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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic

Nguyen Van Ninh , Le Thi Huyen
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1379-1387. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-7
Received September 25, 2018; Revised October 22, 2018; Accepted October 26, 2018

Abstract

The use of original materials to teach history topics is one of the optimal methods that contribute to the renovation of teaching objectives, content, methods and testing and assessment. The original materials not only play a vital role in revitalizing the vivid past, but also create learning excitement, thinking orientation, and developing students’ competencies. To achieve these results, in teaching history topics, teachers should use original materials effectively to get started, raise issues, motivate students’ participation, and orient students’ learning; provide students with opportunities to discover, explain, and debate about historical events and phenomena; and at the same time, use original materials to reinforce, review, assign assignments, and assess students’ cognitive performance.

1. Introduction

One of the fundamental orientations of Vietnam's education reform is to shift from an academic, scholastic, impractical education to an education system that focuses on shaping learners’ s capacity for action, initiativeness, and creativity [ 1; 12]. Following the trend, the History Departments in high schools are renovating its objectives, content, methods, examination, and evaluation. From that point, historical learning content is designed into topics with strict, logic and systematic structures where each unit of knowledge is set in each specific history context which is closely related and interacted with each other, showing continuity, inheritance and development. At the same time, the use of historical materials is to improve the effectiveness of history lessons in high schools, contributing to the well-rounded development of students. Original materials, which are the most authentic evidence that history left, is the source of knowledge to help students have realistic, lively, and specific insights about the historical events and phenomena. Effective use of this resource will help students acquire the knowledge about the historical events and phenomena accurately and scientifically; then form and develop students’ self-study capacity [ 2, 109]. However, the current use of original materials in teaching history subjects in high schools has not really achieved the desired purpose. Therefore, on the basis of the theoretical study and the reality of history teaching in high schools, we propose the use of original materials effectively in the process of organizing learning activities for students ranging from the lead-in, content exploration, issues debate, assignments to assessment in order to improve the quality of lessons in particular and renovate historical teaching content and methods in general in high schools.

2. Content

2.1. The Concept of Teaching History by Topic
2.1.1. Content

Historical topic is highlights, vital essence of each historical stage, period or the collection of events, historical phenomenon closely related. For example: Topic about Two trends in national salvation in the democratic nationalist movement in Vietnam 1919-1930; The democratic nation 1930 - 1945; Struggling on the diplomatic front 1945 - 1975.

Teaching by topic is a combination of traditional and modern teaching model in which the knowledge system is integrated, simplified, and logically gathered into real-life topics for the formation and development of capacity and quality of students. This is a new paradigm for classroom activities that takes place of traditional ones (featuring short, isolated lessons, classroom activities where the teacher is central) by focusing on the design, developing topic-based learning content that relate to one or more subjects and practical issues. At the same time, it also attaches importance to the flexible application of organizational forms and teaching methods in the spirit of innovation in order to aim at the development of students' capabilities.

Topic-based teaching focuses on the students' understanding, skills and experiences in the implementation of academic tasks in order to help them gain knowledge in a positive, exciting and effective way. At the same time, enhance the ability to apply knowledge and skills to solve problems of real life for students. The topic-teaching organization of the subject should be flexible, the process of teaching the topic is designed into tasks so that students can do both in class and at home.


2.1.2. The Role and Significance of Topics-based Teaching at High Schools

* Role

As for process of innovation: In terms of content, teaching by topic is a component of the teaching process. (The teaching process consists of elements such as objectives, teaching content, methods and means of teaching, teaching environment, test and evaluation). At present, we make a comprehensive and synchronous renovation which is the innovation of the above elements of the teaching process. In turn, the innovation of content selection, content integration into the systematic theme, generalization, close interaction with each other will play an important role in creating good materials for the thinking process of students. Therefore, teaching by topic is one of the important components of the innovation process, improving the quality of the subject, meeting the requirements of content innovation, and at the same time, affecting the choice of methods, form of teaching organization, re-impacting to the course objectives.

As for teachers: From designing and teaching by topics, teachers are aware and orienting the role of innovation in content and teaching methods, improving the quality of the subject; At the same time, strengthening professional skills and pedagogical profession, meeting new requirements of education in general and education of history in particular. Through the design of topics, teachers have more resources and are active in the teaching.

As for students: Learning by topic is the main content area of the program. This helps reduce load and deepens the knowledge system for students; contribute to the formation, consolidation and development of subject learning skills.

* Significance

As for Knowledge: The topic provides a basic knowledge based on the topic, ensuring the specificity, systematicality, generalization of major issues of historical science and meeting the requirements of content innovation for. teaching history.

As for Skills: Practice the subject skills such as document observation, event analysis, replay, evaluation, charting, comparison, comment, rule drawing, history lesson and apply those lessons into real life.

As for thoughts and attitudes: learning by topic contributes to the education of thoughts, respect for the historical past of the nation and humanity, being proud of the history of our country; At the same time contributing to the formation of quality and personality according to the standards of citizens.

Orientation shaping capacity

Topic-based teaching contributes to the formation of subject capacities such as capacity to collect and process information; replay events of history; present historical issues; define logical relationships between events, historical phenomena, and these apply historical lessons to reality.

Contribute to the formation of general capacity: being independent - self-learning; communication - cooperation; problem solving - creativity.

2.2. Original Materials in Teaching History in High Schools
2.2.1. Concept, Role and Meaning of Original Materials in Teaching History in High Schools

* Concept

Lenin in "Statistics and Sociology" points out that "conclusions of scientific studies are only correct when they are based on all the facts that are undeniably accurate and arranged in integrity, their relation and objectivity" [ 2; 110]. According to Lenin, the original material is the basis of all accurate facts as well as authentic evidence of history.

Dr. Tran Viet Thu, in his article "On the Use of Original Materials in History-Teaching in High Schools", published in the Scientific Workshop "Renewing Teaching, Learning History by focusing on Students" held by the Association for Study of Vietnamese History has defined "original material" as documents and materials directly related to the event, born at the time of the event such as ancient Scripts, Agreements, Wishes, Declaration, etc." [ 2; 110]. Thus, the original material is historical material that carries information about the historical event reflected back to the time of that historical event. The original material carries the earliest information on the phenomenon of historical phenomena, which is the closest and most authentic evidence of history. Original historical material has a special historical value that no historical material has.

Historical material, which is abundant and varied, both reflects and records the era and is product of the times. Therefore, different ages have different types of material. Based on the content and nature of the material, we divide the original material into the following major categories: material (or real material); Second is the traditional oral material (including historical information not yet collected, still circulated in the folklore and many variants), Third is written materials (written materials), Fourth is documentary images, and the last is audio tape and recordings.

* Characteristics of the original material

Original material is the evidence of the past, it was born in the historical time, is original and has not passed a subjective lens, so it is more objective, truthful than other materials and documents.

The source material is more reliable and has more accurate information as it is closer to the historical events reflected. At the same time, the original material also gives us direct insights into events, characters, historical phenomena.

The source material is not aggregated, it only reflects one aspect, a certain part of the historical event.

Original material is born at the same time and location of historical events, so there are certain limitations in terms of language, text, quantity. This is a difficult material to exploit because when students work with this material may encounter many difficulties, so teachers need to choose carefully. Therefore, the teacher should choose the original material that matches the content and the object.

* The role and significance of using original material in history-teaching in high schools

In research and teaching, the original material has a very high historical value, considered to be the most important evidence that history has left. The use of historical material is to improve the effectiveness of history lessons in high school, contributing to the development of students.

For the students, the original material helps them gain the most concrete demonstrations of history, past and scientifically proven facts, events, characters and phenomena. This will be the basis for students to have self-awareness, self-assessment, comments in the view of themselves on the path of scientific research. It is the basis for the practice of self-study, self-assessment of a historical problem. In that way, they develop their historical thinking skills, analyze, explain, argue and critique the events, characters, and opinions expressed in the material. Exploitation and use of original material in historical teaching will stimulate a sense of history, encourage student’s participation, and provide a basis for emotional education for students. It also teaches the spirit of diligence, enthusiasm and creativity in learning labor. In this way, students can not only overcome their habits of dependence, expectation, passivity, but also practice the habit of actively working in any situation.

For teachers, the use of original materials in such way that promotes students' academic motivation shall improve the effectiveness of teaching history, making lectures richer and more attractive. Through pedagogical intentions, teachers can use original material as a learning channel to guide students to assess events, characters, and phenomena without relying on any other criticism, comments or conclusions. This will make students autonomously discover knowledge, turn that knowledge into their own one.

2.3. Measures of Effective Use of Original Materials in Topic-Based History Teaching in High Schools

Teaching history in high school is a specific cognitive process. Under the organization, guidance, control of the teacher, students step-by-step explore, occupy the knowledge of history. Through that process, the quality and capacity of students are formed. In the history teaching process in high schools, the original material was used by the teacher, but usually done in illustration, the exploitation of information and development of thinking skills of students are not properly focused on original material. Therefore, based on the research and practice of general teaching, we introduce some measures to more effectively use original sources in history-teaching, contributing to improving the quality of lessons and renovating content and methods of teaching history in high schools.


2.3.1. Use Original Material to get Started, Raise Issues, Create Excitement, and Orient Student’s Learning

In order to enhance the effectiveness of history lesson in high school, interest in learning for students is the most important, only when the students are interested in learning can they accomplish their goals and learning tasks. "Interest is an individualistic attitude towards an object, due to its meaning in life and emotional appeal" [ 3, 60]. It is a reflection of the subject's selective attitude with objective reality. It stimulates positive activity and helps people to do the job easily and effectively. It also has special meaning for the development of personality in a comprehensive way. Therefore, one of the important tasks of education is to create ample interest in students.

In learning history, study inspiration motivates learning activity, which helps students study more effectively; optimize psychological processes (such as attention, perception, memory, imagination, thinking, etc.). Study inspiration is primary element to establish and develop awareness and studying history of students. Creating study inspiration for students in learning history may help teachers succeed in teaching history for students. Learning with inspiration will make students more easily learn and deeply remember historical events and progresses. Students can know not only History but also an active study process with psychological process, are able to understand more the content and nature of historical knowledge by receiving historical concepts, rules, lessons and well apply them to explain modern historical events and real-life issues.

For example, instead of asking students to check out the old lesson, ask them to repeat what they learned in the previous lesson, then the teacher will announce the content of new lesson, let's create an interesting learning atmosphere from the start. This will be especially important to stimulate the intellectual activity of the students. Thinking often starts with an issue or a question, from surprise or wonder, from contradiction. Such problematic situations have the effect of engaging individuals in the thinking process.

Using the original material, placing students in problematic situations will stimulate independent, creative thinking to address the core issues of the lesson. Students will be attracted to a series of questions they need to answer. They will be excited to discover their knowledge.

For example, when teaching the topic: National liberation and August uprising (1939 - 1945). The birth of Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In order to create a learning excitement for students, teachers can use photo materials such as: Photo 1- Germany attacks Poland (1939) Second World War broke-out; Photo 2 - Japan into Indochina (1940); Photo 3 - Japanese Fascist surrenders unconditionally; Photo 4 - Ho Chi Minh reads the Declaration of Independence, proclaiming the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Four images are projected onto the screen without annotation. (see Figure 1 - Figure 4).

The teacher asks students to identify and outline the content of the material. After students identified the event, the teacher raised the issue: Second World War broke out; How did the French colonial and the Japanese fascism impact Indochina and Vietnam? How did the Party, leader Ho Chi Minh led our people to prepare and flash the opportunity to the general uprising August victory. Why Uncle Ho said "This time the favorable moment has come, no matter how sacrificed, even burning the Truong Son range must also resolutely for independence.” We will solve problems in the theme: National liberation movement and general uprising of August (1939 - 1945). Democratic Republic of Vietnam was born.

The teacher use original materials; ask students to reinforce the knowledge they have learned in the 11th grade World History program (World War II theme); At the same time discover new knowledge (the Vietnamese history of 1939 - 1945), then put them in a problematic situation - the basic knowledge content, the focus of the topic that they need to discover, find the answer, that is: How did the Second World War affect the revolutionary situation of Indochina in general and Vietnam in particular? (The war changed the domination of France in Indochina, Japanese fascism dominated the Indochina, the life of the people of Indochina more difficult than ever). How has the once-in-a-lifetime chance opportunity been identified and how fast the General Uprising broke out quickly, less bloodshed? During the organization of the learning activities, under the organization and guidance of teachers, students are involved in many activities to gradually answer the issues mentioned above.


2.3.2. Use Original Materials to Organize Students to "discover", Decode Information, Explain Historical Events and Phenomena

In the trend of innovation from the point of view of teaching content approach to teach the approach to capacity, teachers do not focus on imparting one-way knowledge to students but focus on guiding students to exploit the Historical sources to seek historical truth. Through historical sources to reproduce history, rebuild scientifically, objectively and honestly, the process of formation and development from low to high, from the simple to the complex of events, the phenomenon of the history. History class becomes a process of seeking historical truth. Students are instructed to read and interpret historical texts through visual channels, text channels, historical artifacts, etc., from which to reproduce the past, perceive history, give inferences, Evaluate the context, origins, evolution of events, phenomena, historical figures as well as the development of history. Original material with the ability to reflect the past in the most vivacious and convincing way, will play a big role in concretizing the event, historical phenomenon, increasing the lively, creating excitement for learning of students. In order to develop the positive aspects of learning, to seek to discover and decipher the mysteries of the past, teachers should use the combination of historical sources and open-ended questions. For example, when teaching the subject of ancient nations in Vietnam, in order for the students to understand the spiritual and material life of Van Lang - Au Lac residents, before the lesson, the teacher assigned the task For students: Learn the main motifs on the Dong Son bronze drum; What does the content reflect and the meaning of the motifs? Have students work on decoding, exploring, and finding the answer. On that basis, when entering the topic, teachers organize the students to describe, explain, indicate the information behind the motifs. From there, they will have sufficient basis to comment and evaluate the material life, spirit and value of the first civilization of the ancient Vietnamese through the bronze drum.

By studying the Dong Son bronze drum, compared with the ancient civilizations in the world. Students can be proud that if the Egyptians have pyramids, the Greeks have Statue of Zeus, the ancient Vietnamese can boast with their bronze drums. In it, the Ngoc Lu drum (see Figure 5) was classified as the Heger H1 (according to the classification based on 165 bronze drums known at that time by the scholar F. Héger - the Austrian - in 1902), the oldest, the most basic and from this kind that other types came out.

Through observing, exploring, students see the main motifs on the bronze drum, such as the sun (see Figure 5), the stilted house, people are pounding rice, the flying bird, the deer performing, the boat and people are drumming and dancing (see Figure 6) etc. The suns at the center of the drum surface show that ancient Vietnamese people worshiped the sun god with the expectation of good wind and rain, which helped to promote the good and lucrative crops. The statue of the flying flag, the skirt, the long shorts of the pawns, the dancers showed that the weaving, silkworm mulberry making, made the shirt cover the body, making the flag on the festival. The pattern of boats, stilts, shows the fisheries, forestry was very popular in the time. Farmers know how to exploit forest trees to build houses, build boats for fishing, transportation, everyday utensils, and weapons against swords. Animal motifs, especially flying birds, are very popular on the bronze drum side, people also dress up as a bird, hat with bird feathers, bow of a boat with round eyes, It show that birds are revered animals of Lac Viet people. All these decorative patterns highlight the lively, realistic and stylized beauty - a picture of the real life of the Lac Viet people. At the same time, the bronze drum is a musical instrument used in the festive celebration of the community. Bronze drum is also used in the burial of the dead, in the festival of the season and symbol of the power of the ruling class of the Hung Vuong period. Through the use of visual material in kind, students can learn positively, actively, they develop the observation, the material sense, the thinking skills are also trained, development in the process of decoding, document discovery; The knowledge that they possess will be natural and sustainable.

Or, when teaching the topic of Ancient Oriental countries, in the culture, teachers can apply the project teaching and role-playing methods, organize students into groups, each group performs one task of the project, explore the cultural achievements of the ancient ancient countries. For example, group 1 - plays the role of astronomers, documenting observations of the motion of the Sun, the Moon, stars, and the water level of the Nile river to report on the Astronomy and History. Group 2 - plays the role of linguists, learning about hieroglyphs of Egypt, China, Mesopotamia, and papyrus materials; clay; animal bone, tortoise shell, bamboo card, silk etc. Group 3 - plays the role of mathematicians exploring achievements and explaining why the ancient Egyptians were very good at geometry; Mesopotamian skilled in arithmetic and numerology which we use today called the Arabic numerals, including the number 0, are great achievements made by the Indians; Group 4 - plays the role of architects, explores and reports on the art of pyramids built by the ancient Egyptians, the hanging gardens of Babylon, assessing the value of such buildings. Students are oriented resources by teachers, assign tasks; limited time for completion of subprojects; Reporting progress and organizing the groups to report, comment and evaluate performance. The students who work on the project, are transformed into scientists, encounter the material and the written materials, the children will have the most real emotions, scientific basis to explain, comment and express their own views, will certainly bring new atmosphere to the classroom. Because they are experiencing, trying, not only discovering their past history but also discovering their own abilities. Learning history will become attractive, no longer dry, hard to learn as they once thought. They are more interested in self-study, self-study, not only individually but also have many opportunities to work in groups. Thereby, contributing to the formation of cooperation capacity, capacity to collect, evaluate materials, historical events.


2.3.3. Use Original Materials to Organize Students to Discuss Events, Historical Phenomena

Because history is subject of a science of the past, learners can not directly interact with events and historical figures, can only rely on the Historical sources to evaluate so will remain, there are different opinions, conflicting about the same event and historical figure.

Therefore, the application of the method of argument in teaching is necessary and appropriate, not only meet the cognitive needs, creating excitement in learning, but also a measure to improve teaching effectiveness. The method of argument deals with topics that contain conflict. Different opinions and controversial opinions are for the purpose of examining the subject in different angles. The purpose of the argument is not to "defeat" the opposing view but to examine the subject in various aspects, arguing for a profound understanding of the character, event or historical issue to come to consensus. For example, when teaching the subject of Vietnam in the nineteenth century under the Nguyen dynasty, teachers could provide original material around the issue of "merit, sin", the cause and responsibility of the Nguyen dynasty in losing country. The Nguyen Dynasty national historical division with elaborate works such as “Kham Đinh Viet su thong giam cuong muc”, “Dai Nam thuc luc” They have praised the great merit of Nguyen Anh - Gia Long in "reigning the nation", "founding the unified nation", "defeating the Tay Son Dynasty" and the succession of the next king Minh Mang , Thieu Tri, Tu Duc in building and strengthening the dynasty on a growing, "discipline, order" [ 10; 51]. But there are also views that the Nguyen dynasty is "full of reactionary", "set a fox to keep the geese", the bring "Elephants to trample ancestral graves" and then made up their mind to selling water to the enemy ... [ 11; 48]. Teachers can organize classes into groups, including support groups and critiques group, arbitration group - acting as a jury. The groups will present and defend their views, persuade their opponents with arguments, arguments, and authentic evidence to clarify different aspects of the problem and enrich the understanding of the individual as required of the target, the task of the lesson. More specifically, when teaching the subject: Vietnam at the end of the nineteenth century the beginning of the twentieth century, one of the content students need to grasp that is: France invaded Vietnam from 1858, and to 1884 officially ruled our country. Since 1897 the French began to implement colonial mining programs. The French always say they come to civilization for Vietnam. The evidence they point to is the change in a short time of Vietnam. But many people object to this point. So the question is: Do the French come to Vietnam to civilization? To give students an insight into the subject, teachers can organize their discussion. Do the French come to Vietnam for civilization? Using some material:

Document 1: Paul Dumer's Memoir of Long Bien Bridge construction

The dialogue between the Annamite authorities and Indochina governor about the ability to build Long Bien bridge was extracted during the Memoir

"Are you going to put a cable from one side of the river to the other shore to lead the boats?"

- No, we will build a stone bridge and iron bridge across the river.

- The river is too wide; the bridge can not stand.

- We will place bridges on stone pillars in the river.

- This river is too deep, it can not be built outside it.

- We can build in greater depths.

- Will you try to do real? Are not you afraid of the bad effects of failure in the people?

-It's correct!

- This is extraordinary: the French do what they want. "

Paul Dumer's comments after the bridge was built:

"Clearly the French are stronger, wiser than they think. Native people have long known the value of the French during the war; Now they see the French are no less in peacetime. The French showed strength in destruction; People find that the French are also full of energy in construction as well as in labor for the sake of the nation they have subdued." [ 12;523]

Document 2: Nguyen Ai Quoc talks about French alcohol policy

In The process of French colonization Nguyen Ai Quoc has described the French alcohol policy as follows:

"...There are 1,500 alcohol retailers in every 1,000 villages. But thousands of villages are just 10 schools. Annually there are 23 to 24 million liters of alcohol for 12 million indigenous people. The number of people in Shanxi province is 200,000 but soaring 230,000 to raise the number of alcohols to 500,000 liters. The Shanxi delegation was promoted because of increased consumption of alcohol among the population. Apparently, people set the level of alcohol that every citizen must drink annually. And every indigenous person does not think of being an older person but the entire population, including women and children. It is forcing their relatives to drink instead of one liter of alcohol, two or three liters. Buying rice, buying corn, sweet potatoes is not enough but it is compulsory to buy alcohol ..." [ 13; 19]

Document 3: The story between a French official and an Annamite

"One day, a local secretary from the Ministry came out reading a novel. Coming to a joke, he burst into laughter. At that moment, the fencer rushed forward. He was angry, the first was that the natives were so read that he could not see him; The second is because of a native speaker who dares to laugh when passing in front of a white man. Then the clerk held the secretary again, forcing him to declare his name and asked if he wanted to eat a slap. Of course, the secretary refused the gift too chivalrous, and wondered why there was such an abomination. That is not to say that, the Frenchman grabbed the native shirt that was taken to provincial governor.

Still be the 6 provinces Foremanwith the pretext of arranging the house, gardening for neatness, ordered the people on both sides of the road to move the house, cut trees and garden in a The term is imposed by him, otherwise it will be fined." [ 13; 36]

Students are provided with materials and time to read materials; combined with textbooks to understand the aggression process, dominant policies and content of the colonial exploitation of the French. At the same time, before the debate, the teacher gives some questions to orient the groups to think together, as a basis for reaching consensus as:

1. What did the French do in Vietnam?

2. Can a nation have the right to civilize another nation by invading, suppressing, or establishing a ruling apparatus??

Then the teacher divides the class into groups:

Group A will argue and provide evidence to prove that the French came to Vietnam for civilization.

Group B will argue and provide evidence to prove that the French came to Vietnam not only to civilize Vietnam.

Under the guidance and role as referee of the teacher, teams try to reach consensus. In the process of debate, the teacher plays an important role in coordinating dissenting opinions. The atmosphere of debate must be open, sincere, straightforward. All ideas have the right to be respected, analyzed and understood thoroughly. Participants in the debate need to be calm, clear, confident, not cumbersome and respectful of opposing views. When the debate clarifies what is needed and achieves the goal, the teacher will be the one who takes control of the debate to the end. The effective use of the argumentation method is important in the development of student capacity, especially critical thinking. Through discussion, the student understands the various aspects of the problem and enriches the individual's understanding as required by the objectives and tasks of teaching, the ability to use language in historical language, teamwork skills, ability to persuade others.


2.3.4. Use Original Materials in Reinforcement, Revision Work, and Assign Cognitive Tasks to Students

Exploiting and using original material in reinforcing and reviewing students' knowledge is one of the positive measures contributing to the system, generalizing the central knowledge after each topic. For example, when organizing for student topic: Summarizing modern world history from 1945 to 2000. An overview of the main contents of modern world history, including international relations, socialist system, capitalist system, national liberation movement; technological revolution and globalization…Instead of asking the students to repeat the content, to stimulate the classroom, increase the visuality, develop the general thinking ability for students, teachers can use the screening system on the screen for students. Observation, through which knowledge is learned, sequences knowledge units into the great content of a period. For example: For students to consolidate, generalize the content of international relations, teachers can use the image Ianta Conference, the schema of the division of influence between the powers, images of the cold war, so on. From there, the teacher can ask students to generalize the content and analyze the impact of these events on international relations in the second half of the twentieth century. Similarly, with other contents that need to be generalized, teachers can use the above measures, or organize them into games, competitions among groups such as: See picture - guess letter, Guess the event; Hidden picture, Follow the line of history, so on. The above measures will help the consolidation and revision work becomes more attractive and effective.

In addition to classroom lessons, assignments for self-study play an important role in helping students reinforce, understand and extend knowledge, At the same time, it can fill the gaps in knowledge, enhance creativity; practice hard work, the will to overcome difficulties to complete tasks, develop the ability to work independently in the student.

For example, the teachers can use Mr. Nguyen Ai Quoc's words: “Lenin's thesis made me be very emotional, excited, clear, trusting! I am excited to tears. Sitting alone in the room, I say aloud, as if speaking in front of a large crowd: "Oh! My compatriots were miserable! This is what is needed for us. This is the way to liberate us!" From that I completely believe in Leninism, believe in the Third International. At first, it was patriotism but not communism that led me to believe in Leninism, and next is the Third International." [ 14; 262] to assign homework, ask the student to analyze the emotions; explain the basic for Mr. Nguyen Ai Quoc confirm this is the way to save the nation, for Vietnamese; The meaning of this event is the life of Nguyen Ai Quoc and the Vietnamese revolution. In addition, for talented students, excellent students, teachers can also ask them to learn about newspapers such as: Le Paria (Nguoi cung kho), Revolutionary Road (Duong Kach Menh); The condemnation on French colonialism (Ban an che do thuc dan Phap); The first political platform (Cuong linh chinh tri dau tien); Declaration of Independence (Tuyen ngon doc lap), Testament (Di chuc) of President Ho Chi Minh ... These are the original materials help you not only understand the material but also understand and appreciate the great merits of Him for the nation.


2.3.5. Use Original Materials in the Evaluation

Along with the innovation of content and teaching methods in the direction of promoting students' activeness and capacity, the examination and evaluation of learning outcomes are gradually shifted to focus on the ability to use instead of ask students to memorize the event. The current trend in assessment testing is the need to take into account the student's achievement levels for the specific capabilities of the subject such as the ability to identify and understand historical texts. The capacity to reproduce and present history event, ability to explain history event; The capacity to assess history and apply to practice. In order to contribute to the achievement of the above objective, the use of original materials in the assessment test is one of the feasible solutions and contributes significantly to the development of student thinking.

For example: the teacher may use the following material for regular or routine exams; Depending on the student's condition, the required level may vary:

Question: Read the following materials and answer the questions:

Material 1: Workers in 1788 at 142 textile workshops in the UK.

Material 2: “Having to breathe in the unclean air outside the city is not enough, they are also stuffed into a room, so that the air breathes at night becomes stifling ... They give them the humid houses that have no unclean air exit.” “In the early days, the market was filled with the best food, but when the workers came to the market, the best ones were gone; Even if they are still there, they probably will not be able to afford it. The sweet potatoes they buy are the worst, the wilted vegetables, the old and mediocre cheese, the rancid meat of old animals, even the sick animals or dead animals, sometimes the meat is nearly corrupt”. [ 15; 70]

Material 3: British Government investigation into factories in England in 1832

“-During the period of lively industrialization, what were the time your little girls working at factories??

- My children go to work from 3 am and stop work at 10.00 pm or 10.3pm.

- Within this 19 hour of work, how much time do your children have to rest and eat?

- 15 minutes for breakfast, half an hour for lunch, and 15 minutes for tea.

- Do your children have to spend some time cleaning the machine during the rest?

- Often, they have to do the job called "drying up" the machine, sometimes missing the entire time of lunch or tea. They have to find ways to eat breakfast or lunch when possible, otherwise take it home.

- It must have been hard for you to wake up the children after so many hours of working?

- It's correct! Before going to work, I had to wake them up, put them on the floor and shake them so hard that they woke up, wore clothes and went to work. They never went out normally.

- Were they tired of this job?

- Of course!

- Were there any children in the risk of work caused?

- My fist daughter had an accident; her nail was stripped and she had to stay in the hospital for five weeks

- Did her hand cure?

- Two fingers were cut off.

- During illness, did she get anything?

- When accidents happened, they did not pay wages.

- Did they prolong working time and have bad treatments for your child?

- Yes, because my child was very tired, they use whips to hit them.” [ 15; 72]

Question 1. The above documents reflect the use of what kind of labors in England in the early nineteenth century?

Question 2. Write a paragraph about 250 words describing the situation of the British working class.

Question 3. What does the government need to do to improve the living conditions and working environment for workers?

Or use a documentary image associated with the question such as: Document observation and answer the question below:

See Figure 7

Question 1. The growth of what economic sectors in the United States was reflected in the image?

Question 2. Based on the content and knowledge learned, comment on the US economy.

Using the original materials in the current assessment is an innovative trend in the history of education in Vietnam. Instead of asking the students to answer their "closed" questions, the provision of original materials (including written materials and visual materials) as well as "open" questions to help students have "clue" to find out the past, have a basis to remember and link with the knowledge learned. From which it can be explained, analyzed, commented, evaluated, compared rather than remembered machine learning style as before. For example, when viewing the 1928 New York Auto Park, students saw this as a car park on the coast of New York. The details reflect that at this time the United States has a very well-developed automobile industry (car parks close together, dense along the coast); Behind the development of the automotive industry will be other sectors such as steel production, components; transportation industry; energy industry (oil); industries, services, especially tourism services... etc.

See Figure 8

Question 1. Identify the characters in the picture. What forces did they represent in the colonies?

Question 2. Analysis of reflective content of the paintings.

Question 3. Indicate the attitude and purpose of the author when drawing these two pictures. How do you think about the value of the picture?

The information extracted from the material will be the basis for children to make comments on the US economy in the most persuasive way. At the same time, the exploitation of materials makes them interested in exploring knowledge and information through their own thinking activities; They also have the opportunity to express their views, personal views on events, phenomena, historical figures. Through the form of examination, historical knowledge is further strengthened, perceptual abilities, observation, document processing, thinking ability, historical reflexivity, the ability to use historical language to presentation, analysis and evaluation; the ability to apply the lessons of history to solve the problems of practice continues to be strengthened and developed.

3. Conclusion

From the fact of teaching history in high school, we find that the original materials play a particularly important role in restoring the past picture in a true and objective way, which is the basis for students to understand, analyzing, evaluating the past and drawing lessons for the present and the future. In the current trend of teaching history, the role and meaning of the original materials continue to be confirmed. At the same time, in order to further enhance the quality of teaching history in high school, the application of divergent measures to exploit more effectively the value of original material in the teaching of history by topic is a current issue. This requires the teacher of history to be fully aware of the time and effort required to collect, supplement and effectively use the material, to create an engaging, stimulate, promote positive, thinking ability and practical skills of the subject for students; Actively contributing to improving the effectiveness of teaching history in high schools, affirming the value of history in schools and in society.

References

[1]  Berner Meier – Nguyen Van Cuong. (2016). Modern teaching theory, the base of innovation’s objectives, content and teaching methods, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[2]  Trinh Dinh Tung (Chief author). (2014). Innovate teaching methods of history, Publishing House of Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[3]  Nguyen Thanh Nhan (2014), Measures to create learning excitement for students in history teaching in high school, Journal of Science - Ho Chi Minh City Pedagogy University. Vol 56, pp 59 -67.
In article      
 
[4]  1939: Germany invades Poland. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/1/newsid.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Japan's 74th year in Indochina, ending the French rule in Vietnam, VietNam National Museum of History. http://baotanglichsu.vn/74-nam-nhat-vao-dong-duong-cham-dut-ach-thong-tri-cua-phap-tai-viet-namdr.html
In article      View Article
 
[6]  September 2, 1945: When Japan Surrendered. https://thediplomat.com/2015/09/september-2-1945-when-japan-surrendered/.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  General Vo Nguyen Giap wrote about September 2, 1945 in Hanoi. https://dantri.com.vn/chinh-tri/dai-tuong-vo-nguyen-giap-viet-ve-ngay-2-9-1945-o-ha-noi-20170831154836677.htm.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Dong Son drum. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dong_Son_drum
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Tran Van Dat (2014), Dong Son bronze drum and ancient agriculture, https://nghiencuulichsu.com/2014/10/02/trong-dong-dong-son-va-nen-nong-nghiep-co-dai.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Doan Hung, Unifying the historical perspective and class views in understanding the Nguyen dynasty in the first half of the nineteenth century, Ministry of Education and Training (2002), National Conference on : “Studying and teaching the history of the Nguyen dynasty in universities, pedagogic colleges and high schools”, Hanoi, page 51-54.
In article      
 
[11]  Dinh Xuan Lam, Some opinions about the responsibility of the Nguyen Dynasty for losing our country to the French colonialists at the end of the nineteenth century, Ministry of Education and Training (2002), National Conference on: “Studying and teaching the history of the Nguyen dynasty in universities, pedagogic colleges and high schools”, Hanoi, page 48-50.
In article      
 
[12]  Doumer (2016), Indochina land (Memoir), Vietnam The Gioi Publishing house.
In article      
 
[13]  Nguyen Ai Quoc, (2012), The condemnation on French colonialism, Tre Publishing house.
In article      
 
[14]  Ho Chi Minh (2011), Full set, Book 12, National Political Publishing House of Vietnam, Ha Noi
In article      
 
[15]  Nguyen Van Ninh (2017), Original historical documentary system in history teaching in high school, Publishing House of Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
In article      PubMed
 
[16]  New York car park in 1928, Textbook In History for Class 8 (2013), Viet Nam Education Publishing House, Hanoi, p. 93.
In article      
 
[17]  Uncle Ho and his paintings: https://tennguoidepnhat.net/2013/10/02/bac-ho-ve-va-nhung-tac-pham-ve-bac/.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Van Ninh and Le Thi Huyen

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Nguyen Van Ninh, Le Thi Huyen. Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 10, 2018, pp 1379-1387. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/10/7
MLA Style
Ninh, Nguyen Van, and Le Thi Huyen. "Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic." American Journal of Educational Research 6.10 (2018): 1379-1387.
APA Style
Ninh, N. V. , & Huyen, L. T. (2018). Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 1379-1387.
Chicago Style
Ninh, Nguyen Van, and Le Thi Huyen. "Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 10 (2018): 1379-1387.
Share
[1]  Berner Meier – Nguyen Van Cuong. (2016). Modern teaching theory, the base of innovation’s objectives, content and teaching methods, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of Education.
In article      
 
[2]  Trinh Dinh Tung (Chief author). (2014). Innovate teaching methods of history, Publishing House of Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[3]  Nguyen Thanh Nhan (2014), Measures to create learning excitement for students in history teaching in high school, Journal of Science - Ho Chi Minh City Pedagogy University. Vol 56, pp 59 -67.
In article      
 
[4]  1939: Germany invades Poland. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/1/newsid.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Japan's 74th year in Indochina, ending the French rule in Vietnam, VietNam National Museum of History. http://baotanglichsu.vn/74-nam-nhat-vao-dong-duong-cham-dut-ach-thong-tri-cua-phap-tai-viet-namdr.html
In article      View Article
 
[6]  September 2, 1945: When Japan Surrendered. https://thediplomat.com/2015/09/september-2-1945-when-japan-surrendered/.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  General Vo Nguyen Giap wrote about September 2, 1945 in Hanoi. https://dantri.com.vn/chinh-tri/dai-tuong-vo-nguyen-giap-viet-ve-ngay-2-9-1945-o-ha-noi-20170831154836677.htm.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Dong Son drum. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dong_Son_drum
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Tran Van Dat (2014), Dong Son bronze drum and ancient agriculture, https://nghiencuulichsu.com/2014/10/02/trong-dong-dong-son-va-nen-nong-nghiep-co-dai.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Doan Hung, Unifying the historical perspective and class views in understanding the Nguyen dynasty in the first half of the nineteenth century, Ministry of Education and Training (2002), National Conference on : “Studying and teaching the history of the Nguyen dynasty in universities, pedagogic colleges and high schools”, Hanoi, page 51-54.
In article      
 
[11]  Dinh Xuan Lam, Some opinions about the responsibility of the Nguyen Dynasty for losing our country to the French colonialists at the end of the nineteenth century, Ministry of Education and Training (2002), National Conference on: “Studying and teaching the history of the Nguyen dynasty in universities, pedagogic colleges and high schools”, Hanoi, page 48-50.
In article      
 
[12]  Doumer (2016), Indochina land (Memoir), Vietnam The Gioi Publishing house.
In article      
 
[13]  Nguyen Ai Quoc, (2012), The condemnation on French colonialism, Tre Publishing house.
In article      
 
[14]  Ho Chi Minh (2011), Full set, Book 12, National Political Publishing House of Vietnam, Ha Noi
In article      
 
[15]  Nguyen Van Ninh (2017), Original historical documentary system in history teaching in high school, Publishing House of Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
In article      PubMed
 
[16]  New York car park in 1928, Textbook In History for Class 8 (2013), Viet Nam Education Publishing House, Hanoi, p. 93.
In article      
 
[17]  Uncle Ho and his paintings: https://tennguoidepnhat.net/2013/10/02/bac-ho-ve-va-nhung-tac-pham-ve-bac/.
In article      View Article