teachers to have diverse ideas to examine the linkages among single – discipline perspectives, to develop new methods, concepts and approaches during teaching 3 and also teach science through inquiry to young ones.

Quality teaching in Integrated Science is crucial for developing scientifically literate citizens and improving economic productivity for sustainable development. It enhances student’s achievements, strengthens public confidence in schools and helps students attain conceptual understanding. 4 Quality teaching is characterized by teacher’s adequate knowledge of subject matter; encouraging inquiry and hands-on approach to learning for students; and recognizing individual students as learners as the teacher builds on learner’s strengths rather than trying to stamp out their weaknesses. It helps teachers to focus on educational improvement of learners through the integration of adequate knowledge of the curriculum content areas, functional pedagogical skills, critical reflective teaching, empathy commitment to the educational process and acquisition of managerial competences within and outside the school context. 5

The quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning could be affected by factors such as inappropriate and inadequate instructional materials, inappropriate instructional strategies used by teachers, poor teacher preparation before lessons and poor attitude and interest of students towards the subject. Intelligence, cognitive styles and personality are individual characteristic that play important role in teaching and learning. 6 Other variables such as motivational orientation, self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors that affect teaching and learning. Opara and Etukudo (2014) posits that with adequate instructional materials and strategies, the teacher will be able to give students the chance to learn through their senses of hearing, smelling, tasting, seeing and feeling. 7

A study conducted by Azure (2015) in Ghanaian Senior High Schools revealed that students were not led to carry out activities as suggested by the Integrated Science curriculum; teachers taught without performing activities as suggested in the curriculum. It was also revealed that students were made to read textbooks while teachers explained some of the concepts. 8 Also West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiners report (2017) showed that the performance of students in Integrated Science was not encouraging. There was a dip in performance in Integrated Science in 2017 (48 %) as compared to 2016 (56 %). 9

The quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle schools in Ghana is not encouraging. This has been reflected in the poor performance of Ghanaian students in West African Senior High School Certificate examination (WASSCE) that disqualify them from gaining admission into tertiary institutions for further studies. 10, 11 The West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner’s Report (2016) revealed that (71.5 %) of students from second cycle institutions in Juaboso District who took the West African Senior Secondary School Examinations in 2016 failed in Integrated Science whilst 28.5 % passed. 12 Again the, WAEC Chief Examiners report (2017) revealed that (87.4%) of students from second cycle institutions in Juaboso District who took the West African Senior Secondary School Examinations in 2017 failed in Integrated Science whilst 12.6 passed. 9 The pass rate of students at Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSSCE) in the District in the Western Region of Ghana keeps on falling. This study sought to investigate into the factors that affect the quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle institutions in Juaboso District. Specifically the study was to; assess the constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials in teaching Integrated Science and to assess the instructional strategies teachers use in teaching Integrated Science. The findings of this study will form the basis in service training workshops that will improve the quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning g in second cycle schools in the Juaboso District. This will have impact on students’ performance in the subject.

The following questions were posed to guide the study:

1. What instructional strategies do teachers use in teaching Integrated Science in Juaboso District?

2. What are the major constraints to Integrated Science teacher’s use of instructional materials?

The two hypotheses that guided the study were:

Ho 1: There is no difference between the mean response of students and teachers on the availability of instructional materials.

Ho 2: There is no difference between the mean responses of students and teachers on teacher’s use of instructional materials.

2. Methods

The study was carried out in the Juaboso District located in the North Western part of Western Region of Ghana. The district has two public second cycle institutions with a total population of 3000 and a male to female student ratio of 2:1. There was no private Senior High School (SHS) in the district.

The survey design was employed for the study. The design was considered most appropriate because a survey research seeks the opinion of large number of people about an event. 13 Moreover, survey is more economical since many subjects can be studied at the same time. 15

Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 158 final year students while 11 Integrated Science teachers were purposively sampled for the study. The final year students were targeted because they would have experienced in Integrated Science teaching for almost three years and would therefore be in a position to share their experiences in relation to the teaching and learning of the subject.

Two questionnaires namely Student Questionnaire: “Factors Affecting Teaching and Learning of Integrated Science Questionnaire for students (FATLISS) and teachers questionnaire: “Factors Affecting Teaching and Learning of Integrated Science Questionnaire for Teachers (FATLIST)” were used to collect data from students and teachers respectively. The students questionnaire consisted two sections, section A and B while the teachers questionnaire consisted of three sections, section A to C. Section A and B of both questionnaires contained the same information. Section A explained the purpose of the study and elicited demographic information from respondents. Section B contained three items that elicited information about available instructional materials intended to be used for teaching and learning Integrated Science, instructional materials teachers utilize for teaching Integrated Science and major constraints to teachers use of instructional materials. Section C contained two items that elicited information about instruction strategies teachers’ use in teaching Integrated Science.

The instruments were reviewed by experts in the Department in Integrated Science Education of University of Education, Winneba to ensure their face and content validity after which they were pre tested in Methodist Senior High School in the Western Region of Ghana to estimate their reliabilities. The items were subjected to item analysis in order to identify those whose removal or modification would enhance the internal consistency of the instruments. 14 The Statistical Package for Services and Solution (SPSS) was used to determine the Cronbach alpha coefficient values for the instruments. Alpha values of 0.87 and 0.76 were obtained for students and teachers questionnaire respectively. The responses indicated that participant understood the questions and that the wording of the items were appropriate.

Collection of data for the study started with negotiating access to the schools. Permission was sought from the school authorities in the district. An official letter of introduction was obtained from the Juaboso District Director of Education to visit the second cycle schools in the district purposively selected for the study. The student’s questionnaire was administered to form three students while the teacher’s questionnaire was also administered to Integrated Science teachers. The respondents completed the questionnaire on the same day the questionnaires were administered.

The SPSS software (version 20) was used to organize the data into frequency, counts and percentages. Also mean scores and standard deviation of the sample responses were determined. The t - test was statistically used to test the hypothesis that no significance difference exist between the mean responses of students and teachers on availability of instructional materials for teaching Integrated Science and use of instructional materials for teaching Integrated Science.

3. Result

A total of 158 students and 11 teachers participated in this study. In all, 51.9 % of the respondents were male students; 48.1% were female students; 72.7% were male teachers and 27.3% were female teachers. The ages of students ranged between 11 years and above 16 years. Majority of the students (78.5 %) aged above 16 years with the least age range being 13 years to 14 years (1.3 %). The ages of the teachers ranged between 25 years and above 40 years with majority of the teachers (45.5 %) with ages between 25 years to 30 years. Only one teacher was above 40 years.

The percentage responses of the students and teachers on available instructional materials are presented in Table 1. The instructional material available for teaching and learning Integrated Science was Textbooks (57% of students and 81.1% of teachers responded “yes”). Non available instructional materials were: Pictures (77.7% of students and 72.7% of teachers said “no”); Specimen (89.2% of students and 54.5% of teachers said “no”); Audio visual materials (83.5% of students said “no” and 81.8% of teachers said “no”); Projector (84.1% of students and 54.5% of teachers said “no”), Model (83.5% of students said “no” and 63.6% of teachers said “no”) and Wall Chart (75.9% of students said “no” and 54.5 % said “no”).

The use of instructional materials by teachers for teaching Integrated Science is shown in Table 2. The instructional material Integrated Science teachers used for teaching and learning Integrated Science was Textbooks (57% of students and 81.1% of teachers responded “yes”). Non used instructional materials were: Pictures (75.8% of students and 81.8% of teachers said “no”); Specimen (89.7% of students and 63.6% of teachers said “no”); Audio visual materials (84.1% of students said “no” and 81.8% of teachers said “no”); Projector (84.6% of students and 81.8% of teachers said “no”), Model (85.4% of students said “no” and 72.7% of teachers said “no”) and Wall Chart (75.8% of students said “no” and 63.6% said “no”). There was disagreement between the teachers and the students on the use of Diagrams (56.1% of students said “no” whilst 63.6% of teachers said “yes”) for teaching and learning Integrated Science.

The major constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials for teaching and learning integrated science are presented in Table 3. A total of eleven (11), eight (8) and six (6) teachers representing 100 %, 72.1 % and 54.5 % respectively indicated that lack of funds, no motivation by government and no heat source respectively were the major constraints to teachers use of instructional materials. Only one teacher representing (9.1 %) reported no knowledge and no time as major constraints to teacher’s use of Instructional materials.

Lack of funds (100 %), absence of heat source and no motivation from government were the major constraints affecting Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle schools in Juaboso District while teacher knowledge in the subject matter and formal trainings were the least affecting teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Information about the instructional strategies employed by teachers during teaching and learning of Integrated Science is presented in Table 4. A greater proportion of Integrated Science teachers reported to use discussion as major instruction strategies employed during teaching and learning. About 55 % of teachers reported the use of demonstration and questions and answers as instructional strategies for teaching and learning integrated science. Only one teacher reported inquiry learning as an instructional strategy for teaching and learning Integrated Science.

Results of t-test analysis to establish any significance difference that existed between the mean response of students and teachers on availability of instructional materials for teaching Integrated Science is shown in Table 5. There was significant difference between students (M= 43.56, SD = 25.61), and teachers (M =5.67, SD = 2.65) mean response on availability of Instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science; t (8.171) =4.415, p=0.002<0.05.

Results of t-test analysis to establish any difference that existed between mean response of students and teachers on the use of instructional materials for teaching and learning integrated science is shown in Table 6. There was significant difference between students (M= 44.08, SD = 26.06), and teachers (M =6.02, SD = 2.92) mean response on the use of Instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science; t (8.281) =4.526, p=0.001<0.05.

4. Discussion

The study specifically assessed the major constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials and the instructional strategies teachers used during teaching and learning of Integrated Science in second cycle schools in the Juaboso District in the Western Region of Ghana.

The study revealed that six out of the nine Instructional materials listed were not available in senior high schools in Juaboso District. The non-available instructional materials were Specimens, Pictures, Audio Visual Materials, Wall Charts, Projector and model. The non-availability implies their non-utilization during Integrated Science lessons. Most of the non-available instructional materials unfortunately could be provided or improvised with little or of no cost. Only textbooks were available for teaching and learning of Integrated Science. There was disagreement between teachers and students on the availability of Laboratory Apparatus and Diagrams for teaching and learning Integrated Science.

The instructional materials used during teaching and learning Integrated Science in second cycle schools in Juaboso District were inadequate. The ratio of utilized and non-utilized instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science was 1:7.The study revealed that textbooks were the only instructional materials utilized during teaching and learning integrated. In this study there was disagreement by students and teachers on the use of Diagrams for teaching and learning Integrated Science. Integrated Science teachers made no effort of providing and or improvising basic instructional materials such as wall chart, pictures and models which could easily be made.

The study revealed that lack of training and no time were not major constraints to the use of instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science. Lack of funds, no motivation by government and no heat source were the major constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials. A study conducted by Opare and Etukudo (2014) in Nigeria also revealed that lack of funds, no encouragement by government, electricity and non-available instructional materials were major constraints to teachers use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of basic science and technology in primary schools. 16

There was a significant difference between students and teachers responses on availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science (t (8.171) =4.415, p=0.002<0.05). Also significant difference exited between students and teachers mean responses on the use of Instructional materials for teaching and learning Integrated Science (t (8.281) = 4.526, p=0.001<0.05).

The major instructional strategy employed by the Integrated Science teachers was discussion, a dialogue oriented strategy to learning of science. However, students centred instructional strategies such as mental modeling, discovery learning, hands-on activity and most importantly inquiry approach to learning science were not used. This is not in consonant with international standards which recommend that teachers of science plan inquiry - based programmes for their students and should also interact with students to focus and support their inquiries, recognize individual differences and provide opportunities for all students to learn. 17, 18 Lecture method and demonstration which are basically teacher centered strategies were fairly used during teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

The findings also fall short to the recommendation of teaching for effective learning where students take responsibility of their own learning through active construction and reconstruction of their own meanings for concepts and phenomena. 19, 20 Instructional strategies employed by teachers for teaching Integrated Science were not varied, and were teacher centred and not inquiry based.

5. Summary of Findings

1. Most of the instructional materials utilized during teaching and learning of Integrated were not available. Only Textbooks were commonly used during teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

2. Integrated Science teachers identified lack of funds, absence of motivation by government and no heat source as the major constraints to teacher’s use of instructional materials.

3. Students centered instructional strategies such as mental modeling, discovery learning, hands-on activity and most importantly inquiry approach to learning science were not utilized during teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

4. Instructional strategies employed by teachers for teaching Integrated Science were not varied, teacher centred and not inquiry based.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

The study revealed that the instructional materials utilized during teaching and learning Integrated Science in second cycle schools in Juaboso District were inadequate. Only textbooks were used during teaching and learning of Integrated Science. Integrated Science teachers made no effort to provide and or improvise basic instructional materials such as wall chart, pictures and models which could be made with ease. Lack of funds, no motivation by government and no heat source were the major constraints to teacher’s use of the instructional materials. Also Instructional strategies employed by Integrated Science teachers during teaching and learning Integrated Science were not variety, teacher centred and not inquiry based. Students centered approach such as mental modeling; discovery learning, hands-on activity and most importantly inquiry approach to learning science were not used during teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Based on the research findings the following recommendations were made to help improve upon quality of Integrated Science teaching and learning in second cycle institutions in Juaboso District in the Western Region of Ghana;

1. The Senior High School administrators in the Juaboso District should encourage Integrated Science teachers to improve upon the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning

2. Integrated Science teachers should adopt variety of instructional strategies especially student’s centered instructional strategies during teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

3. Juaboso District Education Service in collaboration with University of Education, Winneba should organize short courses, workshops, seminars on material improvisation, production and utilization for teachers in second cycle institutions in the Juaboso District.

References

[1]  Curriculum Research and Development Division [CRDD]. (2010). Teaching syllabus for Integrated Science (Senior High School). Accra. Ghana Education Service.
In article      
 
[2]  Gallagher, K. T., Goldhaber, M.B., Ayres, M.A., Baron, J. S., Beauchemin, P.R., Hutchinson, D.R., LaBaugh, J.W., Sayre, R.G., Schwarzbach, S.E., Schweig, E.S., Thormodsgard, J., Van Riper, C. and Wilde, W. (2008). Making the case for Integrated Science: A sequel to the USGS science strategy.
In article      
 
[3]  Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research [CFIR] (2004). Facilitating interdisciplinary research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
In article      
 
[4]  American Association for Advancement of Science [AAAS] (1989). Science for all Americans. Washington:
In article      
 
[5]  Daworiye, P.S., Alagoa, K.J., Enariegha, E. and Eremasi, V.B. (2015). Factors Affecting the teaching and learning of Biology in Kolokuma/Opokuma Local Government Area, Badyelsa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology. 2 (4), 151-156.
In article      
 
[6]  Tella, A. (2007). The impact of motivation on student’s academic achievements and learning outcomes in Mathematics among secondary school students in Nigeria. Euras. J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. 3(2), 149-156.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Opara, P.N. and Etukudo, D.U. (2014). Factor affecting teaching and learning of basic science and technology in primary schools. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Studies. 1 (1), 46-58.
In article      
 
[8]  Azure, J.A. (2015). Senior High School Students’ views on the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in Ghana. Journal of Science Education and Research. 1(2), 49-61.
In article      
 
[9]  West Africa Examinations Council. (2017). Chief examiner’s report. WAEC press.
In article      
 
[10]  Entsuah – Mensah, R. E. M. (2004). The future of the youth in science and technology in Ghana Institute for Scientific and Technological Information, Accra: Ghana.
In article      
 
[11]  Anamuah – Mensah, J. & Asabere- Ameyaw, A. (2011). Science and mathematics in basic schools in Ghana. Retrieved from www.uew.edu.gh/sites on November 15,
In article      View Article
 
[12]  West Africa Examinations Council. (2016). Chief examiner’s report. WAEC press.
In article      
 
[13]  Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (3rd Ed.). Bershire, UK: Open University Press.
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Onwoioduokit, F. A. (2000). Educational Research Methodology and statistics. Uyo, Forand.
In article      
 
[15]  Mitchell, M., & Jolly, J. (2004). Survey research Design Explained (5th Ed) Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA 179-214.
In article      
 
[16]  Opara, P.N. and Etukudo, D.U. (2014). Factor affecting teaching and learning of basic science and technology in primary schools. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Studies. 1 (1), 46-58.
In article      
 
[17]  Bencze, J. L., Alsop, S., & Bowen, G. M. (2009). Student- teacher inquiry – based actions to address socio-scientific issues. Journal of Activist science & technology Education. 1(2) 78-112.
In article      
 
[18]  Bybee, R. W., Carlson- Powell, J., & Trowbridge, L. W. (2008). Teaching secondary School science: strategies for developing scientific literacy (9th Ed.). Merril, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
In article      
 
[19]  Borich, G. D. (2007). Effective teaching methods: Research – based practice: USA Prentice Hall.
In article      PubMed
 
[20]  Brass, C., Gunstone, R., & Fenshman, P. (2003). Quality learning of physics: Conceptions held by high school and university teachers. Research in science education. 33(2) 245-271.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Godfred Safo-Adu, Ernest Ngman – Wara and Rebecca Esi Quansah

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Godfred Safo-Adu, Ernest Ngman – Wara, Rebecca Esi Quansah. Factors Affecting Quality of Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in Second Cycle Institutions in Juaboso District. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 11, 2018, pp 1546-1550. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/11/13
MLA Style
Safo-Adu, Godfred, Ernest Ngman – Wara, and Rebecca Esi Quansah. "Factors Affecting Quality of Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in Second Cycle Institutions in Juaboso District." American Journal of Educational Research 6.11 (2018): 1546-1550.
APA Style
Safo-Adu, G. , Wara, E. N. –. , & Quansah, R. E. (2018). Factors Affecting Quality of Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in Second Cycle Institutions in Juaboso District. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(11), 1546-1550.
Chicago Style
Safo-Adu, Godfred, Ernest Ngman – Wara, and Rebecca Esi Quansah. "Factors Affecting Quality of Integrated Science Teaching and Learning in Second Cycle Institutions in Juaboso District." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 11 (2018): 1546-1550.
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  • Table 5. t – Test Results on Mean Responses of Students and Teachers on Available Instructional Materials
  • Table 6. t – Test Results on Mean Responses of Students and Teachers on the Use of Instructional Materials
[1]  Curriculum Research and Development Division [CRDD]. (2010). Teaching syllabus for Integrated Science (Senior High School). Accra. Ghana Education Service.
In article      
 
[2]  Gallagher, K. T., Goldhaber, M.B., Ayres, M.A., Baron, J. S., Beauchemin, P.R., Hutchinson, D.R., LaBaugh, J.W., Sayre, R.G., Schwarzbach, S.E., Schweig, E.S., Thormodsgard, J., Van Riper, C. and Wilde, W. (2008). Making the case for Integrated Science: A sequel to the USGS science strategy.
In article      
 
[3]  Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research [CFIR] (2004). Facilitating interdisciplinary research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
In article      
 
[4]  American Association for Advancement of Science [AAAS] (1989). Science for all Americans. Washington:
In article      
 
[5]  Daworiye, P.S., Alagoa, K.J., Enariegha, E. and Eremasi, V.B. (2015). Factors Affecting the teaching and learning of Biology in Kolokuma/Opokuma Local Government Area, Badyelsa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology. 2 (4), 151-156.
In article      
 
[6]  Tella, A. (2007). The impact of motivation on student’s academic achievements and learning outcomes in Mathematics among secondary school students in Nigeria. Euras. J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. 3(2), 149-156.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Opara, P.N. and Etukudo, D.U. (2014). Factor affecting teaching and learning of basic science and technology in primary schools. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Studies. 1 (1), 46-58.
In article      
 
[8]  Azure, J.A. (2015). Senior High School Students’ views on the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in Ghana. Journal of Science Education and Research. 1(2), 49-61.
In article      
 
[9]  West Africa Examinations Council. (2017). Chief examiner’s report. WAEC press.
In article      
 
[10]  Entsuah – Mensah, R. E. M. (2004). The future of the youth in science and technology in Ghana Institute for Scientific and Technological Information, Accra: Ghana.
In article      
 
[11]  Anamuah – Mensah, J. & Asabere- Ameyaw, A. (2011). Science and mathematics in basic schools in Ghana. Retrieved from www.uew.edu.gh/sites on November 15,
In article      View Article
 
[12]  West Africa Examinations Council. (2016). Chief examiner’s report. WAEC press.
In article      
 
[13]  Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (3rd Ed.). Bershire, UK: Open University Press.
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Onwoioduokit, F. A. (2000). Educational Research Methodology and statistics. Uyo, Forand.
In article      
 
[15]  Mitchell, M., & Jolly, J. (2004). Survey research Design Explained (5th Ed) Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA 179-214.
In article      
 
[16]  Opara, P.N. and Etukudo, D.U. (2014). Factor affecting teaching and learning of basic science and technology in primary schools. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Studies. 1 (1), 46-58.
In article      
 
[17]  Bencze, J. L., Alsop, S., & Bowen, G. M. (2009). Student- teacher inquiry – based actions to address socio-scientific issues. Journal of Activist science & technology Education. 1(2) 78-112.
In article      
 
[18]  Bybee, R. W., Carlson- Powell, J., & Trowbridge, L. W. (2008). Teaching secondary School science: strategies for developing scientific literacy (9th Ed.). Merril, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
In article      
 
[19]  Borich, G. D. (2007). Effective teaching methods: Research – based practice: USA Prentice Hall.
In article      PubMed
 
[20]  Brass, C., Gunstone, R., & Fenshman, P. (2003). Quality learning of physics: Conceptions held by high school and university teachers. Research in science education. 33(2) 245-271.
In article      View Article