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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia

Iskandar Agung
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1388-1396. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-8
Received August 06, 2018; Revised October 15, 2018; Accepted October 28, 2018

Abstract

The aim of this study is to find the results of training through the Teacher Learning Program conducted by the Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel, Ministry of Education and Culture, in 2016 as an effort to improve teacher’s competences and professionalism and then put forward alternatives that is needed. The research method used in this research is a field survey, with data and information acquired through interviews, focus group discussions, and documentation from relevant parties. The results of the study show that the implementation mechanism of the program is still not satisfied, both in improving the competence and professionalism of work and providing provisions to motivate themselves to continue professional development. Training still faces a number of weaknesses, both in terms of instructors / facilitators, training tools, availability and suitability of learning modules, strategic implementations, and others. Therefore, the implementation of training -- which has been renamed as the Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan or Competence Profession Development (CPD) program in 2017 - then still requires improvements and revisions to achieve the expected goals and results. Beside of that, efforts to improve work competency and professionalism, and encourage sustainable teacher professional development, need to be accompanied by the development of school management to create a conducive school environment, especially related to: (1) enhancing the leadership capacity of the Principal, (2) developing cultures in schools that are strong, adaptive, and oriented to achievement and process, (3) developing work structures based on teams, (4) opening information needed by the team, (5) enhancing the role and participation of stakeholders, (6) developing the physical environment in school, and (7) developing a harmonious, intimate, empathic, respectful relationship between of the school community.

1. Introduction

The competence possessed by the teacher shows whether or not he/she has the ability to do his work professionally. Many countries show how teacher competencies possessed have an impact on high quality of education. Finland, for example, in 1970s still had subpar education quality, but it is now seen as a country with good quality education. The good quality was obtained through the reform by the Finland government in education, including through the very good preparation and guidance of teachers, competent, highly committed, and had the space to innovate 1. Similar treatment is reflected by other countries, China for example, providing the widest opportunity for teachers to develop their competencies, both individually and in groups with the demands to have the ability to master teaching materials / materials; manage teaching and learning programs; manage class; using learning media; mastering educational foundations; assess student achievement for education and teaching; recognize the functions and programs of guidance and counseling services; organize school administration; and understanding the principles for teaching needs 2.

Teacher's competence needs serious attention. The results of previous research suggest that teachers' pedagogical and professional competencies are still poorly categorized, which has an impact on low student learning outcomes 3. Another research concluded that pedagogic competence and professional competence of teachers must be improved 4. Teacher competence affects student learning outcomes: high competence will lead to high learning outcomes 5. It means that pedagogic and professional competencies owned by teachers require improvement.

Since 2015 the Government Act Number 14/2005 which requires teachers to have a minimum standard of S-1 (bachelor graduates) / D-4 (Diploma) academic qualifications, as well as competent and professional. To validate teachers’ competence and professionalism, the government conducts competency tests and for teachers who are declared successful will be given educator certificates and teacher professional allowances (TPG). Starting from 2007 to 2015, as many as 1.6 million (53.06%) teachers from the total number have obtained certificates of educators 6. The problem is, the teacher certification mechanism is not reliable enough to improve the competence, performance and quality of education. Teacher competency test results (UKG) in 2015, one of which shows, the achievement of the average value of pedagogic and professional teacher competencies by 53.05, is under the stipulation of minimum competency standards 7.

In 2016, the government has provided training to improve the competence and professionalism of teachers called the Learner Teacher (GP) program by the Directorate General of GTK, Ministry of Education and Culture. With the training, it is expected that the condition of teacher competence can increase to a minimum of 80.0 in 2019. In 2016 there were more than 420 thousand teachers participating in this program, and among them were carried out through the involvement of teacher group organizations of Subject Teachers' Consultation (MGMP). The act of providing training is important, because the increase in competence and professionalism is predicted to improve teacher performance, as well as provide provisions for teachers to develop their profession continuously. Previous study proves that there is a positive influence between ownership of pedagogic and professional competencies on teacher performance, and ultimately determines student learning outcomes 8.

The question is, how are the results achieved from the implementation of the teacher competency improvement program: is the program mechanism really capable of involving the teacher's participation in improving teacher competency and professionalism? This question is to be answered in this study, which aims to find out the results of GP program training, obstacles or weaknesses that still arise in the implementation of training, and discuss alternative ideas about the importance of developing school management to stimulate and support the improvement of teacher competence and professionalism

2. Literature Review

2.1. Teacher Competency

A concept of competence contains of the ability of a person to do their task or job in accordance with the position he holds. In carrying out the work, ownership of the competency is not just referring to the ability to doing administrative tasks only, but also involves the reflection of behavior that must be in accordance with the norms or rules that apply in his work 9. In the regulation concerning the teacher, the definition of competence in question is a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that must be possessed, internalized, mastered, and actualized by the teacher in carrying out professional duties (Minister of Education Regulation No. 16/2007). What is meant by a professional can simply be explained, "... as a person who has a profession or job done by having a high ability and clinging to the moral values that direct and underlie the deed. Or people who live by practicing a certain skill or expertise involved with an activity according to their expertise” 10.

The description above shows that there has been a change in perception about teachers’ requirement in regards to competence and professionalism. The teacher's competence consists of four components, namely: pedagogic competence, professional competence, social competence, and personality competence (The Rule of Ministry of Education and Culture No. 16/2007). However, this research will only limit its discussion to pedagogic competencies and professional competencies. Pedagogic competence is the ability to understand the characteristics of students, design and implement learning, evaluate learning outcomes, and develop students to actualize their various potentials. Professional Competence is the mastery of learning material widely and in depth, which includes the mastery of curriculum material in school subjects and the scientific substance that covers the material, as well as mastery of the structure and scientific methodology.

2.2. Performance

Job performance is a display of work as a whole over a certain period of time, and is a result or achievement that is influenced by the operational activities of staff / employees 11. In line with this conception various research results show that teacher competency has an influence on the teacher's performance. Other study resulted in a relationship between pedagogic competence and elementary school teacher performance 12. Another research get the results of their research produced findings that reinforced the existence of a significant relationship between competence and teacher performance 8, 13.

2.3. Learning Teacher

The GP program seeks to make the teacher as a learner who continuously learns to improve his quality. Learning Teachers are teachers who ideally continue to learn and upgrade themselves at anytime and anywhere. There are a number of reasons a teacher must be a learner, such as: the teaching profession is a special field of work out based on the principle of professionalism, so that teachers have the opportunity to develop professionalism on an ongoing basis with lifelong learning; the development of science, technology and art requires teachers to have to adapt to new things that apply in current situation; the character of students who are always different from generation to generation is a challenge for a teacher. Therefore the teacher must continue to learn, be able to adapt to change, and can inspire students to be independent, responsible, creative and innovative subjects (Ditjen GTK Kemdikbud, 2016).

The GP program is the process of implementing teaching and learning activities in order to improve the competence and professionalism of teachers in carrying out their duties. By implementing three modes of learning, namely face-to-face, online (online / online), and a combination thereof, efforts to improve are expected to produce and provide changes in teacher behavior in order to develop professionalism in a sustainable manner, so that it clearly impacts on improving performance in the learning process. teach in class. The program is considered as one way to meet teacher competency standards in accordance with the demands of the profession and the development of science, technology, and art (Ditjen GTK Kemdikbud, 2016).

2.4. Continuing Professional Development (CPD)

The implementation of the GP program is based on efforts to improve the competence and professionalism of teachers, and in the end is expected to be a provision that motivates and encourages teachers to make a sustainable professional development (CPD). This CPD designation was also used since 2017 to replace the name of the GP program, which was directly or indirectly adopted from the concept of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) which was coined by Seashore and Leithwood in 1998. Furthermore, Seashore and Leithwood found that achieving good student learning outcomes is also determined by the ability and behavior of teachers who constantly develop work professionals continuously 14. Teachers should not be quickly satisfied with the learning outcomes of their students, and must try step by step to achieve improvement. This situation will not be achieved if the teacher is passive, careless, poor creative, and so on, on the contrary must be active, reflective, creative, arouse student learning passion, and so on.

The latter situation will reflect the teacher's behavior at all times to try to improve their abilities and skills in carrying out their main tasks, and emphasize their achievement and better student learning outcomes. The teacher will actively seek resources for improving his knowledge and teaching skills, both related to teaching materials and learning methods, to achieve effective learning. Without this development effort, tendencies will not have a positive impact on improving learning performance and satisfying student learning outcomes.

2.5. School Management

Previous researchers suggests that it is not enough if teachers’ motivation to participate in continuing professional development (CPD) only comes from themselves, but they also need to be stimulated by other external factors, especially the school environment 14. From various field tests conducted, we found that the behavior of teachers' continuing professional development is one of the characteristics of schools that have succeeded in developing an environment of autonomous educational institutions, having the flexibility, authority, and freedom to create and develop 14. This situation will encourage all parties in the school (especially teachers) to always be active in learning, creative, innovative, and developing their own abilities and skills continuously.

Explicitly, the behavior of individuals and groups in schools is inseparable from the influence of the school environment where they are in carrying out work and learning activities. School management or management as an organization also becomes an important element in influencing, mobilizing, and directing the behavior of its members. Previous researcher argues, management is a way to solve something related to the achievement of goals 15. Optimal management an organization will achieve maximum results and achievements, because individuals and groups will realize activities in accordance with the management of the organization at hand 16. Along with that, the importance of management of an organization in encouraging and mobilizing human resources to contribute to achieving the expected organizational goals 17.

The importance of this school management element has also been realized by the government by issuing regulations that emphasize the concept of School Based Management (SBM) in the implementation of national education (Act No. 20 Th 2003). SBM is a manifestation of the spirit and spirit of decentralization of education by giving schools greater authority and flexibility in managing all aspects of education in their educational institutions in a democratic, transparent, creative and innovative manner. The application of SBM is expected to bring management that is more flexible, dynamic, and can bring change and progress to schools. Through SBM, schools are expected to be responsive and adaptive to changes and developments in internal and external environmental conditions to produce better goals and results.

3. Research Methodology

All things related as an effort to increase competence and professionalism in this paper were obtained from the results of research on the implementation of GP programs in 2017. For this reason, the research sought to collect data and information through documentation studies, interviews, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Documentation study is carried out by processing and analyzing data and information held by the Directorate General of GTK related to the implementation of the GP program, especially regarding training guidelines, UKG results, and the results of evaluation of training programs. Interviews and FGDs were conducted to obtain information about program implementation from a number of parties, including: Education Service Officers, Principals, Supervisors, Chairmen of the MGMP, a number of teachers.

The focus of the research is junior high school teachers who take part in the GP program. According to available data, there were 85,000 junior high school teachers taking part in the GP program in 2016. To find out the effectiveness of the program implementation, the initial conditions (pretest) were obtained from the UKG results conducted by the Directorate General of GTK in 2015. The final condition (posttest) was obtained from the results assessment of program results by DG GTK in 2016. Field information obtained from interviews and FGDs was held in Aceh Besar District – Province of Daerah Istimewa Aceh, Magelang City – Province Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Tarakan City – Province of North Kalimantan.

4. Result and Discussion

4.1. Result

The research conducted in 2016 by a research team chaired by the author, attempted to find out the results of the implementation of the GP program. Ideally, it is appropriate that in research activities develop a set of instruments to conduct a pretest in order to find out the initial conditions, and then carry out the posttest to find out the final condition after the teacher has received training. Through the pretest - posttest action it will be known how much the training mechanism is able to produce differences and changes in the teacher, so that conclusions can be drawn on the reliability of training in improving teacher competency and professionalism.

However due to limitations, especially short time allocations, researchers could not do the pretest-posttest action. To find out the two conditions, it was obtained from the data owned by the Directorate General of GTK that used the UKG results in 2015 as a pretest and the basis for determining the mode and learning modules given to teachers, as well as the test of teachers to assess the implementation of training in 2016. The data processed by the Directorate General of GTK shows that the implementation of the GP program for junior high school teachers tends not to show significant changes. In Table 1 below, it appears that the provision of training only brings about a relatively small change in the pedagogical and professional competencies of the recipient teachers, from an average score of 57.11 to an average of 57.15.

When viewed from the determination of modes and learning modules received by the teacher, only face-to-face training shows an increase, while in modes in the network (online / online) and online / online and face-to-face combinations show a decrease (Table 2 below).

From the Table 1 and Table 2 above the question arises, why after obtaining GP training did/did not show significant improvement in competence? From interviews and discussions with a number of parties in the sample areas, it was produced, that the training was considered to still face many weaknesses or constraints, especially in terms of facilitators, lack of modules, training tools, and training strategies. From the facilitator's side, the implementation of the training program was not provided by the less qualified instructors. The facilitator provides the delivery of substance / material tends to show less mastery of the material, the ability to deliver material messages that are less communicative, poor creative, unidirectional training, saturating, and less arousing the enthusiasm of teacher learning.

Another weakness is the large number of discrepancies between the material needs and the training modules received by the teacher. In 2015 UKG results which became the basis for determining the types of modes and learning modules received by teachers, often did not match the needs faced by the teacher. From the results of the competency test (maybe) a teacher is still considered weak towards certain substances/materials, so it is determined to receive certain training modules and modes. From interviews and FGDs in KKG/MGMP not a few teachers said that modes and modules received were not / less in line with what was needed in doing their main tasks. Another case is the discrepancy of modal delivery and modules received by the teacher to teach lower-class students, while currently he is given the task of teaching in the upper class so that the training is considered to be inappropriate and lived half-heartedly.

The availability of training equipment is also another weakness faced in the implementation of training, especially for teachers who receive online modes and combinations. Not a few teachers said, that the acceptance of training through online learning modes was constrained by the lack of ownership of laptops/notebooks themselves and inadequate internet network/signal conditions. For teachers who have their own laptop / notebook, they often experience difficulties in communicating with Instructors/Facilitators, because of the incompatibility of the time available between the two. Provision of time by Instructors/Facilitators cannot be utilized optimally, because at the same time the teacher is faced with a pile of activities that must be done according to his main duties as an educator.

In terms of training strategies, what teachers complain about is the provision of solid and time-consuming substance / material. Teachers must attend training after carrying out learning tasks at school, even though they are often faced with physical exhaustion. As a result the training was carried out under conditions of lack of enthusiasm, lack of enthusiasm, and lack of concentration to receive and absorb the material provided. Moreover, if the modules and teaching materials received in the training are deemed not to provide enrichment, and have been obtained from the textbook. Participation in training is not infrequently based on compulsion, fear of being reprimanded by your supervisor, or can be subjected to administrative sanctions if you do not comply.

4.2. Discussion

Training through the GP program tends to lead to the inability to improve the competence and professionalism of teachers, moreover to be a provision and entry point to motivate and encourage teacher professional development on an ongoing basis. This situation is alarming, because at the same time it will have an impact on teacher performance that is low and the achievement of student learning outcomes that are less satisfactory. This concern will be more felt when faced with the development of education in the global era which is characterized by a tight competitive climate among nations in fighting for limited resources. Like it or not, the implementation of education must be able to produce output of students / students who master and develop science and technology; able to think critically, creatively, collaborate, and communicate ideas / ideas / thoughts; and character 18, 19. Other research find the results of his research concluded, "Along with global developments, a shift in educational orientation in realizing superior quality human resources must be fundamentally done ..." 20. Along with other that stated, "... education policy must reflect the demands of modernization and recontextualization, so that it is relevant to the aspirations of the people, economic development, and the development or demands of globalization" 21.

However, providing training to improve teacher competency and professionalism is a way or strategy that needs to be implemented by the government. The application of training is a commitment to strive to improve the ability and teaching skills of teachers, so that it is expected to have an impact on improving student learning outcomes as an effort to develop qualified and highly competitive Indonesian human resources and answer the challenges of the global era. But it needs to be realized together, the GP program (which has been renamed the Continuous Professional Development / CPD program since 2017), clearly still needs improvement and improvement, both related to the provision of Instructors / Facilitators with adequate qualifications and abilities; basic determination of prospective participants, provision and provision of appropriate learning modules; completeness of training equipment; and scheduling more flexible training times.

In addition, in our opinion, efforts to improve the competence and professional development of teachers are not enough to only direct their attention from the teacher's side, but also involve external elements that are outside the teacher's self, one of which is the school environment. The research of some researchers results in that a less conducive organizational environment (including schools) tends to bring stressful situations to its members in the form of anxiety, pressure, concentration difficulties, lack of work passion, and low willingness to improve abilities work, so that ultimately affects the organizational commitment and the achievement of low results goals 22, 23.

The conduciveness of the school environment not only influences student work and learning, but also the achievement of school outcomes and goals. The achievement of the goals and outcomes of education achieved by a school is largely determined by the management of the school in question 14. The difference in school objectives and outcomes is due to differences in the management of the school environment. The problem that is still being faced is in line with the application of the SBM concept, how to develop school management in order to be able to realize activity, creativity, and school dynamics. The development of school management will determine and shape a conducive school environment, and subsequently affect the awareness, attitudes, and behavior of members of the school community in line with the conditions and situation of the school environment. Various studies have resulted that there is a positive relationship between school management and teacher performance and student learning outcomes. Good management realized by these has made it a favorite and superior educational institution 24. School management has a positive and significant effect on teacher performance in realizing student learning achievement 25.

Then what are the aspects related to school management? School management needs to direct attention to school culture, work structure, resources and leadership 14. These four aspects make up the appearance of schools in encouraging the emergence of teachers' continuing professional development (CPD / CPD) to contribute to change and school progress. Almost similar to that opinion, organizational management is closely related to various aspects that need to be considered, namely: leadership, organizational culture, work structure, information disclosure, and stakeholder participation 26. By combining these two opinions, coupled with the results of research and field observations, we ourselves argue that the management of schools that are independent, active, creative, dynamic in order to influence and encourage increased competence and professionalism of teachers, as well as instill awareness, attitudes, and behavior of sustainable teacher professional development at least should direct attention to developing aspects of leadership, school culture, work structure, infrastructure, information disclosure, stakeholder participation, the school's physical environment, and social relations in schools. All of these aspects need to be seen as integrated and interrelated entities (see Figure 1 below).

Principal Leadership

Principal leadership is an important aspect in the development of school management, because it deals directly with efforts to plan, implement, monitor, supervise, evaluate activities, and fostering work relationships between individuals, individuals with groups, and between groups in schools to achieve common goals. The principal becomes the top leader in the school who must move people inside and outside the school to achieve school goals 27. Therefore, the ability to manage and lead school organizations is a determinant of success or lack of success in achieving the goals and results of education in schools.

Various studies show the leadership role of principals in managing all aspects of their educational institutions. Previous research proved the influence of the principal's leadership role on teacher performance 28. Other researchers also suggested that the Principal has a role in improving the quality of education and concluded that the principal was one of the key factors and important in creating an effective school. 29, 30, 31

Seeing the importance of the Principal's leadership, the implementation of SBM has not yet required revitalization in the leadership of the Principal. From the centralistic characteristics of education management so far that tend to be considered to create a climate of passive leadership, dependence on superiors, supporting the pattern of rigid, authoritarian, feudal, and other hierarchies, must turn to more flexible, active, creative, democratic leadership in making policy, as well as providing the widest possible opportunity for subordinates to develop themselves and make changes in a better direction. In the current Principal leadership, it requires more style and behavior that supports the vision of the future to achieve better goals and results, have work planning, identify itself as an agent of change / renewal; have the courageous nature to take risks; communicate effectively, and realize creative actions that have a positive effect; trust others in carrying out work; improve ability continuously throughout life; and has the ability to deal with complicated, vague, and uncertain situations.

School Culture

The formation of a strong and adaptive school culture is an important factor in the development of school management. School culture is a set of values that become awareness and direct the attitude and behavior orientation of all members of the school community. A number of experts point out that the school culture that needs to be developed is: (1) ownership of a vision of the future that contains values to achieve better goals and results, (2) achievement-oriented and progressive, (3) the development of democratic values, transparency and equality, (4) the development of harmonious and synergistic work patterns, (5) the application of a reward & punishment system, (6) the application of consistent and consistent norms and rules, the development of friendly, togetherness, empathic, mutual respect and respectful social relations, etc 32, 33, 34.

Various studies show the influence of school culture on the behavior of individuals and groups in the school community. There is a positive and significant influence between school culture on students' productive competencies 35. Previous research proved that there was a correlation between the influence of school culture and teacher performance. Research shows that there is a direct relationship between school organizational culture and organizational commitment and principals' performance. 36, 37, 38

Work Structure

In the development of school management it is important to make a paradigm shift in the work structure that originally rested on rigid vertical work relationships and individuals became more flexible and collectively and collaboratively based. In the latter working structure, the principal is no longer the sole decision maker, but also involves his subordinates. Efforts to achieve organizational vision and goals are more left to team work that is formed within the organization, working collaboratively, synergistically, and supporting each other. Work is carried out by work teams with greater authority to make decisions about how to do things in line with the task / job carried out, even in the corridor of achieving organizational goals. Schools should focus their attention on human empowerment within the organization, by giving confidence to work teams to control their work and show their best performance.

This team-based work structure can be interpreted as empowerment which gives school staff / employees the power, freedom, knowledge and skills to make decisions and carry out their work effectively. The devolution of authority is reflected in the work team, expansion of work, and staff / employee participation, as well as decision-making authority, so that staff / employees can do work without strict supervision. Schools rely on the assessment that people are the main source of strength that needs to be treated well, working conditions are good, and the opportunity to develop a good person is also towards professionalism. Other research suggests that the formation and cooperation of work teams in schools has a direct positive effect on work ethics that facilitates the implementation of their duties. 39.

Facilities

The development of school management must direct its attention to the availability and use of learning facilities in schools. Facilities and infrastructure are one of the important supports in the learning process in schools. The absence of facilities will complicate learning activities, both for teachers and students, which will ultimately affect the high and low learning outcomes of students. Various studies show that the availability and utilization of learning facilities in schools has a positive influence on student learning outcomes. Some studies found there was a positive influence of facilities and infrastructure on learning outcomes. The same thing was also in a study of economics students at SMA Negeri 1 Ambawang, West Kalimantan, and the study of PGRI 1 High School students, Bandung. 39, 40, 41

But in fact most schools in primary and secondary education still face problems of learning facilities, including computer technology devices. The provision and completeness of facility for teaching and learning in schools is urgently carried out by various interested parties to support learning activities. Even in responding to global developments, the use of information and communication technology (ICT) becomes important in learning. Especially for the needs of computer technology, the fulfillment of this tool needs to be accompanied by efforts to develop its utilization skills by teachers, especially related to the ability to design learning programs well; encourage active and creative student learning; developing a learning environment that allows students to fulfill their curiosity; encourage collaborative students in carrying out learning through problem based learning and project based learning approaches 42; conveying relevant information and the latest ideas to students; exemplify and facilitate the use of digital devices to search, analyze, and evaluate various information that supports learning; advocate the use of safe, legal and ethical computer technology; and explain and exemplify negative foreign cultural influences on students 7.

Open Information

Information is an important factor in the development of school management which can directly affect the success or failure of achieving goals and results of education in schools. Close information in school will automatically affect weak, lack of passion, suspicion, and so on from people who are in the organization to carry out their duties / jobs. In fact, the nature of such information can eliminate the sense of belonging and lack of trust in the organization. On that basis the school must be able to provide information needed by staff / employees in a transparent manner, so that staff / employees can make maximum use of it to achieve organizational goals.

Openness and information sharing in schools is vital, because work teams not only use to make decisions, but also plan and work with ideas and information. Difficulties in obtaining information access correctly and in total, tend to lead to guesswork, suspicion, and ultimately endangering the sustainability of the work program. It is impossible to expect the team to work well, if the school does not provide the required information completely and correctly to support its smoothness and success.

Stakeholder Participation

In the development of school management, it is necessary to build a participatory climate from all stakeholders involved in the implementation of education, including parents of students and the community. Various studies tend to reinforce this statement, where the active involvement of parents of students has encouraged and facilitated teaching and learning activities in schools. Some researchers found that the school committee as a place for parents of students had a positive role in improving the quality of learning in the school 43, 44. From the community side, showed the importance of the role of the community in the implementation of schools, especially in: (a) giving input in determining direction and objectives; (b) provide input in determining the teaching and learning process; (c) as a learning resource; (d) as a funder of other facilities; (e) as a laboratory for school development and research 45.

Through stakeholder involvement in supporting policies will further facilitate activities in schools. Participation is a process that seeks to actively involving in all substantial decisions relating to the learning process at school. At least the participation that can be realized by stakeholders includes: participation in determining school policies and programs; participation in supervising the implementation of school policies and programs; activeness in regular meetings at school; involvement in extracurricular activities; participation in supervising school quality; activeness in School Committee meetings; expenditure to finance education; involvement in the development of the school climate; and participation in the development and fulfillment of learning facilities in schools.

Physical Environment Development

The physical environment in schools also needs to be considered in the development of school management, because it can directly or indirectly influence the behavior of the school community. A neat, beautiful, safe and comfortable physical environment will give rise to the sense and attitude of the school community, especially in carrying out work and learning activities. Such a physical environment does not have to be a magnificent building and requires relatively large costs, but it is really managed and arranged in such a way as to meet the conditions and create a conducive school situation. Even in facing the 21st century educational challenges, schools are required to be able to provide learning spaces for students to realize creativity, critical thinking, and collaborative in solving problems (problem solving), and communicating ideas and thoughts 19.

On the contrary, it can be estimated, how the attitudes and behaviors that tend to be realized by the school community when faced with the physical conditions and atmosphere of the school are noisy, stuffy, poorly organized, dirty, insecure, and so on. Such conditions and situations can certainly cause impropriety and inconvenience for the school community to work and study. Activities at school will run less smoothly and lead to deficiencies, so the school community wants to quickly leave the school environment which is considered less conducive.

Open Information

Information is an important factor in the development of school management which can directly affect the success or failure of achieving goals and results of education in schools. Information that is closed in school will automatically affect weak, lack of passion, suspicion, and so on from people who are in the organization to carry out their duties / jobs. In fact, the nature of such information can eliminate the sense of belonging and lack of trust in the organization. On that basis the school must be able to provide information needed by staff / employees in a transparent manner, so that staff / employees can make maximum use of it to achieve organizational goals.

Openness and information sharing in schools is vital, because work teams not only use to make decisions, but also plan and work with ideas and information. Difficulties in obtaining information access correctly and in total, tend to lead to guesswork, suspicion, and ultimately endangering the sustainability of the work program. It is impossible to expect the team to work well, if the school does not provide the required information completely and correctly to support its smoothness and success.

Development of Social Relations

Another aspect that is no less important and needs to be considered in the development of school management is to foster social relations between members of the school community. In social relationships must be fostered a harmonious social relationship, familiar, based on togetherness, empathy, mutual respect and respect for each other. This pattern of social relations will provide warmth, harmony, security, and comfort for the school community in carrying out activities in school.

The pattern of relations is not limited to social relations alone, but also to the fabric of relationships based on the implementation of tasks / jobs. In arousing teacher CPD/CPD behavior for example, a conducive relationship between teachers and a number of other parties is needed in and out of school. It is very difficult for teachers to realize CPD / CPD behavior, if it is not supported by these parties, such as meeting the required learning facilities, in the form of textbooks and reference books, teaching aids, learning media, and so on. Problems, obstacles, and difficulties of teachers in carrying out learning tasks, can undoubtedly be resolved if the Principal and Supervisor are able to realize the role of guidance and guidance to the teacher, both related to the substance / learning material, methodology / approach to learning, and others.

5. Conclusion

Policies to improve teacher competency and professionalism through the provision of Learner Teacher training in 2016 in particular, have clearly not shown significant results. A number of weaknesses are still faced in the implementation of training, both in terms of instructor qualifications, provision of learning modules, completeness of other training tools, and others. This weakness needs to be considered in order to improve the implementation of training in the following years (since 2017 has been renamed the Sustainable Professional Development program).

Training can be considered as giving treatment to teachers with the intention of improving and equipping teachers to carry out their teaching duties competently and develop the profession continuously. However, the act of providing training needs to be accompanied by other treatments to stimulate the teacher's self-development, especially from the elements of school environment. The challenges and demands that still need to be overcome by most schools in Indonesia are developing management aspects in their educational institutions. The results of training that are not supported by the conducive environment of the school where the teacher teaches, will only restore learning behavior to its original condition which (may) be considered established, comfortable, and deemed not to require change. On that basis, efforts to develop school management need to be taken seriously by the government (central and regional) by providing upgrading, training, workshops, and others about it, accompanied by the fulfillment of the learning facilities needed at school.

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[5]  Samuel, B., Korompis, C., Lalamentik, O. (2013). Effect of Teacher Competence on Student Learning Outcomes in Economics Subjects at SMAN 1 Tarahan. Unima: Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 1 (8).
In article      
 
[6]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2015). Teacher Competency Test Results 2015. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[7]  Agung, I. (2017). Competent and Professional Teachers. Speech of Scientific Oration Research Professor, Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture - LIPI.
In article      PubMed
 
[8]  Supriyono, A. 2018. Effect of Pedagogic, Professional, and Work Motivation Competencies on the Performance of Primary School Teachers. UT: Educational Journal, Vol. 18 (2), 1-12.
In article      
 
[9]  Manning, M. (2003). Professionalism in the Office. Jakarta: Index Publishers.
In article      
 
[10]  Kartowagiran, B. (2011). Professional Teacher Performance (Post-Certification Teachers). Journal of Education Horizons, Th. XXX (3), 463-473.
In article      
 
[11]  Robbins, S. P. (2004). Essentials of Organization Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
In article      
 
[12]  Destiana, D. Kurnia, Sumardi. (2012). Relationship Between Pedagogic Competence and Performance of Primary School Teachers. Journal of FKIP Pakuan University.
In article      
 
[13]  Mawarni, (2017). Teacher, Teacher Performance in SMAN 1 Padang Gelugur. E-Journal: West Sumatra Vocational and Educational College (STKIP), 1-16.
In article      
 
[14]  Seashore, K. R., & Leithwood, K. (1998). Organizational learning in schools: An introduction. In K. Leithwood, & K. S. Louis (Eds.), Organizational learning in schools (pp. 1-16). Swets and Zeitlinger.
In article      
 
[15]  Priyono. (2016). Introduction to Management. Jakarta: Zifatama Publisher.
In article      
 
[16]  Manullang, L. A. (2013). Management Theory: Comprehensive - Integralistic. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.
In article      
 
[17]  Stoner, J. F. A. (2013). Introduction to Management, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
In article      
 
[18]  International Society for Technology in Education. 2008. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS * T) and Performance Indicators for Teachers. Canada: ISTE.
In article      
 
[19]  Pearlman, B. (2009). Making 21st Century Schools: Creating Learner-Centered Schoolplaces / Workplaces for a New Culture of Students at Work. Educational Technology.
In article      
 
[20]  Sujarwo. (2006). Reorientation of Educational Development in the Global Era, Yogyakarta: Educational Dynamics of Education Science Magazine, Th. XIII (02), 156-168.
In article      
 
[21]  Luddin, M. R. (2008). Modernization and Recontextualization of Education in the Globalization Era, Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Th. 14th (075), 1155-1169.
In article      
 
[22]  Samaneh, A., Kiamanesh, A. R. (2011). Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment: Testing the Mediatory Role of Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 29, 1965-1976.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Vakola, M., Nikolaou, L. 2005. Attitudes towards Organizational Change: What is the Role of Employees' Stress and Commitment? Journal of Employee Relations, Vol. 27 (2).
In article      
 
[24]  Raharjo, S. B., Yuliana, L. 2016. School Management to Achieve Excellent Schools is Exciting: Case Study at SMAN 1 Sleman Yogyakarta. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 1 (2), 203-217.
In article      
 
[25]  Taryaman, C. (2018). The Effect of School Management on Teacher Performance in Realizing Student Learning Achievements, Khazanah Akademia Journal Vol. 02 (01), 29-38.
In article      
 
[26]  Dahl, R. L. (2003), Management. Jakarta: Gramedia.
In article      
 
[27]  Kotter, J., P. (1988). The Leadership Factor. New York: Free Press.
In article      
 
[28]  Ishaq, Yusrizal, Bahrun. (2016). Principal Leadership in Improving Teacher Performance at Meulaboh 4 State High School and Meulaboh 3 State High School. Postgraduate Syiah Kuala University: Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 4 (1), 32-46.
In article      
 
[29]  Fadhli, M. (2016). Effective Principal Leadership in Creating Effective Schools. Journal of Tarbiyah, Vol. 23 (1), 23-44.
In article      
 
[30]  Mbeu, La Ode M., Anwar. (2011). Development of Effective Principal Leadership Models, Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 17 (2), 215-224.
In article      
 
[31]  Mutiara, C. A. H., Sulton, D., Irawan, S. (2017). The Role of the Principal in Improving the Quality of Education (Case Study at Baitul Jannah Islamic Integrated Elementary School Bandar Lampung). FKIP Unila: Journal of Educational Quality Management, Vol. 5 (1), 1-9.
In article      
 
[32]  Anderson, T. D. (1998). Transforming Leadership. New York Washington D.C: St. Lucie Press, 2004.
In article      
 
[33]  Luthans, F. (2005). Organizational Behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
In article      
 
[34]  Nanus, B. (2004). Visionary Leadership, Jakarta: Prenhallindo.
In article      PubMed
 
[35]  Ramli. (2013). The Influence of School Culture on Productive Competencies of Students in West Sumatra State Vocational Schools. UNY: Journal of Educational Horizon Th. XXXII (2), 307-314.
In article      
 
[36]  Adi, W. S. (2013). Analysis of the Influence of Organizational Culture, Leadership and Work Motivation on Organizational Commitment and Its Implications on Principal Performance. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 19 (2), 206-221.
In article      
 
[37]  Fadhilah, Fahmi, N. (2017). The Effect of Organizational Culture on Teacher Performance in High Schools in Aceh Besar District. Journal of Variation, Vol. 9 (4), 9-16.
In article      
 
[38]  Wulandari, A. T. Y. (2014). The Effect of Organizational Culture on Teacher Performance in State Vocational High School 2 Ngawi 2014. Economic and Scientific Journal and Learning 4 (2), 144-155.
In article      
 
[39]  Sarjana, S. (2014). The Effect of Leadership and Team Cooperation on the Work Ethics of Vocational Teachers. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 20 (2), 234-250.
In article      
 
[40]  Elyanti, S. (2013). The Influence of Infrastructure and Media Facilities on Learning Outcomes of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) in State Junior High Schools in the District of Pasir Penyu. Postgraduate Program of State Islamic University Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, Thesis.
In article      
 
[41]  Murniati, D., Endang, P., Sri, B. (2016). Influence of Learner Fasilities and Infrastructure on Student Learning Outcomes of Economic Lessons in SMA Negeri 1 Sungai Ambawang. Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 5 (11), 2 -13.
In article      
 
[42]  De Graaf, E, Anette K, (2003). Characteristics of problem-based learning. The International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 19 (5), 657-662.
In article      
 
[43]  Yusuf, F. (2015). The Role of School Committees in Efforts to Improve the Quality of Learning in Aisyiyah Primary School Bantul. Journal of Primary School Teacher Education, Th. - IV (16), 1-8.
In article      
 
[44]  Mustadi, A., Enny, Z., Sumardi. (2016). The Role of School Committees in Improving the Quality of Learning in Primary Schools. Journal Horizon Education, Th. XXXV (3), 312-321.
In article      
 
[45]  Sundari, S., Solichin. (2016). School Relations with the Community Towards Improved Behavior of Students in SMP Negeri 1 Bangilan. Window of Education, Scientific Journal of Teaching and Education, 156-166.
In article      
 
[46]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2016). Learning Teacher: Guidelines for Competency Improvement Programs. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[47]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2016). Results of the Learner Teacher Training Test. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[48]  Janatusurur, R. (2016). Effect of Learning Facilities and Infrastructure on Student Learning Outcomes (Case Study on Economic Subjects in IIS Class XII SMA PGRI 1 Bandung). Thesis (S1), FKIP Unpas.
In article      
 
[49]  Ningrum, K. S. C. (2016). The Influence of Teacher Competence on the Performance of Teachers of SMP Negeri 6 Singaraja. Unidikas: Journal of the Economic Education Study Program (JPPE). Volume 7 (2).
In article      
 
[50]  Setiawan, D., Joni. S. (2017). Urgency of Demands for Professionalism and Expectations to Become Characterized Teachers (Case Study: Primary Schools and Junior High Schools in Batubara District). Journal of Cakrawala Pendidikan, UNY. Th. XXXVI (1), 27-38.
In article      
 
[51]  Thoha, Miftah. (2014), Organizational Behavior: Basic Concepts and Applications, Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Iskandar Agung

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Normal Style
Iskandar Agung. Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 10, 2018, pp 1388-1396. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/10/8
MLA Style
Agung, Iskandar. "Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia." American Journal of Educational Research 6.10 (2018): 1388-1396.
APA Style
Agung, I. (2018). Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 1388-1396.
Chicago Style
Agung, Iskandar. "Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 10 (2018): 1388-1396.
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[1]  Sahbelrg, P. (2014). Finnish Lessons: Teaching Less, Learning More in Finnish Style. Translator: Ahmad Muchlis. Bandung: Kaifa.
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[2]  Anwar, C. (2014). Education System in China. Beijing: Indonesian Embassy.
In article      
 
[3]  Irtanto, et al. (2012). Implementation Goverment Regulations Number 19 of 2005 concerning National Education Standards (Study of the Quality of Human Resources Competence for Urban State High School Teachers in East Java). UNY: Journal of Cakrawala, Vol. 5 (2).
In article      
 
[4]  Susilowati, I., Himawan, U.S., Reni, D. (2013). Strategies for Improving Teacher Competence with the Analysis Hierarchy Process Approach. Journal of Economics and Policy, 6 (1), 80-92.
In article      
 
[5]  Samuel, B., Korompis, C., Lalamentik, O. (2013). Effect of Teacher Competence on Student Learning Outcomes in Economics Subjects at SMAN 1 Tarahan. Unima: Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 1 (8).
In article      
 
[6]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2015). Teacher Competency Test Results 2015. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[7]  Agung, I. (2017). Competent and Professional Teachers. Speech of Scientific Oration Research Professor, Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture - LIPI.
In article      PubMed
 
[8]  Supriyono, A. 2018. Effect of Pedagogic, Professional, and Work Motivation Competencies on the Performance of Primary School Teachers. UT: Educational Journal, Vol. 18 (2), 1-12.
In article      
 
[9]  Manning, M. (2003). Professionalism in the Office. Jakarta: Index Publishers.
In article      
 
[10]  Kartowagiran, B. (2011). Professional Teacher Performance (Post-Certification Teachers). Journal of Education Horizons, Th. XXX (3), 463-473.
In article      
 
[11]  Robbins, S. P. (2004). Essentials of Organization Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
In article      
 
[12]  Destiana, D. Kurnia, Sumardi. (2012). Relationship Between Pedagogic Competence and Performance of Primary School Teachers. Journal of FKIP Pakuan University.
In article      
 
[13]  Mawarni, (2017). Teacher, Teacher Performance in SMAN 1 Padang Gelugur. E-Journal: West Sumatra Vocational and Educational College (STKIP), 1-16.
In article      
 
[14]  Seashore, K. R., & Leithwood, K. (1998). Organizational learning in schools: An introduction. In K. Leithwood, & K. S. Louis (Eds.), Organizational learning in schools (pp. 1-16). Swets and Zeitlinger.
In article      
 
[15]  Priyono. (2016). Introduction to Management. Jakarta: Zifatama Publisher.
In article      
 
[16]  Manullang, L. A. (2013). Management Theory: Comprehensive - Integralistic. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.
In article      
 
[17]  Stoner, J. F. A. (2013). Introduction to Management, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
In article      
 
[18]  International Society for Technology in Education. 2008. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS * T) and Performance Indicators for Teachers. Canada: ISTE.
In article      
 
[19]  Pearlman, B. (2009). Making 21st Century Schools: Creating Learner-Centered Schoolplaces / Workplaces for a New Culture of Students at Work. Educational Technology.
In article      
 
[20]  Sujarwo. (2006). Reorientation of Educational Development in the Global Era, Yogyakarta: Educational Dynamics of Education Science Magazine, Th. XIII (02), 156-168.
In article      
 
[21]  Luddin, M. R. (2008). Modernization and Recontextualization of Education in the Globalization Era, Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Th. 14th (075), 1155-1169.
In article      
 
[22]  Samaneh, A., Kiamanesh, A. R. (2011). Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment: Testing the Mediatory Role of Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 29, 1965-1976.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Vakola, M., Nikolaou, L. 2005. Attitudes towards Organizational Change: What is the Role of Employees' Stress and Commitment? Journal of Employee Relations, Vol. 27 (2).
In article      
 
[24]  Raharjo, S. B., Yuliana, L. 2016. School Management to Achieve Excellent Schools is Exciting: Case Study at SMAN 1 Sleman Yogyakarta. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 1 (2), 203-217.
In article      
 
[25]  Taryaman, C. (2018). The Effect of School Management on Teacher Performance in Realizing Student Learning Achievements, Khazanah Akademia Journal Vol. 02 (01), 29-38.
In article      
 
[26]  Dahl, R. L. (2003), Management. Jakarta: Gramedia.
In article      
 
[27]  Kotter, J., P. (1988). The Leadership Factor. New York: Free Press.
In article      
 
[28]  Ishaq, Yusrizal, Bahrun. (2016). Principal Leadership in Improving Teacher Performance at Meulaboh 4 State High School and Meulaboh 3 State High School. Postgraduate Syiah Kuala University: Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 4 (1), 32-46.
In article      
 
[29]  Fadhli, M. (2016). Effective Principal Leadership in Creating Effective Schools. Journal of Tarbiyah, Vol. 23 (1), 23-44.
In article      
 
[30]  Mbeu, La Ode M., Anwar. (2011). Development of Effective Principal Leadership Models, Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 17 (2), 215-224.
In article      
 
[31]  Mutiara, C. A. H., Sulton, D., Irawan, S. (2017). The Role of the Principal in Improving the Quality of Education (Case Study at Baitul Jannah Islamic Integrated Elementary School Bandar Lampung). FKIP Unila: Journal of Educational Quality Management, Vol. 5 (1), 1-9.
In article      
 
[32]  Anderson, T. D. (1998). Transforming Leadership. New York Washington D.C: St. Lucie Press, 2004.
In article      
 
[33]  Luthans, F. (2005). Organizational Behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
In article      
 
[34]  Nanus, B. (2004). Visionary Leadership, Jakarta: Prenhallindo.
In article      PubMed
 
[35]  Ramli. (2013). The Influence of School Culture on Productive Competencies of Students in West Sumatra State Vocational Schools. UNY: Journal of Educational Horizon Th. XXXII (2), 307-314.
In article      
 
[36]  Adi, W. S. (2013). Analysis of the Influence of Organizational Culture, Leadership and Work Motivation on Organizational Commitment and Its Implications on Principal Performance. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 19 (2), 206-221.
In article      
 
[37]  Fadhilah, Fahmi, N. (2017). The Effect of Organizational Culture on Teacher Performance in High Schools in Aceh Besar District. Journal of Variation, Vol. 9 (4), 9-16.
In article      
 
[38]  Wulandari, A. T. Y. (2014). The Effect of Organizational Culture on Teacher Performance in State Vocational High School 2 Ngawi 2014. Economic and Scientific Journal and Learning 4 (2), 144-155.
In article      
 
[39]  Sarjana, S. (2014). The Effect of Leadership and Team Cooperation on the Work Ethics of Vocational Teachers. Jakarta: Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 20 (2), 234-250.
In article      
 
[40]  Elyanti, S. (2013). The Influence of Infrastructure and Media Facilities on Learning Outcomes of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) in State Junior High Schools in the District of Pasir Penyu. Postgraduate Program of State Islamic University Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, Thesis.
In article      
 
[41]  Murniati, D., Endang, P., Sri, B. (2016). Influence of Learner Fasilities and Infrastructure on Student Learning Outcomes of Economic Lessons in SMA Negeri 1 Sungai Ambawang. Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 5 (11), 2 -13.
In article      
 
[42]  De Graaf, E, Anette K, (2003). Characteristics of problem-based learning. The International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 19 (5), 657-662.
In article      
 
[43]  Yusuf, F. (2015). The Role of School Committees in Efforts to Improve the Quality of Learning in Aisyiyah Primary School Bantul. Journal of Primary School Teacher Education, Th. - IV (16), 1-8.
In article      
 
[44]  Mustadi, A., Enny, Z., Sumardi. (2016). The Role of School Committees in Improving the Quality of Learning in Primary Schools. Journal Horizon Education, Th. XXXV (3), 312-321.
In article      
 
[45]  Sundari, S., Solichin. (2016). School Relations with the Community Towards Improved Behavior of Students in SMP Negeri 1 Bangilan. Window of Education, Scientific Journal of Teaching and Education, 156-166.
In article      
 
[46]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2016). Learning Teacher: Guidelines for Competency Improvement Programs. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[47]  Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel. (2016). Results of the Learner Teacher Training Test. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
In article      
 
[48]  Janatusurur, R. (2016). Effect of Learning Facilities and Infrastructure on Student Learning Outcomes (Case Study on Economic Subjects in IIS Class XII SMA PGRI 1 Bandung). Thesis (S1), FKIP Unpas.
In article      
 
[49]  Ningrum, K. S. C. (2016). The Influence of Teacher Competence on the Performance of Teachers of SMP Negeri 6 Singaraja. Unidikas: Journal of the Economic Education Study Program (JPPE). Volume 7 (2).
In article      
 
[50]  Setiawan, D., Joni. S. (2017). Urgency of Demands for Professionalism and Expectations to Become Characterized Teachers (Case Study: Primary Schools and Junior High Schools in Batubara District). Journal of Cakrawala Pendidikan, UNY. Th. XXXVI (1), 27-38.
In article      
 
[51]  Thoha, Miftah. (2014), Organizational Behavior: Basic Concepts and Applications, Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada.
In article